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Special Issue "Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Francesco Moccia

Laboratory of General Physiology, Department of Biology and Biotechnology “Lazzaro Spallanzani”, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Intracellular Ca2+ signals regulate a myriad of cellular functions, ranging from short-term responses, such as excitation–contraction coupling and stimulus–secretion coupling, to long-term processes, such as proliferation, gene expression, differentiation, motility, synaptic plasticity, programmed cell death (or apoptosis) and metabolism. It is, therefore, not surprising that any derangement of the multifaceted Ca2+ toolkit that shapes the elevation in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) may lead to severe pathological disorders, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, heart failure, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), deafness, pancreatitis, hypertension, and so on. An increase in [Ca2+]i is shaped by the concerted interaction among the components of an extremely versatile network of channels, transporters, pumps and buffer that can be uniquely assembled by each cell type to generate intracellular Ca2+ signals with spatio-temporal properties precisely tailored to regulate specific functions. We are witnessing a fascinating period of ground-breaking discoveries in the Ca2+ signalling field, as testified by the identification of the first structural molecular components of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter and permeability transition pore, by the discovery of many unexpected regulators of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, such as p53, PML, and PTEN, and by the evidence that a growing number of pathologies is associated to mutations in Ca2+-permeable channels and/or Ca2+-regulated pathways. I am, therefore, pleased to invite all of you to participate to this Special Issue, "Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases", by presenting your most recent research or ideas about the pathophysiological role of Ca2+. Experimental papers, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries are all welcome.

Dr. Francesco Moccia
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Ca2+ signalling
  • intracellular organelles
  • plasma membrane
  • inositol-1,4,5-receptors
  • ryanodine receptors
  • ionotropic receptors
  • metabotropic receptors
  • TRP channels
  • two-pore channels
  • STIM and Orai

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Automated Intracellular Calcium Profiles Extraction from Endothelial Cells Using Digital Fluorescence Images
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113440
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
Endothelial cells perform a wide variety of fundamental functions for the cardiovascular system, their proliferation and migration being strongly regulated by their intracellular calcium concentration. Hence it is extremely important to carefully measure endothelial calcium signals under different stimuli. A proposal to automate
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Endothelial cells perform a wide variety of fundamental functions for the cardiovascular system, their proliferation and migration being strongly regulated by their intracellular calcium concentration. Hence it is extremely important to carefully measure endothelial calcium signals under different stimuli. A proposal to automate the intracellular calcium profiles extraction from fluorescence image sequences is presented. Digital image processing techniques were combined with a multi-target tracking approach supported by Kalman estimation. The system was tested with image sequences from two different stimuli. The first one was a chemical stimulus, that is, ATP, which caused small movements in the cells trajectories, thereby suggesting that the bath application of the agonist does not generate significant artifacts. The second one was a mechanical stimulus delivered by a glass microelectrode, which caused major changes in cell trajectories. The importance of the tracking block is evidenced since more accurate profiles were extracted, mainly for cells closest to the stimulated area. Two important contributions of this work are the automatic relocation of the region of interest assigned to the cells and the possibility of data extraction from big image sets in efficient and expedite way. The system may adapt to different kind of cell images and may allow the extraction of other useful features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Neuronal Activity-Dependent Activation of Astroglial Calcineurin in Mouse Primary Hippocampal Cultures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102997
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity by generating calcium signals which are implicated in the regulation of astroglial housekeeping functions and/or in modulation of synaptic transmission. We hypothesized that activity-induced calcium signals in astrocytes may activate calcineurin (CaN), a calcium/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase, implicated in
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Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity by generating calcium signals which are implicated in the regulation of astroglial housekeeping functions and/or in modulation of synaptic transmission. We hypothesized that activity-induced calcium signals in astrocytes may activate calcineurin (CaN), a calcium/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase, implicated in neuropathology, but whose role in astroglial physiology remains unclear. We used a lentiviral vector expressing NFAT-EYFP (NY) fluorescent calcineurin sensor and a chemical protocol of LTP induction (cLTP) to show that, in mixed neuron-astrocytic hippocampal cultures, cLTP induced robust NY translocation into astrocyte nuclei and, hence, CaN activation. NY translocation was abolished by the CaN inhibitor FK506, and was not observed in pure astroglial cultures. Using Fura-2 single cell calcium imaging, we found sustained Ca2+ elevations in juxtaneuronal, but not distal, astrocytes. Pharmacological analysis revealed that both the Ca2+ signals and the nuclear NY translocation in astrocytes required NMDA and mGluR5 receptors and depended on extracellular Ca2+ entry via a store-operated mechanism. Our results provide a proof of principle that calcineurin in astrocytes may be activated in response to neuronal activity, thereby delineating a framework for investigating the role of astroglial CaN in the physiology of central nervous system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle ATP-Induced Increase in Intracellular Calcium Levels and Subsequent Activation of mTOR as Regulators of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2804; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092804
