Special Issue "A New Decade in the Propagation of Horticultural and Medicinal Plants"

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Propagation and Seeds".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2023 | Viewed by 3440

Special Issue Editors

Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”—National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: biotechnology; plant cell; tissue and organ culture; somatic embryogenesis; arabinogalactan proteins; genes involved in secondary metabolism and metabolic engineering; nitrogen metabolism and plant glutamine synthetase; plant stress responses
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”—National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: biotechnology; plant cell; tissue and organ culture; genes involved in somatic embryogenesis; arabinogalactan proteins; secondary metabolism and metabolic engeneering; nitrogen metabolism and plant glutamine synthetase
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”—National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: biotechnology; genetic engeneering; in vitro propagation of plants; secondary metabolites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The propagation of horticultural plants implies preservation of elite genotypes with superior characteristics and the production of high-quality, virus-free and pathogen-free stock plants. Both requirements heavily rely on in vitro culture techniques, including micropropagation and the regeneration by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. In nurseries, clonal propagation of elite germplasm can be achieved by specialized organs, such as tubers, rhizomes, bulbs and bulbils, or simply by cuttings or stem separation methods. Medicinal plants, their cells or organs are also often propagated in vitro, in order to optimize and elicit the production of valuable secondary metabolites, sometimes using bioreactors. Since many medicinal species are rare or endangered, in vitro propagation can be a part of ex situ conservation efforts. Even though asexual reproduction prevails in horticulture, breeding programs and the production of seeds for sales or conservation and the propagation of certain species require optimization of seed germination conditions and dormancy breaking. One of the promising methods for the propagation of certain species are artificial seeds.

The aim of this Special Issue is to represent original papers and reviews on modern methods for both the sexual and clonal in vitro and ex vitro propagation of horticultural and medicinal plant species.

Dr. Milica Bogdanović
Dr. Ana Simonović
Dr. Branka Vinterhalter
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Horticulturae is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • artificial seeds
  • bioreactors
  • meristem-tip culture
  • micropropagation
  • organogenesis
  • propagation by specialized organs
  • seed germination and dormancy
  • somatic embryogenesis
  • tissue culture

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant Activity, and Cytotoxity of Wild-Growing and In Vitro Cultivated Rindera umbellata (Waldst. and Kit.) Bunge
Horticulturae 2023, 9(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9030381 - 15 Mar 2023
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze chemical composition and biological activity of wild- and in vitro grown Rindera umbellata. Explants were cultivated on 0.003–0.3 M sucrose, fructose, or glucose. HPLC-DAD for quantifying rosmarinic (RA) and lithospermic B (LAB) acids [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze chemical composition and biological activity of wild- and in vitro grown Rindera umbellata. Explants were cultivated on 0.003–0.3 M sucrose, fructose, or glucose. HPLC-DAD for quantifying rosmarinic (RA) and lithospermic B (LAB) acids and GC-MS/FID for qualitative pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) detection were used. Antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS assays) and cytotoxicity (MTT test) were monitored. Identified PAs were 7-angeloyl heliotridane, lindelofine, 7-angeloyl heliotridine, 7-angeloyl-9-(+)-trachelanthylheliotridine, punctanecine, and heliosupine, with higher variability reported in wild-growing samples. Total phenolic contents (TPCs) were comparable in wild-growing and in vitro samples, but total flavonoid (TFC) and RA levels were multifold higher in in vitro samples. Notably, high concentration of LAB was detected in wild-growing roots. Amounts of 0.3 M and 0.1 M of sucrose were optimal for TFC and RA production, while maximal antioxidant activity was monitored in plants grown on 0.3 M sucrose. The MTT test indicated colorectal HT-29 as more sensitive than A549 lung adenocarcinoma and normal MRC-5 cells, showing selective sensitivity to wild-growing and 0.3 M sucrose samples. In conclusion, PAs in vitro, as well as TPC, TFC, RA, and LAB in both growing conditions were detected for the first time in R. umbellata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A New Decade in the Propagation of Horticultural and Medicinal Plants)
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Article
Large-Scale In Vitro Propagation and Ex Vitro Adaptation of the Endangered Medicinal Plant Eryngium maritimum L.
Horticulturae 2023, 9(2), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9020271 - 17 Feb 2023
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Abstract
The endangered medicinal plant Eryngium maritimum L. faces significant natural and anthropogenic threats. Therefore, in vitro propagation is recommended for both conservation and commercial purposes. The aim of the study was to develop a series of protocols for seed disinfection, in vitro multiplication [...] Read more.
The endangered medicinal plant Eryngium maritimum L. faces significant natural and anthropogenic threats. Therefore, in vitro propagation is recommended for both conservation and commercial purposes. The aim of the study was to develop a series of protocols for seed disinfection, in vitro multiplication and rooting, and ex vitro and field adaptation. For explant disinfection, the length and temperature of three consecutive disinfectants were investigated. Macrosalt modifications of MS medium and plant growth regulator addition to media effect on axillary bud propagation rate and rooting was studied. Survival and leaf growth during ex vitro and field adaptation in response to potting media, pot cell diameter, and light spectrum were tested. Seeds treated with diluted detergent at 40 °C for 180 min, followed by 0.01% KMnO4 for 3 h and commercial bleach for 11 min, achieved a lower rate of contamination and high germination rate. Axillary bud proliferation and rooting were enhanced by reducing nitrogen content in media and adding plant growth regulators. Potting media and pot size affect survival and growth ex vitro. Timely transplantation to field conditions before overwintering increases plantlet survival. In the present work, a suitable foundation is laid to scaleup the production of E. maritimum by micropropagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A New Decade in the Propagation of Horticultural and Medicinal Plants)
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Article
Early Performance of Recently Released Rootstocks with Grapefruit, Navel Orange, and Mandarin Scions under Endemic Huanglongbing Conditions in Florida
Horticulturae 2022, 8(11), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8111027 - 03 Nov 2022
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Huanglongbing (HLB), which is believed to be caused by the phloem-restricted bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), has decimated Florida’s citrus production. Grapefruit production has declined 75%, mandarin 78%, and sweet orange 52% due to the high sensitivity of commercial scions and [...] Read more.
Huanglongbing (HLB), which is believed to be caused by the phloem-restricted bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), has decimated Florida’s citrus production. Grapefruit production has declined 75%, mandarin 78%, and sweet orange 52% due to the high sensitivity of commercial scions and rootstocks to the disease. New combinations of scions and hybrid rootstocks may provide better performance than current commercial selections for Florida’s fresh citrus production, particularly in the Indian River District. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare University of Florida rootstocks and other recently released rootstocks grafted with grapefruit, navel orange, and mandarin scions by measuring tree growth and HLB tolerance. Three independent large-scale field trials were established in September 2019 in Fort Pierce, FL, USA. Trial 1 (T1) included 36 rootstocks with ‘Ray Ruby’ grapefruit as the scion; Trials 2 and 3 (T2 and T3, respectively) included 30 rootstocks with ‘Glenn’ navel orange F-56-11 and ