Selected Papers from the 19th International Conference on Calorimetry in Particle Physics (CALOR 2022)

A special issue of Instruments (ISSN 2410-390X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 58951

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex BN1 9QH, UK
Interests: experimental particle physics; LHC/ATLAS; BSM supersymmetry; trigger and data acquisition; calorimeter detectors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex BN1 9QH, UK
Interests: experimental particle physics; LHC/ATLAS; BSM supersymmetry; neutrino physics; trigger systems for particle physics; particle detector development

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex BN1 9QH, UK
Interests: experimental particle physics; LHC/ATLAS; BSM supersymmetry; top physics; calorimeter detectors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will publish the proceedings from the “19th International Conference on Calorimetry in Particle Physics” (CALOR2022, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, May 16–20, 2022). This Special Issue of Instruments will document the conference proceedings on the recent developments in calorimeters and calorimetric techniques achieved during the last few years.

To learn more details about CALOR2022, please visit the conference website, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/physics/research/calor2022.

Prof. Dr. Fabrizio Salvatore
Prof. Dr. Antonella De Santo
Prof. Dr. Iacopo Vivarelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Instruments is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (43 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

11 pages, 43031 KiB  
Editorial
25 Years of Dual-Readout Calorimetry
by Richard Wigmans
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030036 - 07 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Twenty-five years ago, at the CALOR1997 conference in Tucson, the idea of dual-readout calorimetry was first presented. In this talk, I discuss the considerations that led to that proposal, and describe the developments that have since taken place, to the point where dual-readout [...] Read more.
Twenty-five years ago, at the CALOR1997 conference in Tucson, the idea of dual-readout calorimetry was first presented. In this talk, I discuss the considerations that led to that proposal, and describe the developments that have since taken place, to the point where dual-readout calorimetry is now considered a major candidate for experiments at future colliders. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

11 pages, 8763 KiB  
Article
A Burn-in Test Station for the ATLAS Phase-II Tile-Calorimeter Low-Voltage Power Supply Transformer-Coupled Buck Converters
by Ryan Peter Mckenzie
Instruments 2023, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7010003 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
The upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic tile-calorimeter (TileCal) Low-Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) falls under the high-luminosity LHC upgrade project. This article serves to provide an overview of the development of a burn-in test station for a Phase-II upgrade LVPS component known as a [...] Read more.
The upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic tile-calorimeter (TileCal) Low-Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) falls under the high-luminosity LHC upgrade project. This article serves to provide an overview of the development of a burn-in test station for a Phase-II upgrade LVPS component known as a Brick. These Bricks are radiation hard transformer-coupled buck converters that function to step-down bulk 200 V DC power to the 10 V DC power required by the on-detector electronics. To ensure the high reliability of the Bricks, once installed within the TileCal, a burn-in test station has been designed and built. The Burn-in procedure subjects the Bricks to sub-optimal operating conditions that function to accelerate their aging as well as to stimulate failure mechanisms. This results in elements of the Brick that would fail prematurely within the TileCal failing within the burn-in station or to experience performance degradation that can be detected by followup testing effectively screening out the ’weak’ sub-population. The burn-in station is of a fully custom design in both its hardware and software. The development of the test station will be explored and the preliminary burn-in procedure to be employed will be presented. The commissioning of the burn-in station will be presented along with a summary and outlook of the project. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 9110 KiB  
Article
The CALICE SiW ECAL Technological Prototype—Status and Outlook
by Roman Pöschl
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040075 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
The next generation of collider detectors will make full use of Particle Flow Algorithms, requiring high-precision tracking and full imaging calorimeters. The latter, thanks to granularity improvements by two to three orders of magnitude compared to existing devices, have been developed during the [...] Read more.
The next generation of collider detectors will make full use of Particle Flow Algorithms, requiring high-precision tracking and full imaging calorimeters. The latter, thanks to granularity improvements by two to three orders of magnitude compared to existing devices, have been developed during the past 15 years by the CALICE collaboration and are now reaching maturity. This contribution will focus on the commissioning of a 15-layer prototype of a highly granular silicon–tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter that comprises 15,360 readout cells. The prototype was exposed in November 2021 and March 2022 to beam tests at DESY and in June 2022 to a beam test at the SPS at CERN. The test at CERN has been carried out in combination with the CALICE Analogue Hadron Calorimeter. The contribution will give a general overview of the prototype and will highlight technical developments necessary for its construction. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 11479 KiB  
Article
L1 Triggering on High-Granularity Information at the HL-LHC
by Louis Portalès
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040071 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
The CMS collaboration is building a high-granularity calorimeter (HGCAL) for the endcap regions as part of its planned upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC. The calorimetric data will form part of the Level-1 trigger (hardware) of the CMS experiment, reducing the event rate from [...] Read more.
The CMS collaboration is building a high-granularity calorimeter (HGCAL) for the endcap regions as part of its planned upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC. The calorimetric data will form part of the Level-1 trigger (hardware) of the CMS experiment, reducing the event rate from the nominal 40 MHz to 750 kHz with a decision time (latency) of 12.5 microseconds. In addition to basic tracking information, which will also be available in the Level-1 trigger system, the use of particle-flow techniques will be facilitated as part of the trigger system. Around 1-million “trigger channels” are read at 40 MHz from the HGCAL, presenting a significant challenge in terms of data manipulation and processing for the trigger system: the trigger data volumes will be an order of magnitude above those currently handled at CMS. In addition, the high luminosity will result in an average of 140 (or more) interactions per bunch crossing that produce a huge background rate in the forward region and these will need to be efficiently rejected by the trigger algorithms. Furthermore, the reconstruction of particle clusters used for particle flow in high hit-rate events presents a complex computational problem associated with the trigger. We present the status of the trigger architecture and design, as well as the algorithmic concepts needed in order to tackle these major issues. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 3312 KiB  
Article
Design and Test-Beam Results of the FoCal-H Demonstrator Prototype
by Radoslav Simeonov
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040070 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
The forward calorimeter (FoCal) of ALICE, planned to be operational for LHC Run 4, will cover the pseudorapidity range 3.4 η 5.8 allowing to probe the unexplored region of Bjorken-x down to 106. The hadronic section of the [...] Read more.
The forward calorimeter (FoCal) of ALICE, planned to be operational for LHC Run 4, will cover the pseudorapidity range 3.4 η 5.8 allowing to probe the unexplored region of Bjorken-x down to 106. The hadronic section of the FoCal (FoCal-H) will be based on copper capillary tubes and scintillating fibers inside, with light read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). A “proof of concept” demonstration prototype was built and tested in the H6 beamline at the CERN SPS in the beginning of October, 2021, exposing it to an unseparated charged particle beam with energy in the interval 20 GeV–80 GeV. The design of the prototype as well as the results of the energy reconstruction are presented and the validation with a GEANT4-based simulation is discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 10288 KiB  
Article
Mu2e Crystal Calorimeter Readout Electronics: Design and Characterisation
by Nikolay Atanov, Vladimir Baranov, Leo Borrel, Caterina Bloise, Julian Budagov, Sergio Ceravolo, Franco Cervelli, Francesco Colao, Marco Cordelli, Giovanni Corradi, Yuri Davydov, Stefano Di Falco, Eleonora Diociaiuti, Simone Donati, Bertrand Echenard, Carlo Ferrari, Antonio Gioiosa, Simona Giovannella, Valerio Giusti, Vladimir Glagolev, Francesco Grancagnolo, Dariush Hampai, Fabio Happacher, David Hitlin, Matteo Martini, Sophie Middleton, Stefano Miscetti, Luca Morescalchi, Daniele Paesani, Daniele Pasciuto, Elena Pedreschi, Frank Porter, Fabrizio Raffaelli, Alessandro Saputi, Ivano Sarra, Franco Spinella, Alessandra Taffara, Anna Maria Zanetti and Ren-Yuan Zhuadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040068 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
The Mu2e experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory will search for the charged-lepton flavour-violating neutrinoless conversion of negative muons into electrons in the Coulomb field of an Al nucleus. The conversion electron with a monoenergetic 104.967 MeV signature will be identified by a [...] Read more.
