New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides

A special issue of Inorganics (ISSN 2304-6740). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Solid-State Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 30500

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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science, University of Milano-Bicocca, INSTM, Via R. Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; catalysis; cement and concrete; ceramics; composites; coatings; copper; energy; iron oxides; magnetic materials; nanomaterials; photocatalysis; porous materials; sol-gel; surface functionalization; templating
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, inorganic oxidic nanomaterials have been extensively investigated for their outstanding properties that allow their use within a large variety of fields of interest, ranging from (photo)catalysis to the development of functional nanocomposites. Nanoscopic metal (eventually mixed) oxides are often fabricated following soft-chemistry approaches (e.g., sol-gel processes), characterized by the possibility of favouring specific morphologies, particle dimensions, and surface porosities through different synthetic methods and templating processes. In this context, surface functionalities and reactivity play a major role in the determination of nanomaterials’ final properties. For this reason, further surface functionalization with specific chemical moieties is often recommended to extend their field of application. This Special Issue aims to extend the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the synthesis and templating of inorganic oxidic nanomaterials, as well as in their surface functionalization and reactivity. Additionally, this Special Issue aims to increase the knowledge on the latest advances of these systems in (photo)catalysis; environmental clean-up processes; energy storage; controlled transport and/or release; biomedicine; sensing; and the development of smart-materials, stimuli-responsive materials, and nanocomposites. Nanomaterials of interest include (but are not limited to): silica, alumina, titania, zirconia, zinc oxide, aluminosilicates (e.g., clays, zeolites), iron oxides, perovskites and titanates, rare earth oxides, and composites. Furthermore, particular attention will be dedicated toward studies describing alternative ecofriendly preparation methods.

Therefore, I invite you to contribute original, high-quality papers and review articles discussing significant achievements in the synthesis, characterization, structure-property relationship comprehension, and (recent) advanced applications involving inorganic oxidic nanomaterials.

Dr. Roberto Nisticò
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Inorganics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • adsorption
  • aerogels
  • biomedicine
  • catalysis
  • controlled transport and/or release
  • drug-delivery systems
  • energy storage
  • environmental remediation
  • inorganic chemistry
  • magnetic materials
  • mesoporous materials
  • metal oxides
  • microporous materials
  • mixed-metal oxides
  • monoliths
  • nanocomposites
  • photocatalysis
  • sensing
  • smart materials
  • sol-gel
  • solid-state characterization
  • stimuli-responsive materials
  • surface functionalization
  • templating processes

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

5 pages, 216 KiB  
Editorial
New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides
by Roberto Nisticò
Inorganics 2023, 11(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics11030130 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Inorganic nanostructured (metal) oxides are a large class of inorganic materials extensively investigated for their unique and outstanding properties that allow for their use within a multitude of technological fields of emerging interest, such as (photo)catalysis, environmental remediation processes, energy storage, controlled transport [...] Read more.
Inorganic nanostructured (metal) oxides are a large class of inorganic materials extensively investigated for their unique and outstanding properties that allow for their use within a multitude of technological fields of emerging interest, such as (photo)catalysis, environmental remediation processes, energy storage, controlled transport and/or release of drugs and chemicals, biomedicine, sensing, development of smart materials, stimuli-responsive materials, and nanocomposites [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)

Research

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18 pages, 3646 KiB  
Article
Main Issues in the Synthesis and Testing of Thermocatalytic Ce-Doped SrFeO3 Perovskites for Wastewater Pollutant Removal
by Davide Palma, Francesca Deganello, Leonarda Francesca Liotta, Valeria La Parola, Alessandra Bianco Prevot, Mery Malandrino, Enzo Laurenti, Vittorio Boffa and Giuliana Magnacca
Inorganics 2023, 11(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics11020085 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
The effect of the synthesis and processing parameters on the thermocatalytic performance of Ce-doped SrFeO3 inorganic perovskites was investigated to improve the reproducibility and reliability of the synthetic methodology and of the testing procedure. A structural, surface and redox characterization was performed [...] Read more.
