Effect of Long-Term Insomnia on Mental Health

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 5028

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past decade, world peace has been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, war, and natural disasters resulting from climate change. All these changes, combined with changes to civilization, have caused anxiety that has reduced people’s subjective well-being across the globe, especially teenagers and adults. The purpose of this Special Issue is to explain mental health problems in relation to chronic sleep disorder. Sleep is a fundamental physiological function of the brain. Among sleep disorders, insomnia is the most prevalent and exhibits a high co-morbidity profile. Studies have acknowledged insomnia as a predictor of serious clinical conditions, such as depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Long-term insomnia rates have been linked to multiple conditions, including mental disorders. This indicated that insomnia is a worldwide public and economic health burden, and suggests that targeting insomnia would help in preventing the progression and reducing the risks of mental disorders. The main goal of this Special Issue is to examine the bio-psycho-social associations between long-term insomnia and mental disorders. By presenting papers that use different study designs, methodological approaches, and populations, we aim to fill current knowledge gaps in the study of long-term insomnia and mental health. Further, we hope that this Special Issue will help in identifying a potential interventional target to address this issue. We welcome original cross-sectional studies, longitudinal and experimental studies, literature reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses that are in line with our aims, and will accept papers from the medical, clinical, and social sciences.

Topics may include issues such as:

  • Discussing the mechanism of association between long-term insomnia and mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, burnout, alcohol and substance use disorders, behavioral addictions, eating disorders, and other health problems.
  • Investigating the prevalence of long-term insomnia along with a comprehensive analysis of its association with mental disorders.
  • Highlighting the consequences of insomnia–mental health associations at social, educational and clinical levels.

Dr. Aleksandra M. Rogowska
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • anxiety
  • alcohol and substance use disorders
  • behavioral addiction
  • burnout
  • cognitive dysfunction
  • depression
  • eating disorders
  • gaming addiction
  • problematic internet/social media use
  • insomnia
  • long-term insomnia
  • mood disorders
  • post-traumatic stress disorder
  • stress

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
The Interplay of Sleep Quality, Mental Health, and Sociodemographic and Clinical Factors among Italian College Freshmen
by Jessica Dagani, Chiara Buizza, Herald Cela, Giulio Sbravati, Giuseppe Rainieri and Alberto Ghilardi
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092626 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Sleep and mental health are closely linked, with sleep deprivation increasing the risk of mental health problems in college students. This study aimed to analyze the role of sleep in the mental health status of a sample of Italian freshmen, considering [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Sleep and mental health are closely linked, with sleep deprivation increasing the risk of mental health problems in college students. This study aimed to analyze the role of sleep in the mental health status of a sample of Italian freshmen, considering various mental health outcomes and potential interactions between sleep and other relevant factors, such as sociodemographic characteristics, academic experiences, and mental health history. Methods: All freshmen from a medium-sized Italian university were invited to participate in a multidimensional online survey (n = 3756). Sleep quality was assessed through questions on average hours of sleep per night and on satisfaction of perceived sleep quality. Mental health outcomes included psychophysical well-being, psychological distress, substance use, and problematic internet use. Statistical analysis involved multivariate analysis of variance, followed by pairwise comparisons. Results: The sample (n = 721) exhibited low levels of well-being and a high prevalence of psychological distress (52.1%). Approximately one-third of students (n = 258) were dissatisfied with their sleep quality, and one-fourth (n = 186) reported inadequate sleep (less than 7 h per night). More specifically, 24.4% of students slept on average six hours per night, and 1.4% slept five hours or less. Satisfaction with perceived sleep quality significantly influenced well-being, psychological distress, and cannabis use (ηp2 = 0.02). Interaction effects were observed between satisfaction with sleep quality and drop-out intentions (ηp2 = 0.01), as well as between satisfaction with sleep quality and history of mental health diagnosis (ηp2 = 0.02), both of which were significant for psychological distress and cannabis use. Conclusions: This study highlights the influence of perceived sleep quality on academic distress among college freshmen, particularly those with higher intentions of leaving university and with a history of mental health diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Long-Term Insomnia on Mental Health)
10 pages, 236 KiB  
Article
Are Sleep Aids Associated with the Severity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Adults Screened for Insomnia? A Cross-Sectional Study
by Omar Gammoh, Abdelrahim Alqudah, Esam Qnais, Alaa A. A. Aljabali, Ammena Y. Binsaleh and Sireen Abdul Rahim Shilbayeh
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(6), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13061682 - 14 Mar 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms and insomnia are closely related. The present study examined whether the use of different sleep aids was related to severe ADHD-like symptoms in Jordanian adults screened for insomnia. (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms and insomnia are closely related. The present study examined whether the use of different sleep aids was related to severe ADHD-like symptoms in Jordanian adults screened for insomnia. (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study used predefined inclusion criteria. The severity of ADHD was assessed using the validated Arabic version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. (3) Results: Data were analyzed from 244 subjects who met the inclusion criteria for severe insomnia, of which 147 (65.3%) reported not using any sleep aid, 50 (22.3%) reported using homeopathy remedies as sleep aids, and 41 (18.3%) reported using over-the-counter antihistamines as sleep aids. Regression analysis revealed that the use of such sleep aids—namely, “homeopathy herbal remedies” and “over-the-counter antihistamines”—was not associated (p > 0.05) with ADHD-like symptoms. However, “age above 31 years old” was significantly associated (B = −3.95, t = −2.32, p = 0.002) with lower ADHD severity, while the “diagnosis with chronic diseases” was significantly associated (B = 4.15, t = 1.99, p = 0.04) with higher ADHD severity. (4) Conclusions: Sleep aids are not associated with ADHD-like symptoms in adults. More research is required to uncover the risk factors for adult ADHD, especially insomnia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Long-Term Insomnia on Mental Health)
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14 pages, 874 KiB  
Article
The Role of Anxiety and Depression in Shaping the Sleep–Pain Connection in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Spinal Pain and Comorbid Insomnia: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
by Zosia Goossens, Thomas Bilterys, Eveline Van Looveren, Anneleen Malfliet, Mira Meeus, Lieven Danneels, Kelly Ickmans, Barbara Cagnie, Aurore Roland, Maarten Moens, Jo Nijs, Liesbet De Baets and Olivier Mairesse
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(5), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13051452 - 2 Mar 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: This exploratory study aims to explore the relationship between nonspecific chronic spinal pain (nCSP) and insomnia symptoms, by examining the interconnections, strengths, and directional dependence of the symptoms. In addition, we aim to identify the key symptoms of the nCSP–insomnia [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This exploratory study aims to explore the relationship between nonspecific chronic spinal pain (nCSP) and insomnia symptoms, by examining the interconnections, strengths, and directional dependence of the symptoms. In addition, we aim to identify the key symptoms of the nCSP–insomnia relationship and shed light on the bidirectional nature of this relationship. (2) Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of the baseline data (cross-sectional) from a randomized controlled trial, which examined the added value of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) combined with cognition-targeted exercise therapy, conducted in collaboration with the Universiteit Gent and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium). One hundred and twenty-three nCSP patients with comorbid insomnia were recruited through the participating hospitals, advertisements, announcements in local newspapers, pharmacies, publications from support groups, and primary care. To explore the interconnections and directionality between symptoms and the strengths of the relationships, we estimated a regularized Gaussian graphical model and a directed acyclic graph. (3) Results: We found only one direct, but weak, link between sleep and pain, namely, between average pain and difficulties maintaining sleep. (4) Conclusions: Despite the lack of strong direct links between sleep and pain, pain and sleep seem to be indirectly linked via anxiety and depression symptoms, acting as presumable mediators in the network of nCSP and comorbid insomnia. Furthermore, feeling slowed down and fatigue emerged as terminal nodes, implying their role as consequences of the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Long-Term Insomnia on Mental Health)
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Review