The Mu2e experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory will search for the charged-lepton flavour-violating neutrinoless conversion of negative muons into electrons in the Coulomb field of an Al nucleus. The conversion electron with a monoenergetic 104.967 MeV signature will be identified by a complementary measurement carried out by a high-resolution tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter, improving by four orders of magnitude the current single-event sensitivity. The calorimeter—composed of 1348 pure CsI crystals arranged in two annular disks—has a high granularity, 10% energy resolution and 500 ps timing resolution for 100 MeV electrons. The readout, based on large-area UV-extended SiPMs, features a fully custom readout chain, from the analogue front-end electronics to the digitisation boards. The readout electronics design was validated for operation in vacuum and under magnetic fields. An extensive radiation hardness certification campaign certified the FEE design for doses up to 100 krad and 1012 n1MeVeq/cm2 and for single-event effects. A final vertical slice test on the final readout chain was carried out with cosmic rays on a large-scale calorimeter prototype. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2890 KiB  
Article
Novel Ultrafast Lu2O3:Yb Ceramics for Future HEP Applications
by Chen Hu, Liyuan Zhang, Ren-Yuan Zhu, Lakshmi Soundara Pandian, Yimin Wang and Jarek Glodo
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040067 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Inorganic scintillators activated by charge transfer luminescence Yb3+ are considered promising ultrafast material to break the ps timing barrier for future high energy physics applications. Inorganic scintillators in ceramic form are potentially more cost-effective than crystals because of their lower fabrication temperature [...] Read more.
Inorganic scintillators activated by charge transfer luminescence Yb3+ are considered promising ultrafast material to break the ps timing barrier for future high energy physics applications. Inorganic scintillators in ceramic form are potentially more cost-effective than crystals because of their lower fabrication temperature and no need for aftergrowth mechanical processing. This paper reports an investigation on Lu2O3:Yb and Lu2xY2(1−x)O3:Yb scintillating ceramic samples fabricated by Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc. All samples show X-ray excited luminescence peaked at 370 nm. Ultrafast decay time of 1.1 ns was observed by using a microchannel plate-photomultiplier tube-based test bench at Caltech. Considering its intrinsic high density (9.4 g/cm3), Lu2O3:Yb ceramics are promising for future time of fight application for high energy physics experiments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 479 KiB  
Article
Towards a Large Calorimeter Based on Lyso Crystals for Future High Energy Physics
by Patrick Schwendimann, Andrea Gurgone and Angela Papa
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040065 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
The state-of-the-art research at the intensity frontier of particle physics aims to find evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model by searching for faint signals in a vast amount of background. To this end, detectors with excellent resolution in all kinematic variables [...] Read more.
The state-of-the-art research at the intensity frontier of particle physics aims to find evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model by searching for faint signals in a vast amount of background. To this end, detectors with excellent resolution in all kinematic variables are required. For future calorimeters, a very promising material is LYSO, due to its short radiation length, fast decay time and good light yield. In this article, the simulation of a calorimeter assembled from multiple large LYSO crystals is presented. Although there is still a long way to go before crystals of that size can be produced, the results suggest an energy resolution of 1%, a position resolution around 5 mm and a time resolution of about 30 ps for photons and positrons with an energy of 55 MeV. These results would put such a calorimeter at the technology forefront in precision particle physics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1725 KiB  
Article
The CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for the HL-LHC
by Piyush Kumar and Bhawna Gomber
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040064 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1226
Abstract
The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) provides an opportunity for a pioneering physics program to harness an integrated luminosity of 4000 fb1 of ten years of operations. This large volume of collision data will help in high precision measurements of the Standard Model [...] Read more.
The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) provides an opportunity for a pioneering physics program to harness an integrated luminosity of 4000 fb1 of ten years of operations. This large volume of collision data will help in high precision measurements of the Standard Model (SM) and the search for new and rare physics phenomena. The harsh environment of 200 proton–proton interactions poses a substantial challenge in the collection of these large datasets. The HL-LHC CMS Level-1 (L1) trigger, including the calorimeter trigger, will receive a massive upgrade to tackle the challenge of a high-bandwidth and high pileup environment. The L1 trigger is planned to handle a very high bandwidth (∼63 Tb/s) with an output rate of 750 kHz, and the desired latency budget is 12.5 μs. The calorimeter trigger aims to process the high-granular information from the new end-cap detector called the high-granularity calorimeter (HGCAL) and the barrel calorimeter. The HL-LHC trigger prototyped boards are equipped with large modern-day FPGAs and high-speed optical links (∼28 Gb/s), which helps in the parallel and rapid computation of the calorimeter trigger algorithms. This article discusses the proposed design and expected performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 2231 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Design of an Electromagnetic Calorimeter Prototype for a Future Muon Collider
by Daniele Paesani, Alessandro Saputi and Ivano Sarra
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040063 - 14 Oct 2022
Viewed by 968
Abstract
Measurement of physics processes at new energy frontier experiments requires excellent spatial, time, and energy resolutions to resolve the structure of collimated high-energy jets. In a future Muon Collider, beam-induced backgrounds (BIB) represent the main challenge in the design of the detectors and [...] Read more.
Measurement of physics processes at new energy frontier experiments requires excellent spatial, time, and energy resolutions to resolve the structure of collimated high-energy jets. In a future Muon Collider, beam-induced backgrounds (BIB) represent the main challenge in the design of the detectors and of the event reconstruction algorithms. The technology and the design of the calorimeters should be chosen to reduce the effect of the BIB, while keeping good physics performance. Several requirements can be inferred: (i) high granularity to reduce the overlap of BIB particles in the same calorimeter cell; (ii) excellent timing (of the order of 100 ps) to reduce the out-of-time component of the BIB; (iii) longitudinal segmentation to distinguish the signal showers from the fake showers produced by the BIB. Moreover, the calorimeter should operate in a very harsh radiation environment, withstanding yearly a neutron flux of 1014 n1MeV/cm2 and a dose of 100 krad. Our proposal consists of a semi-homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter based on Lead Fluoride Crystals (PbF2) readout by surface-mount UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs): the Crilin calorimeter. In this paper, we report the mechanical design for the development of a small-scale prototype, consisting of 2 layers of 3 × 3 crystals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 3986 KiB  
Article
Crilin: A Semi-Homogeneous Calorimeter for a Future Muon Collider
by Sergio Ceravolo, Francesco Colao, Camilla Curatolo, Elisa Di Meco, Eleonora Diociaiuti, Donatella Lucchesi, Daniele Paesani, Nadia Pastrone, Gianantonio Pezzullo, Alessandro Saputi, Ivano Sarra, Lorenzo Sestini and Diego Tagnani
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040062 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
Calorimeters, as other detectors, have to face the increasing performance demands of the new energy frontier experiments. For a future Muon Collider the main challenge is given by the Beam Induced Background that may pose limitations to the physics performance. However, it is [...] Read more.