The effect of the synthesis and processing parameters on the thermocatalytic performance of Ce-doped SrFeO3 inorganic perovskites was investigated to improve the reproducibility and reliability of the synthetic methodology and of the testing procedure. A structural, surface and redox characterization was performed to check the extent of variability in the chemical–physical properties of the prepared materials, revealing that a strict control of the synthesis parameters is indeed crucial to optimize the thermocatalytic properties of Ce-doped SrFeO3 inorganic perovskites. The thermocatalytic tests, aimed to degrade organic pollutants in water, were performed using Orange II and Bisphenol A as target compounds, in view of a later technological application. The main issues in the synthesis and testing of Ce-doped SrFeO3 perovskite thermocatalysts are highlighted and described, giving specific instructions for the resolution of each of them. A limited number of prepared materials showed an efficient thermocatalytic effect, indicating that a full gelification of the sol, an overstoichiometric reducer-to-oxidizer ratio, a nominal cerium content of 15 mol%, slightly higher than its solubility limit (i.e., 14 mol%), a pH of 6 and a thermal treatment at 800 °C/2 h are the best synthesis conditions to obtain an effective Ce-doped SrFeO3 perovskite. Regarding the testing conditions, the best procedure is to follow the degradation reaction without any preconditioning with the pollutant at room temperature. The severe leaching of the active perovskite phase during tests conducted at acidic pH is discussed. Briefly, we suggest confining the application of these materials to a limited pH range. Variability between thermocatalysts prepared in two different laboratories was also checked. The issues discussed and the proposed solutions overcome some of the obstacles to achieving a successful scale up of the synthesis process. Our results were favorable in comparison to those in the literature, and our approach can be successfully extended to other perovskite catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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13 pages, 6188 KiB  
Article
Application of Biobased Substances in the Synthesis of Nanostructured Magnetic Core-Shell Materials
by Marcos E. Peralta, Alejandro Koffman-Frischknecht, M. Sergio Moreno, Daniel O. Mártire and Luciano Carlos
Inorganics 2023, 11(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics11010046 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
We propose here a novel green synthesis route of core-shell magnetic nanomaterials based on the polyol method, which uses bio-based substances (BBS) derived from biowaste, as stabilizer and directing agent. First, we studied the effect of BBS concentration on the size, morphology, and [...] Read more.
We propose here a novel green synthesis route of core-shell magnetic nanomaterials based on the polyol method, which uses bio-based substances (BBS) derived from biowaste, as stabilizer and directing agent. First, we studied the effect of BBS concentration on the size, morphology, and composition of magnetic iron oxides nanoparticles obtained in the presence of BBS via the polyol synthesis method (MBBS). Then, as a proof of concept, we further coated MBBS with mesoporous silica (MBBS@mSiO2) or titanium dioxide (MBBS@TiO2) to obtain magnetic nanostructured core-shell materials. All the materials were deeply characterized with diverse physicochemical techniques. Results showed that both the size of the nanocrystals and their aggregation strongly depend on the BBS concentration used in the synthesis: the higher the concentration of BBS, the smaller the sizes of the iron oxide nanoparticles. On the other hand, the as-prepared magnetic core-shell nanomaterials were applied with good performance in different systems. In particular, MBBS@SiO2 showed to be an excellent nanocarrier of ibuprofen and successful adsorbent of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. MBBS@TiO2 was capable of degrading MB with the same efficiency of pristine TiO2. These excellent results encourage the use of bio-based substances in different types of synthesis methods since they could reduce the fabrication costs and the environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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15 pages, 3604 KiB  
Article
Uptake of BF Dye from the Aqueous Phase by CaO-g-C3N4 Nanosorbent: Construction, Descriptions, and Recyclability
by Ridha Ben Said, Seyfeddine Rahali, Mohamed Ali Ben Aissa, Abuzar Albadri and Abueliz Modwi
Inorganics 2023, 11(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics11010044 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Removing organic dyes from contaminated wastewater resulting from industrial effluents with a cost-effective approach addresses a major global challenge. The adsorption technique onto carbon-based materials and metal oxide is one of the most effective dye removal procedures. The current work aimed to evaluate [...] Read more.