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Intracellular signaling pathways, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, are activated by exercise, and promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, the mechanisms by which these pathways are activated by physiological stimulation are not fully understood. Here
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Intracellular signaling pathways, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, are activated by exercise, and promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, the mechanisms by which these pathways are activated by physiological stimulation are not fully understood. Here we show that extracellular ATP activates these pathways by increasing intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i), and promotes muscle hypertrophy. [Ca2+]i in skeletal muscle was transiently increased after exercise. Treatment with ATP induced the increase in [Ca2+]i through the P2Y2 receptor/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor pathway, and subsequent activation of mTOR in vitro. In addition, the ATP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i coordinately activated Erk1/2, p38 MAPK and mTOR that upregulated translation of JunB and interleukin-6. ATP also induced an increase in [Ca2+]i in isolated soleus muscle fibers, but not in extensor digitorum longus muscle fibers. Furthermore, administration of ATP led to muscle hypertrophy in an mTOR- and Ca2+-dependent manner in soleus, but not in plantaris muscle, suggesting that ATP specifically regulated [Ca2+]i in slow muscles. These findings suggest that ATP and [Ca2+]i are important mediators that convert mechanical stimulation into the activation of intracellular signaling pathways, and point to the P2Y receptor as a therapeutic target for treating muscle atrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Phosphatidylethanolamine Induces an Antifibrotic Phenotype in Normal Human Lung Fibroblasts and Ameliorates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092758
Received: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and specific proteins but its role in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases is not established. Herein, we analyzed the effects of three representative phospholipid components, that is, dipalmitoilphosphatidylcoline (DPPC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE),
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Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and specific proteins but its role in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases is not established. Herein, we analyzed the effects of three representative phospholipid components, that is, dipalmitoilphosphatidylcoline (DPPC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), on collagen expression, apoptosis and Ca2+ signaling in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) and probed their effect in an experimental model of lung fibrosis. Collagen expression was measured with RT-PCR, apoptosis was measured by using either the APOPercentage assay kit (Biocolor Ltd., Northern Ireland, UK) or the Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and Ca2+ signaling by conventional epifluorescence imaging. The effect in vivo was tested in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. DPPC and PG did not affect collagen expression, which was downregulated by PE. Furthermore, PE promoted apoptosis and induced a dose-dependent Ca2+ signal. PE-induced Ca2+ signal and apoptosis were both blocked by phospholipase C, endoplasmic reticulum pump and store-operated Ca2+ entry inhibition. PE-induced decrease in collagen expression was attenuated by blocking phospholipase C. Finally, surfactant enriched with PE and PE itself attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and decreased the soluble collagen concentration in mice lungs. This study demonstrates that PE strongly contributes to the surfactant-induced inhibition of collagen expression in NHLF through a Ca2+ signal and that early administration of Beractant enriched with PE diminishes lung fibrosis in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Cell Cycle Regulation by Ca2+-Activated K+ (BK) Channels Modulators in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082442
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
The effects of Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel modulation by Paxilline (PAX) (10−7–10−4 M), Iberiotoxin (IbTX) (0.1–1 × 10−6 M) and Resveratrol (RESV) (1–2 × 10−4 M) on cell cycle and proliferation, AKT1pSer473 phosphorylation, cell
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The effects of Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel modulation by Paxilline (PAX) (10−7–10−4 M), Iberiotoxin (IbTX) (0.1–1 × 10−6 M) and Resveratrol (RESV) (1–2 × 10−4 M) on cell cycle and proliferation, AKT1pSer473 phosphorylation, cell diameter, and BK currents were investigated in SH-SY5Y cells using Operetta-high-content-Imaging-System, ELISA-assay, impedentiometric counting method and patch-clamp technique, respectively. IbTX (4 × 10−7 M), PAX (5 × 10−5 M) and RESV (10−4 M) caused a maximal decrease of the outward K+ current at +30 mV (Vm) of −38.3 ± 10%, −31.9 ± 9% and −43 ± 8%, respectively, which was not reversible following washout and cell depolarization. After 6h of incubation, the drugs concentration dependently reduced proliferation. A maximal reduction of cell proliferation, respectively of −60 ± 8% for RESV (2 × 10−4 M) (IC50 = 1.50 × 10−4 M), −65 ± 6% for IbTX (10−6 M) (IC50 = 5 × 10−7 M), −97 ± 6% for PAX (1 × 10−4 M) (IC50 = 1.06 × 10−5 M) and AKT1pser473 dephosphorylation was observed. PAX induced a G1/G2 accumulation and contraction of the S-phase, reducing the nuclear area and cell diameter. IbTX induced G1 contraction and G2 accumulation reducing diameter. RESV induced G2 accumulation and S contraction reducing diameter. These drugs share common actions leading to a block of the surface membrane BK channels with cell depolarization and calcium influx, AKT1pser473 dephosphorylation by calcium-dependent phosphatase, accumulation in the G2 phase, and a reduction of diameter and proliferation. In addition, the PAX action against nuclear membrane BK channels potentiates its antiproliferative effects with early apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle NR1 and NR3B Composed Intranuclear N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Complexes in Human Melanoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071929