Calorimeters, as other detectors, have to face the increasing performance demands of the new energy frontier experiments. For a future Muon Collider the main challenge is given by the Beam Induced Background that may pose limitations to the physics performance. However, it is possible to reduce the BIB impact by exploiting some of its characteristics by ensuring high granularity, excellent timing, longitudinal segmentation and good energy resolution. The proposed design, the Crilin calorimeter, is an alternative semi-homogeneous ECAL barrel for the Muon Collider based on Lead Fluoride Crystals (PbF2) with a surface-mount UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout with an optimized design for a future Muon Collider. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 16137 KiB  
Article
The Mu2e Crystal Calorimeter: An Overview
by Nikolay Atanov, Vladimir Baranov, Leo Borrel, Caterina Bloise, Julian Budagov, Sergio Ceravolo, Franco Cervelli, Francesco Colao, Marco Cordelli, Giovanni Corradi, Yuri Davydov, Stefano Di Falco, Eleonora Diociaiuti, Simone Donati, Bertrand Echenard, Carlo Ferrari, Antonio Gioiosa, Simona Giovannella, Valerio Giusti, Vladimir Glagolev, Francesco Grancagnolo, Dariush Hampai, Fabio Happacher, David Hitlin, Matteo Martini, Sophie Middleton, Stefano Miscetti, Luca Morescalchi, Daniele Paesani, Daniele Pasciuto, Elena Pedreschi, Frank Porter, Fabrizio Raffaelli, Alessandro Saputi, Ivano Sarra, Franco Spinella, Alessandra Taffara, Anna Maria Zanetti and Ren Yuan Zhuadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040060 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for the standard model-forbidden, charged lepton flavour-violating conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of an aluminium nucleus. The distinctive signal signature is represented by a mono-energetic electron with an energy near [...] Read more.
The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for the standard model-forbidden, charged lepton flavour-violating conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of an aluminium nucleus. The distinctive signal signature is represented by a mono-energetic electron with an energy near the muon’s rest mass. The experiment aims to improve the current single-event sensitivity by four orders of magnitude by means of a high-intensity pulsed muon beam and a high-precision tracking system. The electromagnetic calorimeter complements the tracker by providing high rejection power in muon to electron identification and a seed for track reconstruction while working in vacuum in presence of a 1 T axial magnetic field and in a harsh radiation environment. For 100 MeV electrons, the calorimeter should achieve: (a) a time resolution better than 0.5 ns, (b) an energy resolution <10%, and (c) a position resolution of 1 cm. The calorimeter design consists of two disks, each loaded with 674 undoped CsI crystals read out by two large-area arrays of UV-extended SiPMs and custom analogue and digital electronics. We describe here the status of construction for all calorimeter components and the performance measurements conducted on the large-sized prototype with electron beams and minimum ionizing particles at a cosmic ray test stand. A discussion of the calorimeter’s engineering aspects and the on-going assembly is also reported. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 45842 KiB  
Article
SiPMs for Dual-Readout Calorimetry
by Romualdo Santoro
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040059 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
A new fibre-sampling dual-readout calorimeter prototype has been qualified on beam at two facilities (DESY and CERN) using electrons from 1 to 100 GeV. The prototype was designed to almost fully contain electromagnetic showers and a central module (highly granular readout) was equipped [...] Read more.
A new fibre-sampling dual-readout calorimeter prototype has been qualified on beam at two facilities (DESY and CERN) using electrons from 1 to 100 GeV. The prototype was designed to almost fully contain electromagnetic showers and a central module (highly granular readout) was equipped with 320 Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) spaced by 2 mm and individually read out. The test beams performed in 2021, allowed to qualify the readout boards used to operate the SiPMs, to define the calibration procedure and to measure the light yield for scintillating and Cherenkov signals produced by the shower development. This paper reports the first results obtained with the highly granular readout and discusses the ongoing R&D to address some open questions concerning the mechanical integration and the scalable readout scheme that will allow to build and operate the next prototype designed for hadronic showers containment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1077 KiB  
Communication
Enhanced Proton Tracking with ASTRA Using Calorimetry and Deep Learning
by César Jesús-Valls, Marc Granado-González, Thorsten Lux, Tony Price and Federico Sánchez
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040058 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Recently, we proposed a novel range detector concept named ASTRA. ASTRA is optimized to accurately measure (better than 1%) the residual energy of protons with kinetic energies in the range from tens to a few hundred MeVs at a very high rate of [...] Read more.
Recently, we proposed a novel range detector concept named ASTRA. ASTRA is optimized to accurately measure (better than 1%) the residual energy of protons with kinetic energies in the range from tens to a few hundred MeVs at a very high rate of O(100 MHz). These combined performances are aimed at achieving fast and high-quality proton Computerized Tomography (pCT), which is crucial to correctly assessing treatment planning in proton beam therapy. Despite being a range telescope, ASTRA is also a calorimeter, opening the door to enhanced tracking possibilities based on deep learning. Here, we review the ASTRA concept, and we study an alternative tracking method that exploits calorimetry. In particular, we study the potential of ASTRA to deal with pile-up protons by means of a novel tracking method based on semantic segmentation, a deep learning network architecture that performs classification at the pixel level. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 3345 KiB  
Article
Hadron-Induced Radiation Damage in Fast Heavy Inorganic Scintillators
by Chen Hu, Fan Yang, Liyuan Zhang, Ren-Yuan Zhu, Jon Kapustinsky, Xuan Li, Michael Mocko, Ron Nelson, Steve Wender and Zhehui Wang
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040057 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Fast and heavy inorganic scintillators with suitable radiation tolerance are required to face the challenges presented at future hadron colliders of high energy and intensity. Up to 5 GGy and 5 × 1018 neq/cm2 of one-MeV-equivalent neutron fluence is [...] Read more.
Fast and heavy inorganic scintillators with suitable radiation tolerance are required to face the challenges presented at future hadron colliders of high energy and intensity. Up to 5 GGy and 5 × 1018 neq/cm2 of one-MeV-equivalent neutron fluence is expected by the forward calorimeter at the Future Hadron Circular Collider. This paper reports the results of an investigation of proton- and neutron-induced radiation damage in various fast and heavy inorganic scintillators, such as LYSO:Ce crystals, LuAG:Ce ceramics, and BaF2 crystals. The experiments were carried out at the Blue Room with 800 MeV proton fluence up to 3.0 × 1015 p/cm2 and at the East Port with one MeV equivalent neutron fluence up to 9.2 × 1015 neq/cm2, respectively, at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Experiments were also carried out at the CERN PS-IRRAD proton facility with 24 GeV proton fluence up to 8.2 × 1015 p/cm2. Research and development will continue to develop LuAG:Ce ceramics and BaF2:Y crystals with improved optical quality, F/T ratio, and radiation hardness. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
Noble Liquid Calorimetry for FCC-ee
by Nicolas Morange
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040055 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Noble liquid calorimeters have been successfully used in particle physics experiments for decades. The project presented in this article is that of a new noble liquid calorimeter concept, where a novel design allows us to fulfil the stringent requirements on calorimetry of the [...] Read more.
Noble liquid calorimeters have been successfully used in particle physics experiments for decades. The project presented in this article is that of a new noble liquid calorimeter concept, where a novel design allows us to fulfil the stringent requirements on calorimetry of the physics programme of the electron-positron Future Circular Collider at CERN. High granularity is achieved through the design of specific readout electrodes and high-density cryostat feedthroughs. Excellent performance can be reached through new very light cryostat design and low electronics noise. Preliminary promising performance is achieved in simulations, and ideas for further R&D opportunities are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2544 KiB  
Article
Upgrade of ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High-Luminosity LHC
by Pavel Starovoitov
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040054 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a sampling hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment, with steel as the absorber and plastic scintillators as the active medium. The High-Luminosity phase of the LHC, delivering five times the LHC’s nominal instantaneous luminosity, [...] Read more.