Removing organic dyes from contaminated wastewater resulting from industrial effluents with a cost-effective approach addresses a major global challenge. The adsorption technique onto carbon-based materials and metal oxide is one of the most effective dye removal procedures. The current work aimed to evaluate the application of calcium oxide-doped carbon nitride nanostructures (CaO-g-C3N4) to eliminate basic fuchsine dyes (BF) from wastewater. CaO-g-C3N4 nanosorbent were obtained via ultrasonication and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, TEM, and BET. The TEM analysis reveals 2D nanosheet-like nanoparticle architectures with a high specific surface area (37.31 m2/g) for the as-fabricated CaO-g-C3N4 nanosorbent. The adsorption results demonstrated that the variation of the dye concentration impacted the elimination of BF by CaO-C3N4 while no effect of pH on the removal of BF was observed. Freundlich isotherm and Pseudo-First-order adsorption kinetics models best fitted BF adsorption onto CaO-g-C3N4. The highest adsorption capacity of CaO-g-C3N4 for BF was determined to be 813 mg. g−1. The adsorption mechanism of BF is related to the π-π stacking bridging and hydrogen bond, as demonstrated by the FTIR study. CaO-g-C3N4 nanostructures may be easily recovered from solution and were effectively employed for BF elimination in at least four continuous cycles. The fabricated CaO-g-C3N4 adsorbent display excellent BF adsorption capacity and can be used as a potential sorbent in wastewater purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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12 pages, 7680 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Structure of ZnO-Decorated Graphitic Carbon Nitride (g-C3N4) with Improved Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light
by Maria I. Chebanenko, Sofia M. Tikhanova, Vladimir N. Nevedomskiy and Vadim I. Popkov
Inorganics 2022, 10(12), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10120249 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
The volume of dye production in the chemical industry is growing rapidly every year. Given the global importance of clean water resources, new wastewater treatment solutions are required. Utilizing photocatalysis by harvesting solar energy represents a facile and promising solution for removing dangerous [...] Read more.
The volume of dye production in the chemical industry is growing rapidly every year. Given the global importance of clean water resources, new wastewater treatment solutions are required. Utilizing photocatalysis by harvesting solar energy represents a facile and promising solution for removing dangerous pollutants. This study reports the possibility of increasing the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 by creating nanocomposites with ZnO. Exfoliated g-C3N4/ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by heat treatment of urea and subsequent ultrasonic exfoliation of the colloidal solution by introducing zinc acetate. The uniformity of the distribution of ZnO nanoparticles is confirmed by the method of elemental mapping. The obtained X-ray diffractograms of the obtained nanocomposites show typical X-ray reflections for g-C3N4 and ZnO. It was found that the introduction of oxide into g-C3N4 leads to an increase in the specific surface area values due to the developed ZnO surface. The maximum value of the specific surface area was obtained for a sample containing 7.5% ZnO and was 75.2 m2/g. The g-C3N4/7.5% ZnO sample also demonstrated increased photocatalytic activity during the decomposition of methylene blue under the influence of visible light, which led to a twofold increase in the reaction rate compared to initial g-C3N4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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10 pages, 7557 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of a Potential Electrodeposited Nanocomposite for Dental Applications
by Chun-Wei Chang, Chen-Han Tsou, Bai-Hung Huang, Kuo-Sheng Hung, Yung-Chieh Cho, Takashi Saito, Chi-Hsun Tsai, Chia-Chien Hsieh, Chung-Ming Liu and Wen-Chien Lan
Inorganics 2022, 10(10), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10100165 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
In the present study, a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe matrix with reinforced TiO2 nanoparticles as a functional nanocomposite material was fabricated by pulsed current electroforming in UV-LIGA (lithography, electroplating, and molding). The influences of TiO2 nanoparticles on the Ni-Fe nanocomposite deposition were also [...] Read more.