Received: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 30 June 2018
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Abstract
Heterotetrameric N-methyl-d-aspartate type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) are cationic channels primarily permeable for Ca2+. NR1 and NR3 subunits bind glycine, while NR2 subunits bind glutamate for full activation. As NR1 may contain a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that is
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Heterotetrameric N-methyl-d-aspartate type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) are cationic channels primarily permeable for Ca2+. NR1 and NR3 subunits bind glycine, while NR2 subunits bind glutamate for full activation. As NR1 may contain a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that is recognized by importin-α, our aim was to investigate if NMDARs are expressed in the nuclei of melanocytes and melanoma cells. A detailed NMDAR subunit expression pattern was examined by RT-PCRs (reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction), fractionated western blots and immunocytochemistry in human epidermal melanocytes and in human melanoma cell lines A2058, HT199, HT168M1, MEL35/0 and WM35. All kind of NMDAR subunits are expressed as mRNAs in melanocytes, as well as in melanoma cells, while NR2B protein remained undetectable in any cell type. Western blots proved the exclusive presence of NR1 and NR3B in nuclear fractions and immunocytochemistry confirmed NR1-NR3B colocalization inside the nuclei of all melanoma cells. The same phenomenon was not observed in melanocytes. Moreover, protein database analysis revealed a putative NLS in NR3B subunit. Our results support that unusual, NR1-NR3B composed NMDAR complexes are present in the nuclei of melanoma cells. This may indicate a new malignancy-related histopathological feature of melanoma cells and raises the possibility of a glycine-driven, NMDA-related nuclear Ca2+-signalling in these cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle STIM1 Knockout Enhances PDGF-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling through Upregulation of the PDGFR–PLCγ–STIM2 Cascade
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061799
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has mitogenic and chemotactic effects on fibroblasts. An increase in intracellular Ca2+ is one of the first events that occurs following the stimulation of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs). PDGF activates Ca2+ elevation by activating the phospholipase C gamma
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Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has mitogenic and chemotactic effects on fibroblasts. An increase in intracellular Ca2+ is one of the first events that occurs following the stimulation of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs). PDGF activates Ca2+ elevation by activating the phospholipase C gamma (PLCγ)-signaling pathway, resulting in ER Ca2+ release. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is the major form of extracellular Ca2+ influx following depletion of ER Ca2+ stores and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a key molecule in the regulation of SOCE. In this study, wild-type and STIM1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) cells were used to investigate the role of STIM1 in PDGF-induced Ca2+ oscillation and its functions in MEF cells. The unexpected findings suggest that STIM1 knockout enhances PDGFR–PLCγ–STIM2 signaling, which in turn increases PDGF-BB-induced Ca2+ elevation. Enhanced expressions of PDGFRs and PLCγ in STIM1 knockout cells induce Ca2+ release from the ER store through PLCγ–IP3 signaling. Moreover, STIM2 replaces STIM1 to act as the major ER Ca2+ sensor in activating SOCE. However, activation of PDGFRs also activate Akt, ERK, and JNK to regulate cellular functions, such as cell migration. These results suggest that alternative switchable pathways can be observed in cells, which act downstream of the growth factors that regulate Ca2+ signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Beta-Estradiol Regulates Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Estrogen Receptors in Telocytes from Human Myometrium
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051413
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
Voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors are essential players in uterine physiology, and their association with different calcium signaling pathways contributes to healthy and pathological conditions of the uterine myometrium. Among the properties of the various cell subtypes present in human uterine myometrium,
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Voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors are essential players in uterine physiology, and their association with different calcium signaling pathways contributes to healthy and pathological conditions of the uterine myometrium. Among the properties of the various cell subtypes present in human uterine myometrium, there is increasing evidence that calcium oscillations in telocytes (TCs) contribute to contractile activity and pregnancy. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of beta-estradiol on voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from human uterine myometrium and to understand their role in pregnancy. For this purpose, we employed patch-clamp recordings, ratiometric Fura-2-based calcium imaging analysis, and qRT-PCR techniques for the analysis of cultured human myometrial TCs derived from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine samples. In human myometrial TCs from both non-pregnant and pregnant uterus, we evidenced by qRT-PCR the presence of genes encoding for voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav3.1, Ca3.2, Cav3.3, Cav2.1), estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2, GPR30), and nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCOA3). Pregnancy significantly upregulated Cav3.1 and downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, ESR1, ESR2, and NCOA3, compared to the non-pregnant condition. Beta-estradiol treatment (24 h, 10, 100, 1000 nM) downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, Cav1.2, ESR1, ESR2, GRP30, and NCOA3 in TCs from human pregnant uterine myometrium. We also confirmed the functional expression of voltage-gated calcium channels by patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging analysis of TCs from pregnant human myometrium by perfusing with BAY K8644, which induced calcium influx through these channels. Additionally, we demonstrated that beta-estradiol (1000 nM) antagonized the effect of BAY K8644 (2.5 or 5 µM) in the same preparations. In conclusion, we evidenced the presence of voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from non-pregnant and pregnant human uterine myometrium and their gene expression regulation by beta-estradiol in pregnant conditions. Further exploration of the calcium signaling in TCs and its modulation by estrogen hormones will contribute to the understanding of labor and pregnancy mechanisms and to the development of effective strategies to reduce the risk of premature birth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Opposing Roles of Calcium and Intracellular ATP on Gating of the Purinergic P2X2 Receptor Channel
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041161
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
P2X2 receptors (P2X2R) exhibit a slow desensitization during the initial ATP application and a progressive, calcium-dependent increase in rates of desensitization during repetitive stimulation. This pattern is observed in whole-cell recordings from cells expressing recombinant and native P2X2R. However, desensitization is not observed
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P2X2 receptors (P2X2R) exhibit a slow desensitization during the initial ATP application and a progressive, calcium-dependent increase in rates of desensitization during repetitive stimulation. This pattern is observed in whole-cell recordings from cells expressing recombinant and native P2X2R. However, desensitization is not observed in perforated-patched cells and in two-electrode voltage clamped oocytes. Addition of ATP, but not ATPγS or GTP, in the pipette solution also abolishes progressive desensitization, whereas intracellular injection of apyrase facilitates receptor desensitization. Experiments with injection of alkaline phosphatase or addition of staurosporine and ATP in the intracellular solution suggest a role for a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation in receptor desensitization. Mutation of residues that are potential phosphorylation sites identified a critical role of the S363 residue in the intracellular ATP action. These findings indicate that intracellular calcium and ATP have opposing effects on P2X2R gating: calcium allosterically facilitates receptor desensitization and ATP covalently prevents the action of calcium. Single cell measurements further revealed that intracellular calcium stays elevated after washout in P2X2R-expressing cells and the blockade of mitochondrial sodium/calcium exchanger lowers calcium concentrations during washout periods to basal levels, suggesting a role of mitochondria in this process. Therefore, the metabolic state of the cell can influence P2X2R gating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Dandelion Root Extract Induces Intracellular Ca2+ Increases in HEK293 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041112
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H.Wigg.) has been used for centuries as an ethnomedical remedy. Nonetheless, the extensive use of different kinds of dandelion extracts and preparations is based on empirical findings. Some of the tissue-specific effects reported for diverse dandelion extracts may
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Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H.Wigg.) has been used for centuries as an ethnomedical remedy. Nonetheless, the extensive use of different kinds of dandelion extracts and preparations is based on empirical findings. Some of the tissue-specific effects reported for diverse dandelion extracts may result from their action on intracellular signaling cascades. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanolic dandelion root extract (DRE) on Ca2+ signaling in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. The cytotoxicity of increasing doses of crude DRE was determined by the Calcein viability assay. Fura-2 and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based probe ERD1 were used to measure cytoplasmic and intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ levels, respectively. Furthermore, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based probe was used to monitor phospholipase C (PLC) activation (pleckstrin homology [PH]–PLCδ–GFP). DRE (10–400 µg/mL) exposure, in the presence of external Ca2+, dose-dependently increased intracellular Ca2+ levels. The DRE-induced Ca2+ increase was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In addition, DRE caused a significant Ca2+ release from the ER of intact cells and a concomitant translocation of PH–PLCδ–GFP. In conclusion, DRE directly activates both the release of Ca2+ from internal stores and a significant Ca2+ influx at the plasma membrane. The resulting high Ca2+ levels within the cell seem to directly stimulate PLC activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle The Amino-Terminal Domain of GRK5 Inhibits Cardiac Hypertrophy through the Regulation of Calcium-Calmodulin Dependent Transcription Factors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030861
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
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Abstract
We have recently demonstrated that the amino-terminal domain of G protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK) type 5, (GRK5-NT) inhibits NFκB activity in cardiac cells leading to a significant amelioration of LVH. Since GRK5-NT is known to bind calmodulin, this study aimed to evaluate
