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Review

Current and Future Trends in Molecular Biomarkers for Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Predictive Purposes in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

1
Laboratory of Anatomy-Histology-Embryology, Medical School, University of Crete, 71110 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
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Department of General Surgery, University General Hospital of Heraklion, 71110 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
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Epidemiology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori ‘Fondazione G. Pascale’, I-80131 Naples, Italy
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Dermatology Department, University Hospital of Heraklion, 71110 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
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Department of Pathology-Cytopathology, Medical School, University of Crete, 70013 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
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Centre of Toxicology Science and Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
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Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Medical School, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2868; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092868
Received: 3 August 2020 / Revised: 26 August 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances on Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer)
Skin cancer represents the most common type of cancer among Caucasians and presents in two main forms: melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). NMSC is an umbrella term, under which basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) are found along with the pre-neoplastic lesions, Bowen disease (BD) and actinic keratosis (AK). Due to the mild nature of the majority of NMSC cases, research regarding their biology has attracted much less attention. Nonetheless, NMSC can bear unfavorable characteristics for the patient, such as invasiveness, local recurrence and distant metastases. In addition, late diagnosis is relatively common for a number of cases of NMSC due to the inability to recognize such cases. Recognizing the need for clinically and economically efficient modes of diagnosis, staging, and prognosis, the present review discusses the main etiological and pathological features of NMSC as well as the new and promising molecular biomarkers available including telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), CpG island methylation (CIM), histone methylation and acetylation, microRNAs (miRNAs), and micronuclei frequency (MNf). The evaluation of all these aspects is important for the correct management of NMSC; therefore, the current review aims to assist future studies interested in exploring the diagnostic and prognostic potential of molecular biomarkers for these entities. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-melanoma skin cancer; basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; telomeres; telomerase; epigenetics; miRNA non-melanoma skin cancer; basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; telomeres; telomerase; epigenetics; miRNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nikolouzakis, T.K.; Falzone, L.; Lasithiotakis, K.; Krüger-Krasagakis, S.; Kalogeraki, A.; Sifaki, M.; Spandidos, D.A.; Chrysos, E.; Tsatsakis, A.; Tsiaoussis, J. Current and Future Trends in Molecular Biomarkers for Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Predictive Purposes in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2868. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092868

AMA Style

Nikolouzakis TK, Falzone L, Lasithiotakis K, Krüger-Krasagakis S, Kalogeraki A, Sifaki M, Spandidos DA, Chrysos E, Tsatsakis A, Tsiaoussis J. Current and Future Trends in Molecular Biomarkers for Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Predictive Purposes in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(9):2868. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092868

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nikolouzakis, Taxiarchis K., Luca Falzone, Konstantinos Lasithiotakis, Sabine Krüger-Krasagakis, Alexandra Kalogeraki, Maria Sifaki, Demetrios A. Spandidos, Emmanuel Chrysos, Aristidis Tsatsakis, and John Tsiaoussis. 2020. "Current and Future Trends in Molecular Biomarkers for Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Predictive Purposes in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 9: 2868. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092868

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