The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a sampling hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment, with steel as the absorber and plastic scintillators as the active medium. The High-Luminosity phase of the LHC, delivering five times the LHC’s nominal instantaneous luminosity, is expected to begin in 2029. TileCal will require new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger, higher ambient radiation, and to ensure better performance under high pile-up conditions. Both the on- and off-detector TileCal electronics will be replaced during the shut-down of 2026–2028. The photomultiplier tube (PMT) signals from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of the trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision in the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. The modular front-end electronics feature radiation-tolerant, commercial, off-the-shelf components and a redundant design to maintain system performance in case of single points of failure. The timing, control, and communication interface with the off-detector electronics is implemented with modern Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and high-speed fiber optic links running up to 9.6 Gb/s. The TileCal upgrade program has included extensive R&D and test beam studies. A Demonstrator module with reverse compatibility with respect to the existing system was inserted in ATLAS in August 2019 for testing in actual detector conditions. The ongoing developments for on- and off-detector systems, together with expected performance characteristics and results of test-beam campaigns with the electronics prototypes, will be discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 14557 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Crystal Light Yield Non-Proportionality on a Typical Calorimetric Space Experiment: Beam Test Measurements and Monte Carlo Simulations
by Lorenzo Pacini, Oscar Adriani, Eugenio Berti, Pietro Betti, Gabriele Bigongiari, Lorenzo Bonechi, Massimo Bongi, Sergio Bottai, Paolo Brogi, Guido Castellini, Caterina Checchia, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Sebastiano Detti, Noemi Finetti, Paolo Maestro, Pier Simone Marrocchesi, Nicola Mori, Miriam Olmi, Paolo Papini, Claudia Poggiali, Sergio Ricciarini, Piero Spillantini, Oleksandr Starodubtsev, Francesco Stolzi, Alessio Tiberio and Elena Vannucciniadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040053 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Calorimetric space experiments were employed for the direct measurements of cosmic-ray spectra above the TeV region. According to several theoretical models and recent measurements, relevant features in both electron and nucleus fluxes are expected. Unfortunately, sizable disagreements among the current results of different [...] Read more.
Calorimetric space experiments were employed for the direct measurements of cosmic-ray spectra above the TeV region. According to several theoretical models and recent measurements, relevant features in both electron and nucleus fluxes are expected. Unfortunately, sizable disagreements among the current results of different space calorimeters exist. In order to improve the accuracy of future experiments, it is fundamental to understand the reasons of these discrepancies, especially since they are not compatible with the quoted experimental errors. A few articles of different collaborations suggest that a systematic error of a few percentage points related to the energy-scale calibration could explain these differences. In this work, we analyze the impact of the nonproportionality of the light yield of scintillating crystals on the energy scale of typical calorimeters. Space calorimeters are usually calibrated by employing minimal ionizing particles (MIPs), e.g., nonshowering proton or helium nuclei, which feature different ionization density distributions with respect to particles included in showers. By using the experimental data obtained by the CaloCube collaboration and a minimalist model of the light yield as a function of the ionization density, several scintillating crystals (BGO, CsI(Tl), LYSO, YAP, YAG and BaF2) are characterized. Then, the response of a few crystals is implemented inside the Monte Carlo simulation of a space calorimeter to check the energy deposited by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. The results of this work show that the energy scale obtained by MIP calibration could be affected by sizable systematic errors if the nonproportionality of scintillation light is not properly taken into account. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Tracker-in-Calorimeter (TIC) Project: A Calorimetric New Solution for Space Experiments
by Gabriele Bigongiari, Oscar Adriani, Giovanni Ambrosi, Philipp Azzarello, Andrea Basti, Eugenio Berti, Bruna Bertucci, Lorenzo Bonechi, Massimo Bongi, Sergio Bottai, Mirko Brianzi, Paolo Brogi, Guido Castellini, Enrico Catanzani, Caterina Checchia, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Sebastiano Detti, Matteo Duranti, Noemi Finetti, Valerio Formato, Maria Ionica, Paolo Maestro, Fernando Maletta, Pier Simone Marrocchesi, Nicola Mori, Lorenzo Pacini, Paolo Papini, Sergio Bruno Ricciarini, Gianluigi Silvestre, Piero Spillantini, Oleksandr Starodubtsev, Francesco Stolzi, Jung Eun Suh, Arta Sulaj, Alessio Tiberio and Elena Vannucciniadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040052 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
A space-based detector dedicated to measurements of γ-rays and charged particles has to achieve a balance between different instrumental requirements. A good angular resolution is necessary for the γ-rays, whereas an excellent geometric factor is needed for the charged particles. The [...] Read more.
A space-based detector dedicated to measurements of γ-rays and charged particles has to achieve a balance between different instrumental requirements. A good angular resolution is necessary for the γ-rays, whereas an excellent geometric factor is needed for the charged particles. The tracking reference technique of γ-ray physics is based on a pair-conversion telescope made of passive material (e.g., tungsten) coupled with sensitive layers (e.g., silicon microstrip). However, this kind of detector has a limited acceptance because of the large lever arm between the active layers, needed to improve the track reconstruction capability. Moreover, the passive material can induce fragmentation of nuclei, thus worsening charge reconstruction performances. The Tracker-In-Calorimeter (TIC) project aims to solve all these drawbacks. In the TIC proposal, the silicon sensors are moved inside a highly-segmented isotropic calorimeter with a couple of external scintillators dedicated to charge reconstruction. In principle, this configuration has a good geometrical factor, and the angle of the γ-rays can be precisely reconstructed from the lateral profile of the electromagnetic shower sampled, at different depths in the calorimeter, by silicon strips. The effectiveness of this approach has been studied with Monte Carlo simulations and validated with beam test data of a small prototype. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 3230 KiB  
Article
The SiD Digital ECal Based on Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors
by James E. Brau, Martin Breidenbach, Alexandre Habib, Lorenzo Rota and Caterina Vernieri
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040051 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1402
Abstract
The SiD detector concept capitalizes on high granularity in its tracker and calorimeter to achieve the momentum resolution and particle flow calorimetry physics goals in a compact design. The collaboration has had a long interest in the potential for improved granularity in both [...] Read more.
The SiD detector concept capitalizes on high granularity in its tracker and calorimeter to achieve the momentum resolution and particle flow calorimetry physics goals in a compact design. The collaboration has had a long interest in the potential for improved granularity in both the tracker and ECal with an application of monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and a study of MAPS in the SiD ECal was described in the ILC TDR. Work is progressing on the MAPS application in an upgraded SiD design with a prototyping design effort for a common SiD tracker/ECal design based on stitched reticules to achieve 10 × 10 cm2 sensors with 25 × 100 micron2 pixels. Application of large area MAPS in these systems would limit delicate and expensive bump-bonding, provide possibilities for better timing, and should be significantly cheaper than the TDR concept due to being a more conventional CMOS foundry process. The small pixels significantly improve shower separation. Recent simulation studies confirm previous performance projections, indicating electromagnetic energy resolution based on digital hit cluster counting provides better performance than the SiD TDR analog design based on 13 mm2 pixels. Furthermore, the two shower separation is excellent down to the millimeter scale. Geant4 simulation results demonstrate these expectations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2778 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Results from ADRIANO2 Test Beams
by Corrado Gatto, Gerald C. Blazey, Alexandre Dychkant, Jeffrey W. Elam, Michael Figora, Todd Fletcher, Kurt Francis, Ao Liu, Sergey Los, Cole Le Mahieu, Anil U. Mane, Juan Marquez, Michael J. Murray, Erik Ramberg, Christophe Royon, Michael J. Syphers, Robert W. Young and Vishnu Zutshi
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040049 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1090
Abstract
A novel high-granularity, dual-readout calorimetric technique (ADRIANO2) is under development as part of the research program of T1604 Collaboration. (Talk Presented at the 19th International Conference on Calorimetry in Particle Physics (CALOR 2022), University of Sussex, Sussex, UK, 16–20 May 2022). The building [...] Read more.