In the present study, a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe matrix with reinforced TiO2 nanoparticles as a functional nanocomposite material was fabricated by pulsed current electroforming in UV-LIGA (lithography, electroplating, and molding). The influences of TiO2 nanoparticles on the Ni-Fe nanocomposite deposition were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and in vitro cytotoxicity assay. It was found that the Ni-Fe nanocomposite with 5 wt.% TiO2 nanoparticles showed a smooth surface and better dispersion property. When the Ni-Fe nanocomposite is combined with 20 wt.% TiO2, it resulted in congeries of TiO2 nanoparticles. In addition, TiO2 nanoparticles possessed better dispersion properties as performed in pulse current electrodeposition. The microstructure of the electrodeposited Ni-Fe-TiO2 nanocomposite was a FeNi3 phase containing anatase nano-TiO2. Moreover, the electrodeposited Ni-Fe-5 wt.% TiO2 nanocomposite exhibited a smooth surface and structural integrity. Cytotoxicity assay results also proved that the Ni-Fe nanocomposite with different concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles had good biocompatibility. Therefore, the optimization of pulse current electroforming parameters was successfully applied to fabricate the Ni-Fe-TiO2 nanocomposite, and thus could be used as an endodontic file material for dental applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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13 pages, 2835 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Sorption Affinity of Low Specific Activity 99Mo on Different Metal Oxide Nanoparticles
by Mohamed F. Nawar, Alaa F. El-Daoushy, Ahmed Ashry, Mohamed A. Soliman and Andreas Türler
Inorganics 2022, 10(10), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10100154 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
99Mo/99mTc generators are mainly produced from 99Mo of high specific activity generated from the fission of 235U. Such a method raises proliferation concerns. Alternative methods suggested the use of low specific activity (LSA) 99Mo to produce 99m [...] Read more.
99Mo/99mTc generators are mainly produced from 99Mo of high specific activity generated from the fission of 235U. Such a method raises proliferation concerns. Alternative methods suggested the use of low specific activity (LSA) 99Mo to produce 99mTc generators. However, its applicability is limited due to the low adsorptive capacity of conventional adsorbent materials. This study attempts to investigate the effectiveness of some commercial metal oxides nanoparticles as adsorbents for LSA 99Mo. In a batch equilibration system, we studied the influence of solution pH (from 1–8), contact time, initial Mo concentration (from 50–500 mg∙L−1), and temperature (from 298–333 K). Moreover, equilibrium isotherms and thermodynamic parameters (changes in free energy ΔG0, enthalpy change ΔH0, and entropy ΔS0) were evaluated. The results showed that the optimum pH of adsorption ranges between 2 and 4, and that the equilibrium was attained within the first two minutes. In addition, the adsorption data fit well with the Freundlich isotherm model. The thermodynamic parameters prove that the adsorption of molybdate ions is spontaneous. Furthermore, some investigated adsorbents showed maximum adsorption capacity ranging from 40 ± 2 to 73 ± 1 mg Mo∙g−1. Therefore, this work demonstrates that the materials used exhibit rapid adsorption reactions with LSA 99Mo and higher capacity than conventional alumina (2–20 mg Mo∙g−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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18 pages, 8088 KiB  
Article
Preparation, Microstructural Characterization and Photocatalysis Tests of V5+-Doped TiO2/WO3 Nanocomposites Supported on Electrospun Membranes
by Michel F. G. Pereira, Mayane M. Nascimento, Pedro Henrique N. Cardoso, Carlos Yure B. Oliveira, Ginetton F. Tavares and Evando S. Araújo
Inorganics 2022, 10(9), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10090143 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Metal oxide nanocomposites (MON) have gained significant attention in the literature for the possibility of improving the optical and electronic properties of the hybrid material, compared to its pristine constituent oxides. These superior properties have been observed for TiO2 — based MON, [...] Read more.
Metal oxide nanocomposites (MON) have gained significant attention in the literature for the possibility of improving the optical and electronic properties of the hybrid material, compared to its pristine constituent oxides. These superior properties have been observed for TiO2 — based MON, which exhibit improved structural stability and photoactivity in environmental decontamination processes. In addition, the use of polymer membrane-supported MON is preferable to prevent further aggregation of particles, increase the surface area of the semiconductor in contact with the contaminant, and enable material reuse without considerable efficiency loss. In this work, V5+-doped TiO2/WO3 MON nanostructures were prepared by the sintering process at 500 °C and supported in electrospun fiber membranes for application as photocatalyst devices. Microstructural characterization of the samples was performed by XRD, SEM, EDS, Raman, and DSC techniques. The reflectance spectra showed that the bandgap of the MON was progressively decreased (3.20 to 2.11 eV) with the V5+ ions doping level increase. The fiber-supported MON showed photoactivity for rhodamine B dye degradation using visible light. In addition, the highest photodegradation efficiency was noted for the systems with 5 wt% vanadium oxide dispersed in the fibers (92% dye degradation in 120 min of exposure to the light source), with recyclability of the composite material for use in new photocatalysis cycles. The best results are directly related to the microstructure, lower bandgap and aggregation of metal oxide nanocomposite in the electrospun membrane, compared to the support-free MON. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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14 pages, 2272 KiB  
Article
Changes in Structural, Morphological and Optical Features of Differently Synthetized C3N4-ZnO Heterostructures: An Experimental Approach
by Arianna Actis, Francesca Sacchi, Christos Takidis, Maria Cristina Paganini and Erik Cerrato
Inorganics 2022, 10(8), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10080119 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
C3N4 is an innovative material that has had huge success as a photocatalyst in recent years. More recently, it has been coupled to robust metal oxides to obtain more stable materials. This work is focused on the different synthesis techniques [...] Read more.