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We have recently demonstrated that the amino-terminal domain of G protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK) type 5, (GRK5-NT) inhibits NFκB activity in cardiac cells leading to a significant amelioration of LVH. Since GRK5-NT is known to bind calmodulin, this study aimed to evaluate the functional role of GRK5-NT in the regulation of calcium-calmodulin-dependent transcription factors. We found that the overexpression of GRK5-NT in cardiomyoblasts significantly reduced the activation and the nuclear translocation of NFAT and its cofactor GATA-4 in response to phenylephrine (PE). These results were confirmed in vivo in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), in which intramyocardial adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of GRK5-NT reduced both wall thickness and ventricular mass by modulating NFAT and GATA-4 activity. To further verify in vitro the contribution of calmodulin in linking GRK5-NT to the NFAT/GATA-4 pathway, we examined the effects of a mutant of GRK5 (GRK5-NTPB), which is not able to bind calmodulin. When compared to GRK5-NT, GRK5-NTPB did not modify PE-induced NFAT and GATA-4 activation. In conclusion, this study identifies a double effect of GRK5-NT in the inhibition of LVH that is based on the regulation of multiple transcription factors through means of different mechanisms and proposes the amino-terminal sequence of GRK5 as a useful prototype for therapeutic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Stroke-Like Episodes and Cerebellar Syndrome in Phosphomannomutase Deficiency (PMM2-CDG): Evidence for Hypoglycosylation-Driven Channelopathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020619
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Stroke-like episodes (SLE) occur in phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2-CDG), and may complicate the course of channelopathies related to Familial Hemiplegic Migraine (FHM) caused by mutations in CACNA1A (encoding CaV2.1 channel). The underlying pathomechanisms are unknown. We analyze clinical variables to detect risk
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Stroke-like episodes (SLE) occur in phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2-CDG), and may complicate the course of channelopathies related to Familial Hemiplegic Migraine (FHM) caused by mutations in CACNA1A (encoding CaV2.1 channel). The underlying pathomechanisms are unknown. We analyze clinical variables to detect risk factors for SLE in a series of 43 PMM2-CDG patients. We explore the hypothesis of abnormal CaV2.1 function due to aberrant N-glycosylation as a potential novel pathomechanism of SLE and ataxia in PMM2-CDG by using whole-cell patch-clamp, N-glycosylation blockade and mutagenesis. Nine SLE were identified. Neuroimages showed no signs of stroke. Comparison of characteristics between SLE positive versus negative patients’ group showed no differences. Acute and chronic phenotypes of patients with PMM2-CDG or CACNA1A channelopathies show similarities. Hypoglycosylation of both CaV2.1 subunits (α1A and α) induced gain-of-function effects on channel gating that mirrored those reported for pathogenic CACNA1A mutations linked to FHM and ataxia. Unoccupied N-glycosylation site N283 at α1A contributes to a gain-of-function by lessening CaV2.1 inactivation. Hypoglycosylation of the α2δ subunit also participates in the gain-of-function effect by promoting voltage-dependent opening of the CaV2.1 channel. CaV2.1 hypoglycosylation may cause ataxia and SLEs in PMM2-CDG patients. Aberrant CaV2.1 N-glycosylation as a novel pathomechanism in PMM2-CDG opens new therapeutic possibilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle HDAC Inhibition Improves the Sarcoendoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Activity in Cardiac Myocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020419
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
SERCA2a is the Ca2+ ATPase playing the major contribution in cardiomyocyte (CM) calcium removal. Its activity can be regulated by both modulatory proteins and several post-translational modifications. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether the function of SERCA2 can
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SERCA2a is the Ca2+ ATPase playing the major contribution in cardiomyocyte (CM) calcium removal. Its activity can be regulated by both modulatory proteins and several post-translational modifications. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether the function of SERCA2 can be modulated by treating CMs with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA). The incubation with SAHA (2.5 µM, 90 min) of CMs isolated from rat adult hearts resulted in an increase of SERCA2 acetylation level and improved ATPase activity. This was associated with a significant improvement of calcium transient recovery time and cell contractility. Previous reports have identified K464 as an acetylation site in human SERCA2. Mutants were generated where K464 was substituted with glutamine (Q) or arginine (R), mimicking constitutive acetylation or deacetylation, respectively. The K464Q mutation ameliorated ATPase activity and calcium transient recovery time, thus indicating that constitutive K464 acetylation has a positive impact on human SERCA2a (hSERCA2a) function. In conclusion, SAHA induced deacetylation inhibition had a positive impact on CM calcium handling, that, at least in part, was due to improved SERCA2 activity. This observation can provide the basis for the development of novel pharmacological approaches to ameliorate SERCA2 efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle P2X4 Receptor-Dependent Ca2+ Influx in Model Human Monocytes and Macrophages
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112261
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Monocytes and macrophages express a repertoire of cell surface P2 receptors for adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), which are capable of raising cytoplasmic calcium when activated. This is achieved either through direct permeation (ionotropic P2X receptors) or by mobilizing
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Monocytes and macrophages express a repertoire of cell surface P2 receptors for adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), which are capable of raising cytoplasmic calcium when activated. This is achieved either through direct permeation (ionotropic P2X receptors) or by mobilizing intracellular calcium stores (metabotropic P2Y receptors). Here, a side-by-side comparison to investigate the contribution of P2X4 receptor activation in ATP-evoked calcium responses in model human monocytes and macrophages was performed. The expression of P2X1, P2X4, P2X5 and P2X7 was confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in both model monocyte and macrophage. ATP evoked a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular calcium in both THP-1 monocyte and macrophages. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thasigargin (Tg) responses to the maximal ATP concentration (100 μM) in THP-1 monocytes, and responses in macrophage were significantly attenuated. Tg-resistant ATP-evoked calcium responses in the model macrophage were dependent on extracellular calcium, suggesting a requirement for calcium influx. Ivermectin (IVM) potentiated the magnitude of Tg-resistant component and slowed the decay of response in the model macrophage. The Tg-resistant component was attenuated by P2X4 antagonists 5-BDBD and PSB-12062 but not by the P2X1 antagonist Ro0437626 or the P2X7 antagonist A438079. shRNA-mediated P2X4 knockdown resulted in a significant reduction in Tg-resistant ATP-evoked calcium response as well as reduced sensitivities towards P2X4-specific pharmacological tools, IVM and PSB-12062. Inhibition of endocytosis with dynasore significantly reduced the magnitude of Tg-resistant component but substantially slowed decay response. Inhibition of calcium-dependent exocytosis with vacuolin-1 had no effect on the Tg-resistant component. These pharmacological data suggest that P2X4 receptor activation contributed significantly towards the ionotropic calcium response evoked by ATP of the model human macrophage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Calcium Signaling in Vertebrate Development and Its Role in Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113390
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
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Abstract
Accumulating evidence over the past three decades suggests that altered calcium signaling during development may be a major driving force for adult pathophysiological events. Well over a hundred human genes encode proteins that are specifically dedicated to calcium homeostasis and calcium signaling, and
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Accumulating evidence over the past three decades suggests that altered calcium signaling during development may be a major driving force for adult pathophysiological events. Well over a hundred human genes encode proteins that are specifically dedicated to calcium homeostasis and calcium signaling, and the majority of these are expressed during embryonic development. Recent advances in molecular techniques have identified impaired calcium signaling during development due to either mutations or dysregulation of these proteins. This impaired signaling has been implicated in various human diseases ranging from cardiac malformations to epilepsy. Although the molecular basis of these and other diseases have been well studied in adult systems, the potential developmental origins of such diseases are less well characterized. In this review, we will discuss the recent evidence that examines different patterns of calcium activity during early development, as well as potential medical conditions associated with its dysregulation. Studies performed using various model organisms, including zebrafish, Xenopus, and mouse, have underscored the critical role of calcium activity in infertility, abortive pregnancy, developmental defects, and a range of diseases which manifest later in life. Understanding the underlying mechanisms by which calcium regulates these diverse developmental processes remains a challenge; however, this knowledge will potentially enable calcium signaling to be used as a therapeutic target in regenerative and personalized medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Role of KCa3.1 Channels in Modulating Ca2+ Oscillations during Glioblastoma Cell Migration and Invasion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102970
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
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Abstract
Cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma (GBM), the most lethal form of primary brain tumors, are critically dependent on Ca2+ signaling. Increases of [Ca2+]i in GBM cells often result from Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), promoted
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Cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma (GBM), the most lethal form of primary brain tumors, are critically dependent on Ca2+ signaling. Increases of [Ca2+]i in GBM cells often result from Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), promoted by a variety of agents present in the tumor microenvironment and able to activate the phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate PLC/IP3 pathway. The Ca2+ signaling is further strengthened by the Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) currents sustained by Orai/STIM channels, meant to replenish the partially depleted ER. Notably, the elevated cytosolic [Ca2+]i activates the intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K (KCa3.1) channels highly expressed in the plasma membrane of GBM cells, and the resulting K+ efflux hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. This translates to an enhancement of Ca2+ entry through Orai/STIM channels as a result of the increased electromotive (driving) force on Ca2+ influx, ending with the establishment of a recurrent cycle reinforcing the Ca2+ signal. Ca2+ signaling in migrating GBM cells often emerges in the form of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, instrumental to promote key processes in the migratory cycle. This has suggested that KCa3.1 channels may promote GBM cell migration by inducing or modulating the shape of Ca2+ oscillations. In accordance, we recently built a theoretical model of Ca2+ oscillations incorporating the KCa3.1 channel-dependent dynamics of the membrane potential, and found that the KCa3.1 channel activity could significantly affect the IP3 driven Ca2+ oscillations. Here we review our new theoretical model of Ca2+ oscillations in GBM, upgraded in the light of better knowledge of the KCa3.1 channel kinetics and Ca2+ sensitivity, the dynamics of the Orai/STIM channel modulation, the migration and invasion mechanisms of GBM cells, and their regulation by Ca2+ signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Calcium Ion Channels: Roles in Infection and Sepsis Mechanisms of Calcium Channel Blocker Benefits in Immunocompromised Patients at Risk for Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092465
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Immunosuppression may occur for a number of reasons related to an individual’s frailty, debility, disease or from therapeutic iatrogenic intervention or misadventure. A large percentage of morbidity and mortality in immunodeficient populations is related to an inadequate response to infectious agents with slow