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18 pages, 336 KiB  
Review
The Cyclical Battle of Insomnia and Mental Health Impairment in Firefighters: A Narrative Review
by Angelia M. Holland-Winkler, Daniel R. Greene and Tiffany J. Oberther
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(8), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13082169 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 945
Abstract
The occupational requirements of full-time non-administrative firefighters include shift-work schedules and chronic exposure to alerting emergency alarms, hazardous working conditions, and psychologically traumatic events that they must attend and respond to. These compiling and enduring aspects of the career increase the firefighter’s risk [...] Read more.
The occupational requirements of full-time non-administrative firefighters include shift-work schedules and chronic exposure to alerting emergency alarms, hazardous working conditions, and psychologically traumatic events that they must attend and respond to. These compiling and enduring aspects of the career increase the firefighter’s risk for insomnia and mental health conditions compared to the general population. Poor sleep quality and mental health impairments are known to coincide with and contribute to the symptom severity of one another. Thus, it is important to determine approaches that may improve sleep and/or mental health specifically for firefighters, as their occupation varies in many aspects from any other occupation. This review will discuss symptoms of insomnia and mental health conditions such as PTSD, anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and suicide in firefighters. The influencing factors of sleep and mental health will be examined including anxiety sensitivity, emotional regulation, and distress tolerance. Current sleep and mental health interventions specific to full-time firefighters are limited in number; however, the existing experimental studies will be outlined. Lastly, this review will provide support for exploring exercise as a possible intervention that may benefit the sleep and mental health of this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Long-Term Insomnia on Mental Health)
19 pages, 1782 KiB  
Review
Insomnia in Forensic Detainees: Is Salience Network the Common Pathway for Sleep, Neuropsychiatric, and Neurodegenerative Disorders?
by Adonis Sfera, Kyle A. Thomas, Isaac A. Ogunjale, Nyla Jafri and Peter G. Bota
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(6), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13061691 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Forensic hospitals throughout the country house individuals with severe mental illness and history of criminal violations. Insomnia affects 67.4% of hospitalized patients with chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, indicating that these conditions may hijack human somnogenic pathways. Conversely, somnolence is a common adverse effect of [...] Read more.
Forensic hospitals throughout the country house individuals with severe mental illness and history of criminal violations. Insomnia affects 67.4% of hospitalized patients with chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, indicating that these conditions may hijack human somnogenic pathways. Conversely, somnolence is a common adverse effect of many antipsychotic drugs, further highlighting a common etiopathogenesis. Since the brain salience network is likely the common denominator for insomnia, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, here, we focus on the pathology of this neuronal assembly and its likely driver, the dysfunctional neuronal and mitochondrial membrane. We also discuss potential treatment strategies ranging from membrane lipid replacement to mitochondrial transplantation. The aims of this review are threefold: 1. Examining the causes of insomnia in forensic detainees with severe mental illness, as well as its role in predisposing them to neurodegenerative disorders. 2. Educating State hospital and prison clinicians on frontotemporal dementia behavioral variant, a condition increasingly diagnosed in older first offenders which is often missed due to the absence of memory impairment. 3. Introducing clinicians to natural compounds that are potentially beneficial for insomnia and severe mental illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Long-Term Insomnia on Mental Health)
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