Periodontal and Other Associated Oral Diseases: Diagnosis and Management in the Context of Systemic Pathology

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 4549

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Periodontology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: periodontal disease; periimplantitis, periodontal diagnosis; point-of-care testing; periodontal disease treatment; interaction between periodontitis and systemic diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Dentoalveolar and Maxillofacial Surgery—Biochemistry, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: inflammation; biochemistry; laboratory biomarkers; metabolic diseases; cytokines; paraclinical diagnosis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Dentistry, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: periodontal disease non-surgical and surgical treatment; adjunctive periodontal treatment; orthodontic-periodontal interface; microbiome; immune system; host modulation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oral diseases, such as periodontal and peri-implant diseases, dental caries, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, oral leukoplakia, cancer, oral lichen planus, and other auto-immune diseases, that have manifestations in the oral cavity cause major health and social issues. In addition to the affected function, esthetics, and quality of life that these pathologies induce, there is also the significant economic burden that one must consider. Diagnosis for these pathologies can be difficult to navigate; however, recent developments in medicine (such as, but not limited to, improved radiological and non-invasive techniques, chair-side tests, biological, immunological and paraclinical tests) have expanded the knowledge base of these diseases.

Taking all this into account, non-invasive early diagnosis that can discriminate between health and pathology, and the possible systemic disease interactions and effects on the oral cavity and vice versa, is paramount for the correct assessment and management of patients. Moreover, the effectiveness of treatment and monitoring during the maintenance phase is a necessary step in appropriate disease management in the context of personalized medicine and patient-centered approach.

This Special Issue of Diagnostics and the Journal of Clinical Medicine aims to share recent advancements and knowledge of diagnosing periodontal and peri-implant and other oral diseases, along with methods of monitoring disease progression and treatment effectiveness. We cordially invite researchers to submit either original research or reviews in the areas including, but not limited to, oral diseases diagnosis and treatment, theoretical and clinical studies on new and established diagnostic methods, treatment effectiveness evaluation, systemic diseases and medication effects on the oral cavity, and new clinical treatment procedures and protocols.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Diagnostics.

Prof. Dr. Silvia Martu
Prof. Dr. Liliana-Georgeta Foia
Dr. Maria Alexandra Mârțu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • periodontitis
  • oral diseases
  • periimplantitis
  • biomarkers
  • cytokines
  • oxidative stress markers
  • PCR test
  • point-of-care test
  • CBCT
  • periodontal treatment
  • immunomodulatory therapy
  • local drug delivery