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Immunosuppression may occur for a number of reasons related to an individual’s frailty, debility, disease or from therapeutic iatrogenic intervention or misadventure. A large percentage of morbidity and mortality in immunodeficient populations is related to an inadequate response to infectious agents with slow response to antibiotics, enhancements of antibiotic resistance in populations, and markedly increased prevalence of acute inflammatory response, septic and infection related death. Given known relationships between intracellular calcium ion concentrations and cytotoxicity and cellular death, we looked at currently available data linking blockade of calcium ion channels and potential decrease in expression of sepsis among immunosuppressed patients. Notable are relationships between calcium, calcium channel, vitamin D mechanisms associated with sepsis and demonstration of antibiotic-resistant pathogens that may utilize channels sensitive to calcium channel blocker. We note that sepsis shock syndrome represents loss of regulation of inflammatory response to infection and that vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor, and klotho interact with sepsis defense mechanisms in which movement of calcium and phosphorus are part of the process. Given these observations we consider that further investigation of the effect of relatively inexpensive calcium channel blockade agents of infections in immunosuppressed populations might be worthwhile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
Open AccessReview T Cell Calcium Signaling Regulation by the Co-Receptor CD5
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051295
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
Calcium influx is critical for T cell effector function and fate. T cells are activated when T cell receptors (TCRs) engage peptides presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC), causing an increase of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration. Co-receptors stabilize interactions between the TCR
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Calcium influx is critical for T cell effector function and fate. T cells are activated when T cell receptors (TCRs) engage peptides presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC), causing an increase of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration. Co-receptors stabilize interactions between the TCR and its ligand, the peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC), and enhance Ca2+ signaling and T cell activation. Conversely, some co-receptors can dampen Ca2+ signaling and inhibit T cell activation. Immune checkpoint therapies block inhibitory co-receptors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), to increase T cell Ca2+ signaling and promote T cell survival. Similar to CTLA-4 and PD-1, the co-receptor CD5 has been known to act as a negative regulator of T cell activation and to alter Ca2+ signaling and T cell function. Though much is known about the role of CD5 in B cells, recent research has expanded our understanding of CD5 function in T cells. Here we review these recent findings and discuss how our improved understanding of CD5 Ca2+ signaling regulation could be useful for basic and clinical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Calcium and Nuclear Signaling in Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041237
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Recently, there have been a number of developments in the fields of calcium and nuclear signaling that point to new avenues for a more effective diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. An example is the discovery of new classes of molecules involved in
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Recently, there have been a number of developments in the fields of calcium and nuclear signaling that point to new avenues for a more effective diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. An example is the discovery of new classes of molecules involved in calcium-regulated nuclear import and nuclear calcium signaling, from the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and myosin families. This review surveys the new state of the calcium and nuclear signaling fields with the aim of identifying the unifying themes that hold out promise in the context of the problems presented by prostate cancer. Genomic perturbations, kinase cascades, developmental pathways, and channels and transporters are covered, with an emphasis on nuclear transport and functions. Special attention is paid to the molecular mechanisms behind prostate cancer progression to the malignant forms and the unfavorable response to anti-androgen treatment. The survey leads to some new hypotheses that connect heretofore disparate results and may present a translational interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Correcting Calcium Dysregulation in Chronic Heart Failure Using SERCA2a Gene Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041086
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease and is the leading cause of hospitalization for those over the age of 65, which is estimated to account for close to seventy billion dollars in healthcare costs by 2030 in the
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Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease and is the leading cause of hospitalization for those over the age of 65, which is estimated to account for close to seventy billion dollars in healthcare costs by 2030 in the US alone. The successful therapies for preventing and reversing CHF progression are urgently required. One strategy under active investigation is to restore dysregulated myocardial calcium (Ca2+), a hallmark of CHF. It is well established that intracellular Ca2+ concentrations are tightly regulated to control efficient myocardial systolic contraction and diastolic relaxation. Among the many cell surface proteins and intracellular organelles that act as the warp and woof of the regulatory network controlling intracellular Ca2+ signals in cardiomyocytes, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase type 2a (SERCA2a) undoubtedly plays a central role. SERCA2a is responsible for sequestrating cytosolic Ca2+ back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum during diastole, allowing for efficient uncoupling of actin-myosin and subsequent ventricular relaxation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the expression of SERCA2a is downregulated in CHF, which subsequently contributes to severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Therefore, restoring SERCA2a expression and improving cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling provides an excellent alternative to currently used transplantation and mechanical assist devices in the treatment of CHF. Indeed, advancements in safe and effective gene delivery techniques have led to the emergence of SERCA2a gene therapy as a potential therapeutic choice for CHF patients. This mini-review will succinctly detail the progression of SERCA2a gene therapy from its inception in plasmid and animal models, to its clinical trials in CHF patients, highlighting potential avenues for future work along the way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessReview The Different Facets of Extracellular Calcium Sensors: Old and New Concepts in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Signalling and Pharmacology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19040999