A novel high-granularity, dual-readout calorimetric technique (ADRIANO2) is under development as part of the research program of T1604 Collaboration. (Talk Presented at the 19th International Conference on Calorimetry in Particle Physics (CALOR 2022), University of Sussex, Sussex, UK, 16–20 May 2022). The building block of such a calorimeter consists of a pair of optically isolated, small size tiles made of scintillating plastic and lead glass. The prompt Čerenkov light from the glass can be exploited to perform high resolution timing measurements, while the high granularity provides good resolution of the spatial components of the shower. Dual-readout compensation and particle flow techniques can be applied simultaneously to the scintillation and to the Čerenkov section, providing excellent energy resolution as well as PID particle identification. These characteristics make ADRIANO2 a 6-D detector, suited for High Energy as well as High Intensity experiments. A report on the status of the ADRIANO2 project, preliminary measurements of light yield, and current and future R&D plans by T1604 Collaboration are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
Secondary Emission Calorimetry
by Burak Bilki, Kamuran Dilsiz, Hasan Ogul, Yasar Onel, David Southwick, Emrah Tiras, James Wetzel and David Roberts Winn
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040048 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Electromagnetic calorimetry in high-radiation environments, e.g., forward regions of lepton and hadron collider detectors, is quite challenging. Although total absorption crystal calorimeters have superior performance as electromagnetic calorimeters, the availability and the cost of the radiation-hard crystals are the limiting factors as radiation-tolerant [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic calorimetry in high-radiation environments, e.g., forward regions of lepton and hadron collider detectors, is quite challenging. Although total absorption crystal calorimeters have superior performance as electromagnetic calorimeters, the availability and the cost of the radiation-hard crystals are the limiting factors as radiation-tolerant implementations. Sampling calorimeters utilizing silicon sensors as the active media are also favorable in terms of performance but are challenged by high-radiation environments. In order to provide a solution for such implementations, we developed a radiation-hard, fast and cost-effective technique, secondary emission calorimetry, and tested prototype secondary emission sensors in test beams. In a secondary emission detector module, secondary emission electrons are generated from a cathode when charged hadron or electromagnetic shower particles penetrate the secondary emission sampling module placed between absorber materials. The generated secondary emission electrons are then multiplied in a similar way as the photoelectrons in photomultiplier tubes. Here, we report on the principles of secondary emission calorimetry and the results from the beam tests performed at Fermilab Test Beam Facility as well as the Monte Carlo simulations of projected, large-scale secondary emission electromagnetic calorimeters. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 820 KiB  
Article
Using Artificial Intelligence in the Reconstruction of Signals from the PADME Electromagnetic Calorimeter
by Kalina Dimitrova and on behalf of the PADME collaboration
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040046 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
The PADME apparatus was built at the Frascati National Laboratory of INFN to search for a dark photon (A) produced via the process e+eAγ. The central component of the PADME detector is [...] Read more.
The PADME apparatus was built at the Frascati National Laboratory of INFN to search for a dark photon (A) produced via the process e+eAγ. The central component of the PADME detector is an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of 616 BGO crystals dedicated to the measurement of the energy and position of the final state photons. The high beam particle multiplicity over a short bunch duration requires reliable identification and measurement of overlapping signals. A regression machine-learning-based algorithm has been developed to disentangle with high efficiency close-in-time events and precisely reconstruct the amplitude of the hits and the time with sub-nanosecond resolution. The performance of the algorithm and the sequence of improvements leading to the achieved results are presented and discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 6242 KiB  
Article
Development of an Argon Light Source as a Calibration and Quality Control Device for Liquid Argon Light Detectors
by Mehmet Tosun, Burak Bilki, Fatma Boran, Furkan Dolek and Kutlu Kagan Sahbaz
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040045 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The majority of future large-scale neutrino and dark matter experiments are based on liquid argon detectors. Since liquid argon is also a very effective scintillator, these experiments also have light detection systems. The liquid argon scintillation wavelength of 127 nm is most commonly [...] Read more.
The majority of future large-scale neutrino and dark matter experiments are based on liquid argon detectors. Since liquid argon is also a very effective scintillator, these experiments also have light detection systems. The liquid argon scintillation wavelength of 127 nm is most commonly shifted to the visible range by special wavelength shifters or read out by the 127 nm sensitive photodetectors that are under development. The effective calibration and quality control of these active media is still a persisting problem. In order to respond to this need, we developed an argon light source which is based on plasma generation and light transfer across a MgF2 window. The light source was designed as a small, portable and easy-to-operate device to enable the acquisition of performance characteristics of several square meters of light detectors. Here, we report on the development of the light source and its performance characteristics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2784 KiB  
Article
Energy Resolution Studies in Simulation for the IDEA Dual-Readout Calorimeter Prototype
by Andreas Loeschcke Centeno
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040044 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Precision measurements of Z, W, and H decays at the next generation of circular lepton colliders will require excellent energy resolution for both electromagnetic and hadronic showers. The resolution is limited by event-to-event fluctuations in the shower development, especially in the [...] Read more.
Precision measurements of Z, W, and H decays at the next generation of circular lepton colliders will require excellent energy resolution for both electromagnetic and hadronic showers. The resolution is limited by event-to-event fluctuations in the shower development, especially in the hadronic system. Compensating for this effect can greatly improve the achievable energy resolution. Furthermore, the resolution can benefit greatly from the use of particle-flow algorithms, which requires the calorimeters to have a high granularity. The approach of dual-readout calorimetry has emerged as a candidate to fulfil both of these requirements by allowing to reconstruct the fluctuations in the shower development event-by-event and offering a high transverse granularity. An important benchmark of such a calorimeter is the electromagnetic energy resolution; a prototype of the IDEA calorimeter has been built for use in testbeams. In parallel, a simulation of this prototype has been developed in Geant4 for a testbeam environment. Here, we outline how this simulation was used to study the electromagnetic energy resolution and conclude that a resolution of 14%/E is achievable. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
The (Un)reasonable Effectiveness of Neural Network in Cherenkov Calorimetry
by Nural Akchurin, Christopher Cowden, Jordan Damgov, Adil Hussain and Shuichi Kunori
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040043 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1347
Abstract
We report a greater than factor of two improvement in the hadronic energy resolution of a simulated Cherenkov calorimeter by estimating the energy with machine learning over traditional techniques. The prompt signal formation and energy threshold properties of Cherenkov radiation provide identifiable features [...] Read more.