C3N4 is an innovative material that has had huge success as a photocatalyst in recent years. More recently, it has been coupled to robust metal oxides to obtain more stable materials. This work is focused on the different synthesis techniques used to prepare bare C3N4 and combined C3N4/ZnO mixed systems. Different precursors, such as pure melamine and cyanuric acid-based supramolecular complexes, were employed for the preparation of the C3N4 material. Moreover, different solvents were also used, demonstrating that the use of water leads to the formation of a more stable heterojunction. Structural (XRD), morphological (FESEM) and optical (UV-vis) measurements underlined the role of the precursors used in the preparation of the materials. A clear trend can be extrapolated from this experimental approach involving different intimate contacts between the two C3N4 and ZnO phases, strictly connected to the particular preparation method adopted. The use of the supramolecular complexes for the preparation of C3N4 leads to a tighter association between the two phases at the heterojunction, resulting in much higher visible light harvesting (connected to lower band gap values). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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12 pages, 1885 KiB  
Article
Sacrificial Zinc Oxide Strategy-Enhanced Mesoporosity in MIL-53-Derived Iron–Carbon Composite for Methylene Blue Adsorption
by Sander Dekyvere, Mohamed Elhousseini Hilal, Somboon Chaemchuen, Serge Zhuiykov and Francis Verpoort
Inorganics 2022, 10(5), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10050059 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2468
Abstract
MOF-derived carbon-based materials have attracted widespread attention due to their relatively large surface area, morphology, and their stability in water. Considering these advantages, these materials present themselves as excellent adsorbents. In this work, a novel method was designed for the fabrication of a [...] Read more.
MOF-derived carbon-based materials have attracted widespread attention due to their relatively large surface area, morphology, and their stability in water. Considering these advantages, these materials present themselves as excellent adsorbents. In this work, a novel method was designed for the fabrication of a nano zero-valent-iron (nZVI) carbon composite. The utilization of zinc oxide nanorods (ZnONRs) in the role of sacrificial consumable nuclei for the synthesis of MIL-53 sacrificial zinc oxide nanorods (MIL-53-SNR) and the subsequent pyrolysis at 700 °C in the inert atmosphere led to a graphitic-supported nZVI material (Fe-C-SNR). Fe-C-SNR was compared with a commercial zinc oxide bulk (MIL-53-SB) and with a pristine MIL-53. By virtue of the ZnONRs, Fe-C-SNR exhibited a greatly improved mesoporous structure. Consequently, the pyrolyzed materials were applied as adsorbents for methylene blue. Fe-C-SNR’s performance increased to more than double of the pyrolyzed MIL-53 (Fe-C), with a remarkably fast adsorption time (10 min) for a concentration of 10 mg L−1 with only 200 mg L−1 adsorbent required. This functional composite also displayed exceptional recyclability; after ten complete cycles, Fe-C-SNR was still capable of completely adsorbing the methylene blue. The utilization of ZnONRs proves itself advantageous and could further be extended to other MOFs for a wide range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

32 pages, 5390 KiB  
Review
Inorganic Finishing for Textile Fabrics: Recent Advances in Wear-Resistant, UV Protection and Antimicrobial Treatments
by Silvia Sfameni, Mariam Hadhri, Giulia Rando, Dario Drommi, Giuseppe Rosace, Valentina Trovato and Maria Rosaria Plutino
Inorganics 2023, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics11010019 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3811
Abstract
The surface modification of textile fabrics and therefore, the development of advanced textile materials featuring specific implemented and new properties, such as improved durability and resistance, is increasingly in demand from modern society and end-users. In this regard, the sol–gel technique has shown [...] Read more.
