Special Issue "Current Advances on Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Dermatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Constantin Caruntu
Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Dermatology, “Prof. N. Paulescu” National Institute of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, 011233 Bucharest, Romania
2. Department of Physiology, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy; dermato-oncology; inflammatory skin diseases; neurogenic inflammation; neuroendocrinology of the skin

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Non‑melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) comprises basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and several rare skin tumors and is the most common malignancy affecting humans worldwide. It accounts for the vast majority of skin cancers and a large percentage of all malignant tumors. Despite the growing public awareness and scientific interest regarding the risk of skin cancer, the incidence of NMSC is still rapidly increasing. Even if most NMSCs are associated with a less aggressive behavior, they can still be locally invasive and may produce extensive destruction of neighboring structures, inducing significant morbidity. Moreover, different types or subtypes of NMSCs are associated with frequent recurrence and may carry a significant metastatic potential. As a direct consequence, NMSC has become a major burden on healthcare systems with a significant socio‑economic impact.

Hence, there is no doubt as to why these keratinocyte-derived tumors are in the spotlight of scientific interest for both fundamental research and clinical practice, and this Special Issue aims to bring together the most recent and relevant scientific research on NMSC. Studies regarding the complex inherited and environmental factors that can trigger tumor initiation and progression may offer a new perspective on skin cancer prevention. Investigation of new markers of skin carcinogenesis may contribute to the development of novel diagnostic, staging, and prognosis strategies for skin cancer and could lead to the design of more sophisticated and individually tailored treatment protocols. Improvements related to non-invasive or minimally invasive diagnostic tools and treatment methods may ameliorate the discomfort of patients while also reducing the costs associated with therapy. Moreover, the development of new techniques for early diagnosis of NMSCs could reduce morbidity, ensuring more efficient treatment with better aesthetic and functional results.

Dr. Constantin Caruntu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • non-melanoma skin cancer
  • basal cell carcinoma
  • squamous cell carcinoma
  • prevention
  • early diagnosis
  • treatment
  • new technologies

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy-Diagnostic Criteria for Actinic Cheilitis and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061987 - 25 Jun 2020
Abstract
Actinic cheilitis (AC) is one of the most frequent pathologies to affect the lips. Studies show that the most commonplace oral malignancy, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), often emerges from AC lesions. Invasive diagnostic techniques performed on the lips carry a high risk of [...] Read more.
Actinic cheilitis (AC) is one of the most frequent pathologies to affect the lips. Studies show that the most commonplace oral malignancy, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), often emerges from AC lesions. Invasive diagnostic techniques performed on the lips carry a high risk of complications, but reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), a non-invasive skin imaging technique, may change the current diagnostic pathway. This retrospective study was aimed at consolidating the RCM diagnostic criteria for AC and lip SCC. The study was conducted in two tertiary care centers in Bucharest, Romania. We included adults with histopathologically confirmed AC and SCC who also underwent RCM examination. Of the twelve lesions included in the study, four were AC and eight were SCC. An atypical honeycomb pattern and the presence of target cells in the epidermis were RCM features associated with AC. SCC was typified by the presence of complete disruption of the epidermal architecture and dermal inflammatory infiltrates. The mean blood vessel diameter in SCC was 18.55 µm larger than that in AC (p = 0.006) and there was no significant difference (p = 0.64) in blood vessel density, as measured by RCM, between SCC and AC. These data confirm that RCM can be useful for the in vivo distinction between AC and lip SCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances on Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Cytology in the Diagnosis of Basal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030612 - 25 Feb 2020
Abstract
Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in the white population. Nonsurgical treatments are first-line alternatives in superficial BCC (sBCC); therefore, differentiating between sBCC and non-sBCC is of major relevance for the clinician. Scraping cytology possesses several advantages, such [...] Read more.
Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in the white population. Nonsurgical treatments are first-line alternatives in superficial BCC (sBCC); therefore, differentiating between sBCC and non-sBCC is of major relevance for the clinician. Scraping cytology possesses several advantages, such as an earlier diagnosis and scarring absence, in comparison to a biopsy. Nevertheless, previous studies reported difficulties in differentiating the different BCC subtypes. The objective of this study was to determine the capability and accuracy of scraping cytology to differentiate between sBCC and non-sBCC. Methods: In this retrospective study, cytological samples of histologically confirmed BCC were examined. Select cytological features were correlated to BCC subtypes (sBCC or non-sBCC). Results: A total of 84 BCC samples were included (29 sBCC; 55 non-sBCC). An inverse correlation between the diagnosis of sBCC and the presence of mucin, dehiscence, and grade of atypia in the basal cells was observed. The presence of medium and large basal cell clusters correlated directly to a sBCC diagnosis. The presence of clear cells is strongly associated with sBCC. Therefore, Conclusion: Scraping cytology is reliable in differentiating sBCC from other BCC subtypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances on Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Serum Vitamin D Level in the Response of Actinic Keratosis to Photodynamic Therapy with Methylaminolevulinate
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020398 - 01 Feb 2020
Abstract
In mouse models of squamous cell carcinoma, pre-treatment with calcitriol prior to photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid (ALA) enhances tumor cell death. We have evaluated the association between vitamin D status and the response of actinic keratoses to photodynamic therapy with methylaminolevulinate. Twenty-five [...] Read more.
In mouse models of squamous cell carcinoma, pre-treatment with calcitriol prior to photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid (ALA) enhances tumor cell death. We have evaluated the association between vitamin D status and the response of actinic keratoses to photodynamic therapy with methylaminolevulinate. Twenty-five patients with actinic keratoses on the head received one session of photodynamic therapy with methylaminolevulinate. Biopsies were taken at baseline and six weeks after treatment. Immuno-histochemical staining was performed for VDR, P53, Ki67 and β-catenin. Basal serum 25(OH)D levels were determined. Cases with a positive histological response to treatment had significantly higher serum 25(OH)D levels (26.96 (SD 7.49) ngr/mL) than those without response (18.60 (SE 7.49) ngr/mL) (p = 0.05). Patients with a complete clinical response displayed lower basal VDR expression (35.71% (SD 19.88)) than partial responders (62.78% (SD 16.735)), (p = 0.002). Our results support a relationship between vitamin D status and the response of actinic keratoses to photodynamic therapy with methylaminolevulinate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances on Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Accuracy of in Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Primary Basal Cell Carcinoma
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(9), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8091462 - 13 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide and its incidence is constantly rising. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly reduce patient morbidity and healthcare costs. The value of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in non-melanoma skin cancer diagnosis is still under [...] Read more.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide and its incidence is constantly rising. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly reduce patient morbidity and healthcare costs. The value of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in non-melanoma skin cancer diagnosis is still under debate. This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the diagnostic accuracy of RCM in primary BCC. PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched up to July 05, 2019, to collect articles concerning primary BCC diagnosis through RCM. The studies’ methodological quality was assessed by the QUADAS-2 tool. The meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 13.0, RevMan 5.0, and MetaDisc 1.4 software. We included 15 studies totaling a number of 4163 lesions. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.87–0.95; I2 = 85.27%) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.85–0.97; I2 = 94.61%), the pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios were 13.51 (95% CI, 5.8–31.37; I2 = 91.01%) and 0.08 (95% CI, 0.05–0.14; I2 = 84.83%), and the pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 160.31 (95% CI, 64.73–397.02; I2 = 71%). Despite the heterogeneity and risk of bias, this study demonstrates that RCM, through its high sensitivity and specificity, may have a significant clinical impact on the diagnosis of primary BCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances on Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer)
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