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

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10 pages, 246 KiB  
Review
Dipeptidyl-Peptidase-4 and Glucagon-like-Peptide-1, a Link in the Connection between Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus—What Do We Know So Far?—A Scoping Review
by Theodora Claudia Gheonea, Petra Șurlin, Flavia Mirela Nicolae, Dorin Nicolae Gheorghe, Dora Maria Popescu and Ion Rogoveanu
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(3), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13030903 - 4 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Periodontitis is a common condition affecting the tissues surrounding and supporting teeth. In addition to oral health concerns, periodontal disease increases the chance of developing systemic illnesses including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a key-stone pathogen that has been linked to the [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is a common condition affecting the tissues surrounding and supporting teeth. In addition to oral health concerns, periodontal disease increases the chance of developing systemic illnesses including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a key-stone pathogen that has been linked to the pathophysiology of periodontal disease, can generate a series of dipeptide producing exopeptidases, dipeptidyl peptidases (DPP). DPP-4 levels in gingival crevicular fluid have been shown to increase during active periodontal disease, which may lead to their association with the disease’s progression. Following oral glucose administration, mice injected with DPP-4 had higher blood glucose than the control group. DPP-4 inhibitors are used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in order to extend the half-life of incretins. Elevated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels following periodontal therapy could be considered new and applicable real-world evidence confirming the experimental findings of a beneficial interaction between oral microbiota and incretin axis. GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 enhanced the osteoblast proliferation and development of these stem cells and inhibited the effects of glucose on the cells. In addition to lowering blood sugar, liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, also possesses anti-inflammatory and bone-protective properties. These findings support the use of GLP-1 in the management and prevention of diabetic periodontitis. Full article
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21 pages, 3695 KiB  
Case Report
Gingival Necrosis Related to Sepsis-Induced Agranulocytosis Due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteraemia: A Case Report
by Jia Ying Tan, Guo Nian Teo, Ethan Ng, Andrew Ban Guan Tay and John Rong Hao Tay
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(5), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13051285 - 24 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Background: There have been no reports of sepsis-induced agranulocytosis causing gingival necrosis in otherwise medically healthy patients to the authors’ best knowledge. Even though there are several case reports of gingival necrosis secondary to medication-induced agranulocytosis, they have not systematically described the [...] Read more.
Background: There have been no reports of sepsis-induced agranulocytosis causing gingival necrosis in otherwise medically healthy patients to the authors’ best knowledge. Even though there are several case reports of gingival necrosis secondary to medication-induced agranulocytosis, they have not systematically described the natural progression of agranulocytosis-related gingival necrosis. Methods: This paper presents a case report of a 29-year-old female Indian patient with generalised gingival necrosis and constitutive signs of intermittent fever, nausea, and vomiting. She also complained of abdominal pains. Blood counts showed agranulocytosis, and the patient was admitted for a workup of the underlying cause. Parenteral broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered, which brought about clinical resolution. Results: Her gingival necrosis was attributed to sepsis-induced agranulocytosis triggered by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia, and upon clinical recovery, spontaneous exfoliation left behind exposed bone. Secondary healing over the exposed alveolar bone was noted after a year-long follow-up, albeit with some residual gingival recession. Conclusions: Oral manifestations of gingival necrosis, when present with concomitant constitutive symptoms, could indicate a serious underlying systemic condition that could be potentially life-threatening if left untreated. Dentists should be cognizant of this possibility so that timely intervention is not delayed. Full article
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10 pages, 7117 KiB  
Case Report
Case Report of a 4-Year-Old Girl with Stage IV Grade C Localized Periodontitis (Pre-Puberal Localized Aggressive Periodontitis) Affected by Misrecognition and Late Diagnosis
by Radu-Andrei Moga, Cristian Doru Olteanu and Ada Gabriela Delean
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010266 - 3 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Stage IV grade C localized periodontitis (pre-puberal localized aggressive periodontitis/LPP) is a rare form of inflammatory periodontal disease occurring in clinically healthy individuals (no/small calculus/dental plaque traces), due a hyper-aggressive auto-immune response to high amounts of bacteria present in the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Stage IV grade C localized periodontitis (pre-puberal localized aggressive periodontitis/LPP) is a rare form of inflammatory periodontal disease occurring in clinically healthy individuals (no/small calculus/dental plaque traces), due a hyper-aggressive auto-immune response to high amounts of bacteria present in the oral cavity. Case Presentation: This case report describes a 4-year-old Caucasian girl with localized gingival inflammation and advanced bone loss around the temporary lower left canine. The first diagnostic assumption was hypophosphatasia, and the patient was sent for further genetic and metabolic investigations (which turned out to be negative). The LPP diagnosis was made during the family’s summer holidays due to her parents’ concerns about persistent gingival inflammation and tooth mobility. Results: The diagnosis of LPP was supported by clinical oral examination results, earlier X-rays, earlier blood tests, and a periodontal bacterial test. The treatment was limited to avoid spreading inflammation to other teeth (via topical antibiotic treatment) due to our limited time frame, while the main problem of excessive amounts of periodontal bacteria in the oral cavity was not addressed. The tooth was eventually lost. Conclusions: The ability to early recognize radiological and clinical LPP signs correlated with understanding of its pathological auto-immune mechanism is extremely important for expanding treatment options, since bone preservation and reducing amounts of bacteria are strictly correlated with therapeutic speed. Full article
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