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From Implantation to Birth: Insight into Molecular Melatonin Functions

1
Department of R&D, Lolipharma Srl, 00156 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092802
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Melatonin is a lipophilic hormone synthesized and secreted mainly in the pineal gland, acting as a neuroendocrine transducer of photoperiodic information during the night. In addition to this activity, melatonin has shown an antioxidant function and a key role as regulator of physiological processes related to human reproduction. Melatonin is involved in the normal outcome of pregnancy, beginning with the oocyte quality, continuing with embryo implantation, and finishing with fetal development and parturition. Melatonin has been shown to act directly on several reproductive events, including folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, and corpus luteum (CL) formation. The molecular mechanism of action has been investigated through several studies which provide solid evidence on the connections between maternal melatonin secretion and embryonic and fetal development. Melatonin administration, reducing oxidative stress and directly acting on its membrane receptors, melatonin thyroid hormone receptors (MT1 and MT2), displays effects on the earliest phases of pregnancy and during the whole gestational period. In addition, considering the reported positive effects on the outcomes of compromised pregnancies, melatonin supplementation should be considered as an important tool for supporting fetal development, opening new opportunities for the management of several reproductive and gestational pathologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: melatonin; pregnancy; oocyte quality; embryo implantation; fetal development melatonin; pregnancy; oocyte quality; embryo implantation; fetal development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carlomagno, G.; Minini, M.; Tilotta, M.; Unfer, V. From Implantation to Birth: Insight into Molecular Melatonin Functions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2802. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092802

AMA Style

Carlomagno G, Minini M, Tilotta M, Unfer V. From Implantation to Birth: Insight into Molecular Melatonin Functions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(9):2802. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092802

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Minini, Mirko; Tilotta, Marco; Unfer, Vittorio. 2018. "From Implantation to Birth: Insight into Molecular Melatonin Functions" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 9: 2802. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092802

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