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
The current interest of the scientific community for research in the field of calcium sensing in general and on the calcium-sensing Receptor (CaR) in particular is demonstrated by the still increasing number of papers published on this topic. The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor is
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The current interest of the scientific community for research in the field of calcium sensing in general and on the calcium-sensing Receptor (CaR) in particular is demonstrated by the still increasing number of papers published on this topic. The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor is the best-known G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) able to sense external Ca2+ changes. Widely recognized as a fundamental player in systemic Ca2+ homeostasis, the CaR is ubiquitously expressed in the human body where it activates multiple signalling pathways. In this review, old and new notions regarding the mechanisms by which extracellular Ca2+ microdomains are created and the tools available to measure them are analyzed. After a survey of the main signalling pathways triggered by the CaR, a special attention is reserved for the emerging concepts regarding CaR function in the heart, CaR trafficking and pharmacology. Finally, an overview on other Ca2+ sensors is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Endothelial Ca2+ Signaling in Neurovascular Coupling: A View from the Lumen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19040938
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Background: Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the mechanism whereby an increase in neuronal activity (NA) leads to local elevation in cerebral blood flow (CBF) to match the metabolic requirements of firing neurons. Following synaptic activity, an increase in neuronal and/or astrocyte Ca2+ concentration
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Background: Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the mechanism whereby an increase in neuronal activity (NA) leads to local elevation in cerebral blood flow (CBF) to match the metabolic requirements of firing neurons. Following synaptic activity, an increase in neuronal and/or astrocyte Ca2+ concentration leads to the synthesis of multiple vasoactive messengers. Curiously, the role of endothelial Ca2+ signaling in NVC has been rather neglected, although endothelial cells are known to control the vascular tone in a Ca2+-dependent manner throughout peripheral vasculature. Methods: We analyzed the literature in search of the most recent updates on the potential role of endothelial Ca2+ signaling in NVC. Results: We found that several neurotransmitters (i.e., glutamate and acetylcholine) and neuromodulators (e.g., ATP) can induce dilation of cerebral vessels by inducing an increase in endothelial Ca2+ concentration. This, in turn, results in nitric oxide or prostaglandin E2 release or activate intermediate and small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, which are responsible for endothelial-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH). In addition, brain endothelial cells express multiple transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (i.e., TRPC3, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1), which induce vasodilation by activating EDH. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that endothelial Ca2+ signaling is an emerging pathway in the control of NVC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Endothelial Ca2+ Signaling and the Resistance to Anticancer Treatments: Partners in Crime
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010217
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intracellular Ca2+ signaling drives angiogenesis and vasculogenesis by stimulating proliferation, migration, and tube formation in both vascular endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), which represent the only endothelial precursor truly belonging to the endothelial phenotype. In addition, local Ca2+
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Intracellular Ca2+ signaling drives angiogenesis and vasculogenesis by stimulating proliferation, migration, and tube formation in both vascular endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), which represent the only endothelial precursor truly belonging to the endothelial phenotype. In addition, local Ca2+ signals at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–mitochondria interface regulate endothelial cell fate by stimulating survival or apoptosis depending on the extent of the mitochondrial Ca2+ increase. The present article aims at describing how remodeling of the endothelial Ca2+ toolkit contributes to establish intrinsic or acquired resistance to standard anti-cancer therapies. The endothelial Ca2+ toolkit undergoes a major alteration in tumor endothelial cells and tumor-associated ECFCs. These include changes in TRPV4 expression and increase in the expression of P2X7 receptors, Piezo2, Stim1, Orai1, TRPC1, TRPC5, Connexin 40 and dysregulation of the ER Ca2+ handling machinery. Additionally, remodeling of the endothelial Ca2+ toolkit could involve nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, gasotransmitters-gated channels, two-pore channels and Na+/H+ exchanger. Targeting the endothelial Ca2+ toolkit could represent an alternative adjuvant therapy to circumvent patients’ resistance to current anti-cancer treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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