We report a greater than factor of two improvement in the hadronic energy resolution of a simulated Cherenkov calorimeter by estimating the energy with machine learning over traditional techniques. The prompt signal formation and energy threshold properties of Cherenkov radiation provide identifiable features that machine learning techniques can exploit to produce a superior model for energy reconstruction. We simulated a quartz-fiber calorimeter via the GEANT4 framework to study the reconstruction techniques in single events. We compared the machine learning-based reconstruction performance to the traditional simple sum of signal and dual-readout techniques that use both Cherenkov and scintillation signals. We describe why this game-changing approach to Cherenkov hadron calorimetry excels and our plans for a dedicated beam test to validate these findings with a fast, radiation-hard hadron calorimeter prototype. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4150 KiB  
Article
Including Calorimeter Test Beams in Geant-val—The Physics Validation Testing Suite of Geant4
by Lorenzo Pezzotti, Andrey Kiryunin, Dmitri Konstantinov, Alberto Ribon, Pavol Strizenec and on behalf of the Geant4 Collaboration
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030041 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1267
Abstract
The Geant4 simulation toolkit is currently adopted by many particle physics experiments, including those at the Large Hadron Collider and the ones proposed for future lepton and hadron colliders. In the present era of precision tests for the Standard Model and increasingly detailed [...] Read more.
The Geant4 simulation toolkit is currently adopted by many particle physics experiments, including those at the Large Hadron Collider and the ones proposed for future lepton and hadron colliders. In the present era of precision tests for the Standard Model and increasingly detailed detectors proposed for the future colliders scenario, Geant4 plays a key role. It is required to remain a reliable and stable toolkit for detector simulations and at the same time undergo major improvements in both physics accuracy and computational performance. Calorimeter beam tests involve various particles at different energy scales and represent ideal benchmarks for the physics modeling and assessment of Monte Carlo tools for radiation–matter simulation. We present the first results of a broad validation campaign on test beam data targeting data deployment and preservation with geant-val, the Geant4 validation and testing suite. We investigate the Geant4 capability to model the calorimeter response, energy fluctuations, and shower shapes using data from the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter and the CALICE silicon-tungsten calorimeter. The evolution over the recent years of the recommended set of physics processes for high-energy physics applications is outlined and compared to alternative models for hadronic interactions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 6381 KiB  
Article
R&D of a Novel High Granularity Crystal Electromagnetic Calorimeter
by Baohua Qi and Yong Liu
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030040 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Future electron-positron collider experiments aim at the precise measurement of the Higgs boson, electroweak physics and the top quark. Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a novel highly granular crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is proposed to address major challenges from jet reconstruction and to [...] Read more.
Future electron-positron collider experiments aim at the precise measurement of the Higgs boson, electroweak physics and the top quark. Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a novel highly granular crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is proposed to address major challenges from jet reconstruction and to achieve the optimal EM energy resolution of around 2–3%/E(GeV) with the homogeneous structure. Extensive R&D efforts have been carried out to evaluate the requirements and potentials of the crystal calorimeter concept from sensitive detection units to a full sub-detector system. The requirements on crystal candidates, photon sensors as well as readout electronics are parameterized and quantified in Geant4 full simulation. Experiments including characterizations of crystals and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are performed to validate and improve the simulation results. The physics performance of the crystal ECAL is been studied with the particle flow algorithm “ArborPFA” which is also being optimized. Furthermore, a small-scale detector module with a crystal matrix and SiPM arrays is under development for future beam tests to study the performance for EM showers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 3187 KiB  
Article
Reconstruction of 3D Shower Shape with the Dual-Readout Calorimeter
by Sanghyun Ko, Hwidong Yoo and Seungkyu Ha
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030039 - 13 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1383
Abstract
The dual-readout calorimeter has two channels, Cherenkov and scintillation, that measure the fraction of an electromagnetic (EM) component within a shower by using different responses of each channel to the EM and hadronic component. It can measure the energy of EM and hadronic [...] Read more.
The dual-readout calorimeter has two channels, Cherenkov and scintillation, that measure the fraction of an electromagnetic (EM) component within a shower by using different responses of each channel to the EM and hadronic component. It can measure the energy of EM and hadronic shower simultaneously—its concept inspired the integrated design for measuring both EM and hadronic showers, which left the task of reconstructing longitudinal shower shapes to the utilization of timing. We explore the possibility of longitudinal shower shape reconstruction using signal processing on silicon photomultiplier timing, and 3D shower shape by combining lateral and longitudinal information. We present a comparison between Monte Carlo (MC) and reconstructed longitudinal shower shapes from the simulation, and the application of 3D shower shapes associated with the dual nature of the calorimeter to identify electrons, hadrons, and hadronic punch-thru or muons. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 7760 KiB  
Article
ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Commissioning for the LHC Run 3
by Alessandra Betti
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030037 - 08 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1357
Abstract
The Liquid Argon Calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9 [...] Read more.
The Liquid Argon Calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9. They also provide inputs to the first level of the ATLAS trigger. After a successful period of data taking during the LHC Run 2 between 2015 and 2018, the ATLAS detector entered into a long period of shutdown. In 2022, the LHC will restart and the Run 3 period should see an increase of luminosity and pile-up of up to 80 interactions per bunch crossing. To cope with these harsher conditions, a new trigger readout path has been installed during the long shutdown. This new path should significantly improve the triggering performance on electromagnetic objects. This will be achieved by increasing the granularity of the objects available at trigger level by up to a factor of ten. The installation of this new trigger readout chain also required the update of the legacy system. More than 1500 boards of the precision readout have been extracted from the ATLAS pit, refurbished and re-installed. The legacy analog trigger readout, which will remain during the LHC Run 3 as a backup of the new digital trigger system, has also been updated. For the new system, 124 new on-detector boards have been added. Those boards that are operating in a radiative environment are digitizing the calorimeter trigger signals at 40 MHz. The digital signal is sent to the off-detector system and processed online to provide the measured energy value for each unit of readout. In total up to 31 Tbps are analyzed by the processing system and more than 62Tbps are generated for downstream reconstruction. To minimize the triggering latency the processing system had to be installed underground. The limited available space imposed a very compact hardware structure. To achieve a compact system, large FPGAs with high throughput have been mounted on ATCA mezzanines cards. In total, no more than three ATCA shelves are used to process the signal from approximately 34,000 channels. Given that modern technologies have been used compared to the previous system, all the monitoring and control infrastructure is being adapted and commissioned as well. This contribution presents the challenges of the installation, the commissioning and the milestones still to be completed towards the full operation of both the legacy and the new readout paths for the LHC Run 3. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 4462 KiB  
Article
Development of Novel Designs of Resistive Plate Chambers
by Burak Bilki, Yasar Onel, Jose Repond, Kutlu Kagan Sahbaz, Mehmet Tosun and Lei Xia
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030035 - 07 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are a key active media of the muon systems of current and future collider experiments as well as the CALICE (semi-)digital hadron calorimeter. The outstanding issues with RPCs can be listed as the loss of efficiency for the detection [...] Read more.
Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are a key active media of the muon systems of current and future collider experiments as well as the CALICE (semi-)digital hadron calorimeter. The outstanding issues with RPCs can be listed as the loss of efficiency for the detection of particles when subjected to high particle fluxes and the limitations associated with the common RPC gases. We developed novel RPC designs with: low resistivity glass plates; a single resistive plate; and a single resistive plate and a special anode plate coated with high secondary electron emission yield material. The cosmic and beam tests confirmed the viability of these new approaches for calorimetric applications. The chambers also have improved single-particle response, such as a pad multiplicity close to unity. Here, we report on the construction of various different glass RPC designs and their performance measurements in laboratory tests and with particle beams. We also discuss future test plans, which include the long-term performance tests of the newly developed RPCs, investigation of minimal gas flow chambers, and feasibility study for the large-size chambers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1217 KiB  
Article
Performance Study of a New Cluster Splitting Algorithm for the Reconstruction of PANDA EMC Data
by Ziyu Zhang, Guang Zhao, Shengsen Sun, Qing Pu, Chunxiu Liu, Chunxu Yu, Dong Liu, Hang Qi, Guangshun Huang, Tobias Stockmanns, Beijiang Liu, Fei Wang, Yitong Zhang and Xiaoyan Shen
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030034 - 05 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
For high-energy π0 mesons, the angle between the two final-state photons decreases with the increase in the energy of the π0, which enhances the probability of overlapping electromagnetic showers. The performance of the cluster splitting algorithm in the EMC reconstruction [...] Read more.