The surface modification of textile fabrics and therefore, the development of advanced textile materials featuring specific implemented and new properties, such as improved durability and resistance, is increasingly in demand from modern society and end-users. In this regard, the sol–gel technique has shown to be an innovative and convenient synthetic route for developing functional sol–gel coatings useful for the protection of textile materials. Compared with the conventional textile finishing process, this technique is characterized by several advantages, such as the environmentally friendly approaches based on one-step applications and low concentration of non-hazardous chemicals. The sol–gel method, starting from inorganic metal alkoxides or metal salts, leads to inorganic sols containing particles that enable a chemical or physical modification of fiber surfaces, giving rise to final multifunctional properties of treated textile fabrics. This review considered the recent developments in the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles and nanosols by sol–gel approach for improving wear and UV resistance, as well as antibacterial or antimicrobial effects for textile applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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22 pages, 10298 KiB  
Review
Nanostructured Iridium Oxide: State of the Art
by Francesca Scarpelli, Nicolas Godbert, Alessandra Crispini and Iolinda Aiello
Inorganics 2022, 10(8), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10080115 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3803
Abstract
Iridium Oxide (IrO2) is a metal oxide with a rutile crystalline structure, analogous to the TiO2 rutile polymorph. Unlike other oxides of transition metals, IrO2 shows a metallic type conductivity and displays a low surface work function. IrO2 [...] Read more.
Iridium Oxide (IrO2) is a metal oxide with a rutile crystalline structure, analogous to the TiO2 rutile polymorph. Unlike other oxides of transition metals, IrO2 shows a metallic type conductivity and displays a low surface work function. IrO2 is also characterized by a high chemical stability. These highly desirable properties make IrO2 a rightful candidate for specific applications. Furthermore, IrO2 can be synthesized in the form of a wide variety of nanostructures ranging from nanopowder, nanosheets, nanotubes, nanorods, nanowires, and nanoporous thin films. IrO2 nanostructuration, which allows its attractive intrinsic properties to be enhanced, can therefore be exploited according to the pursued application. Indeed, IrO2 nanostructures have shown utility in fields that span from electrocatalysis, electrochromic devices, sensors, fuel cell and supercapacitors. After a brief description of the IrO2 structure and properties, the present review will describe the main employed synthetic methodologies that are followed to prepare selectively the various types of nanostructures, highlighting in each case the advantages brought by the nanostructuration illustrating their performances and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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20 pages, 2340 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Study on the Applications of Clays into Advanced Technologies, with a Particular Attention on Biomedicine and Environmental Remediation
by Roberto Nisticò
Inorganics 2022, 10(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10030040 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3534
Abstract
In recent years, a great interest has arisen around the integration of naturally occurring clays into a plethora of advanced technological applications, quite far from the typical fabrication of traditional ceramics. This “second (technological) life” of clays into fields of emerging interest is [...] Read more.
In recent years, a great interest has arisen around the integration of naturally occurring clays into a plethora of advanced technological applications, quite far from the typical fabrication of traditional ceramics. This “second (technological) life” of clays into fields of emerging interest is mainly due to clays’ peculiar properties, in particular their ability to exchange (capture) ions, their layered structure, surface area and reactivity, and their biocompatibility. Since the maximization of clay performances/exploitations passes through the comprehension of the mechanisms involved, this review aims at providing a useful text that analyzes the main goals reached by clays in different fields coupled with the analysis of the structure-property correlations. After providing an introduction mainly focused on the economic analysis of clays global trading, clays are classified basing on their structural/chemical composition. The main relevant physicochemical properties are discussed (particular attention has been dedicated to the influence of interlayer composition on clay properties). Lastly, a deep analysis of the main relevant nonconventional applications of clays is presented. Several case studies describing the use of clays in biomedicine, environmental remediation, membrane technology, additive manufacturing, and sol-gel processes are presented, and results critically discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances into Nanostructured Oxides)
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