For high-energy π0 mesons, the angle between the two final-state photons decreases with the increase in the energy of the π0, which enhances the probability of overlapping electromagnetic showers. The performance of the cluster splitting algorithm in the EMC reconstruction is crucial for the mass resolution measurement of π0 with high energy. The cluster splitting algorithm is based on the theoretical lateral distribution of the electromagnetic showers. A simple implementation of the lateral distribution can be described as a (multi-)exponential function. In a realistic electromagnetic calorimeter, considering the granularity of the detector, the measured energy in a cell is actually the integral of the theoretical energy deposition, which deviates from the exponential function. Based on the simulation of the barrel EMC in the P¯ANDA experiment, a cluster splitting algorithm with a new lateral energy development function is developed. The energy resolution of overlapping showers with high energy has been improved. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1204 KiB  
Article
Photodiode Read-Out System for the Calorimeter of the Herd Experiment
by Pietro Betti, Oscar Adriani, Matias Antonelli, Yonglin Bai, Xiaohong Bai, Tianwei Bao, Eugenio Berti, Lorenzo Bonechi, Massimo Bongi, Valter Bonvicini, Sergio Bottai, Weiwei Cao, Jorge Casaus, Zhen Chen, Xingzhu Cui, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Sebastiano Detti, Yongwei Dong, Noemi Finetti, Valerio Formato, Miguel Angel Velasco Frutos, Jiarui Gao, Xiaozhen Liang, Ran Li, Xin Liu, Linwei Lyu, Gustavo Martinez, Nicola Mori, Jesus Marin Munoz, Lorenzo Pacini, Paolo Papini, Cecilia Pizzolotto, Zheng Quan, JunJun Qin, Dalian Shi, Oleksandr Starodubtsev, Zhicheng Tang, Alessio Tiberio, Valerio Vagelli, Elena Vannuccini, Bo Wang, Junjing Wang, Le Wang, Ruijie Wang, Gianluigi Zampa, Nicola Zampa, Zhigang Wang, Ming Xu, Li Zhang and Jinkun Zhengadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030033 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1597
Abstract
HERD is a future experiment for the direct detection of high energy cosmic rays. The instrument is based on a calorimeter optimized not only for a good energy resolution but also for a large acceptance. Each crystal composing the calorimeter is equipped with [...] Read more.
HERD is a future experiment for the direct detection of high energy cosmic rays. The instrument is based on a calorimeter optimized not only for a good energy resolution but also for a large acceptance. Each crystal composing the calorimeter is equipped with two read-out systems: one based on wavelength-shifting fibers and the other based on two photodiodes with different active areas assembled in a monolithic package. In this paper, we describe the photodiode read-out system, focusing on experimental requirements, design and estimated performances. Finally, we show how these features lead to the flight model project of the photodiode read-out system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2089 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Highly Granular Hadronic Calorimeter with Scintillating Glass Tiles
by Dejing Du and Yong Liu
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030032 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a new hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) with scintillating glass tiles is proposed to address major challenges from precision measurements of jets at the future lepton colliders, such as the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC). Tiles of high-density scintillating glass, [...] Read more.
Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a new hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) with scintillating glass tiles is proposed to address major challenges from precision measurements of jets at the future lepton colliders, such as the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC). Tiles of high-density scintillating glass, with a high-energy sampling fraction, can significantly improve the hadronic energy resolution in the low-energy region (typically below 10 GeV for major jet components at Higgs factories). The hadronic energy resolution of single hadrons and the effects of key parameters of scintillating glass have been evaluated in the Geant4 full simulation, followed by the physics benchmark studies on the Higgs boson with jets in the final state. R&D efforts of scintillating glass materials are ongoing within a dedicated collaboration since 2021 with the aim to achieve a high light yield, a high density, and a low cost. Measurements have been performed for the first batches of scintillating glass samples including the light yield, emission and scintillation spectra, scintillation decay times, and cosmic responses. An optical simulation model of a single scintillating glass tile has been established to provide guidance in the development of scintillating glass. Highlights of the expected detector performance and the latest scintillating glass developments are presented in this contribution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 4455 KiB  
Article
FASER’s Electromagnetic Calorimeter Test Beam Studies
by Charlotte Cavanagh
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030031 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
FASER, or the Forward Search Experiment, is a new experiment at CERN designed to complement the LHC’s ongoing physics program, extending its discovery potential to light and weakly interacting particles that may be produced copiously at the LHC in the far-forward region. New [...] Read more.
FASER, or the Forward Search Experiment, is a new experiment at CERN designed to complement the LHC’s ongoing physics program, extending its discovery potential to light and weakly interacting particles that may be produced copiously at the LHC in the far-forward region. New particles targeted by FASER, such as long-lived dark photons or axion-like particles, are characterised by a signature with two oppositely charged tracks or two photons in the multi-TeV range that emanate from a common vertex inside the detector. The full detector was successfully installed in March 2021 in an LHC side tunnel 480 m downstream from the interaction point in the ATLAS detector. FASER is planned to be operational for LHC Run 3. The experiment is composed of a silicon-strip tracking-based spectrometer using three dipole magnets with a 20 cm aperture, supplemented by four scintillator stations and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The FASER electromagnetic calorimeter is constructed from four spare LHCb calorimeter modules. The modules are of the Shashlik type with interleaved scintillator and lead plates that result in 25 radiation lengths and 1% energy resolution for TeV electromagnetic showers. In 2021, a test beam campaign was carried out using one of the CERN SPS beam lines to set up the calibration of the FASER calorimeter system in preparation for physics data taking. The relative calorimeter response to electrons with energies between 10 and 300 GeV, as well as high energy muons and pions, has been measured under various high voltage settings and beam positions. The measured calorimeter resolution, energy calibration, and particle identification capabilities are presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1261 KiB  
Article
Energy Reconstruction and Calibration of the MicroBooNE LArTPC
by Richard Diurba
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030030 - 29 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
MicroBooNE uses a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) for simultaneous tracking and calorimetry. Neutrino oscillation experiments plan to use LArTPCs over the next several decades. A challenge for these current and future experiments lies in characterizing detector performance and reconstruction capabilities with [...] Read more.
MicroBooNE uses a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) for simultaneous tracking and calorimetry. Neutrino oscillation experiments plan to use LArTPCs over the next several decades. A challenge for these current and future experiments lies in characterizing detector performance and reconstruction capabilities with thorough associated systematic uncertainties. This work includes updates related to LArTPC detector physics challenges by reviewing MicroBooNE’s recent publications on calorimetry and its applications. Highlights include discussions on signal processing, calorimetric calibration, and particle identification. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2296 KiB  
Article
Upgrade of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC
by Charlotte Cooke
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030029 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosities of up to 7.5×1034 cm2s1 and 4500 fb1, respectively, from 2029 onwards. To cope with [...] Read more.
The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosities of up to 7.5×1034 cm2s1 and 4500 fb1, respectively, from 2029 onwards. To cope with the extreme conditions of up to 200 collisions per bunch crossing, and increased data rates, the on- and off-detector electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) will be replaced. A dual gain trans-impedance amplifier and an ASIC providing two 160 MHz ADC channels, gain selection, and data compression will be used. The lead tungstate crystals and avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in the current ECAL will keep performing well and will therefore be maintained. The noise increase in the APDs, due to radiation-induced dark currents, will be minimised by reducing the ECAL operating temperature from 18 °C to around 9 °C. Prototype HL-LHC electronics have been tested and have shown promising results. In two test beam periods using the CERN SPS H4 beamline and an electron beam, the new electronics achieved the target energy resolution and a timing resolution consistent that is consistent with our requirements of 30 ps timing for energies greater than 50 GeV. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 88719 KiB  
Article
Development of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics and Machine Learning for the HL-LHC
by Julia Gonski and on behalf of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030028 - 26 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1685
Abstract
The High Luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) starting in 2029 promises exciting discovery potential, giving unprecedented sensitivity to key new physics models and precise characterization of the Higgs boson. In order to maintain current performance in this challenging environment, the [...] Read more.
The High Luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) starting in 2029 promises exciting discovery potential, giving unprecedented sensitivity to key new physics models and precise characterization of the Higgs boson. In order to maintain current performance in this challenging environment, the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter will get entirely new electronics that reads out the entire detector with full precision at the LHC frequency of 40 MHz, and provides high granularity trigger information, while withstanding high operational radiation doses. New results will be presented from both front-end and off-detector component development, along with highlights from machine learning applications. The future steps and outlook of the project will be discussed, with an eye towards installation in the ATLAS cavern beginning in 2026. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1819 KiB  
Article
RADiCAL—Precision Timing, Ultracompact, Radiation-Hard Electromagnetic Calorimetry
by Thomas Anderson, Thomas Barbera, Bradley Cox, Paul Debbins, Maxwell Dubnowski, Kiva Ford, Maxwell Herrmann, Chen Hu, Colin Jessop, Ohannes Kamer-Koseyan, Alexander Ledovskoy, Yasar Onel, Carlos Perez-Lara, Randal Ruchti, Daniel Ruggiero, Daniel Smith, Mark Vigneault, Yuyi Wan, Mitchell Wayne, James Wetzel, Liyuan Zhang and Ren-Yuan Zhuadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030027 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
To address the challenges of providing high-performance calorimetry in future hadron collider experiments under conditions of high luminosity and high radiation (FCC-hh environments), we conducted R&D on advanced calorimetry techniques suitable for such operation, based on scintillation and wavelength-shifting technologies and photosensor (SiPM [...] Read more.
To address the challenges of providing high-performance calorimetry in future hadron collider experiments under conditions of high luminosity and high radiation (FCC-hh environments), we conducted R&D on advanced calorimetry techniques suitable for such operation, based on scintillation and wavelength-shifting technologies and photosensor (SiPM and SiPM-like) technology. In particular, we focused our attention on ultra-compact radiation-hard EM calorimeters based on modular structures (RADiCAL modules) consisting of alternating layers of the very dense absorber and scintillating plates, read out via radiation hard wavelength shifting (WLS) solid fiber or capillary elements to photosensors positioned either proximately or remotely, depending upon their radiation tolerance. RADiCAL modules provide the capability to measure simultaneously and with high precision the position, energy and timing of EM showers. This paper provides an overview of the instrumentation and photosensor R&D associated with the RADiCAL program. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1025 KiB  
Article
Performance and Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter
by Tomas Davidek
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030025 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1366
Abstract
The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling device is made of steel plates acting as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The wavelength-shifting fibers collect the light from scintillators and carry [...] Read more.
The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling device is made of steel plates acting as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The wavelength-shifting fibers collect the light from scintillators and carry it to the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns and stored on detector until a trigger decision is received. The TileCal front-end electronics read out the signals produced by 9852 channels, whose dynamic range covers the interval from 30 MeV to 2 TeV. Each stage of the signal propagation from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. During LHC Run-2, high-momentum isolated muons and isolated hadrons have been used to study and validate the electromagnetic scale and the hadronic response, respectively. The time resolution was studied with multi-jet events. Results of performance studies that address calibration, stability, energy scale, uniformity and time resolution are presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

7 pages, 2530 KiB  
Project Report
TAO—The Taishan Antineutrino Observatory
by Hans Theodor Josef Steiger
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040050 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
The Taishan Antineutrino Observatory (TAO or JUNO-TAO) is a satellite detector for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO). JUNO aims at simultaneously probing the two main frequencies of three-flavor neutrino oscillations, as well as their interference related to the mass ordering, at a [...] Read more.
The Taishan Antineutrino Observatory (TAO or JUNO-TAO) is a satellite detector for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO). JUNO aims at simultaneously probing the two main frequencies of three-flavor neutrino oscillations, as well as their interference related to the mass ordering, at a distance of ~53 km from two powerful nuclear reactor complexes in China. Located near the Taishan-1 reactor, TAO independently measures the antineutrino energy spectrum of the reactor with unprecedented energy resolution. The TAO experiment will realize a neutrino detection rate of about 2000 per day. In order to achieve its goals, TAO is relying on cutting-edge technology, both in photosensor and liquid scintillator (LS) development which is expected to have an impact on future neutrino and Dark Matter detectors. In this paper, the design of the TAO detector with a special focus on calorimetry is discussed. In addition, an overview of the progress currently being made in the R&D for a photosensor and LS technology in the frame of the TAO project will be presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 893 KiB  
Project Report
Machine Learning Techniques for Calorimetry
by Polina Simkina
Instruments 2022, 6(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6040047 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general purpose detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the products of proton–proton collisions at the center of mass energy up to 13.6 TeV are reconstructed. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is one [...] Read more.
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general purpose detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the products of proton–proton collisions at the center of mass energy up to 13.6 TeV are reconstructed. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is one of the crucial components of the CMS since it reconstructs the energies and positions of electrons and photons. Even though several Machine Learning (ML) algorithms have been already used for calorimetry, with the constant advancement of the field, more and more sophisticated techniques have become available, which can be beneficial for object reconstruction with calorimeters. In this paper, we present two novel ML algorithms for object reconstruction with the ECAL that are based on graph neural networks (GNNs). The new approaches show significant improvements compared to the current algorithms used in CMS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 3906 KiB  
Project Report
Calorimetry in a Neutrino Observatory: The JUNO Experiment
by Beatrice Jelmini
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030026 - 24 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1255
Abstract
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose experiment under construction in southern China; detector completion is expected in 2023. JUNO is a homogeneous calorimeter consisting of a target mass of 20 kt of an organic liquid scintillator, aiming to detect antineutrinos [...] Read more.
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose experiment under construction in southern China; detector completion is expected in 2023. JUNO is a homogeneous calorimeter consisting of a target mass of 20 kt of an organic liquid scintillator, aiming to detect antineutrinos from reactors to investigate the neutrino oscillation mechanism. The scintillation and Cerenkov light emitted after the interaction of antineutrinos with the liquid scintillator is seen by a compound system of 20 inch large PMTs and 3 inch small PMTs, with a total photo-coverage of 78%. A dual-calorimetry technique is developed based on the presence of the two independent photosensor systems which are characterized by different average light level regimes, resulting in different dynamic ranges. Thanks to this novel technique, an unprecedented high light yield, and in combination with a comprehensive multiple-source and multi-position calibration campaign, JUNO is expected to reach energy-related systematic uncertainties below 1% and an effective energy resolution of 3% at 1%, required for the neutrino oscillation analysis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop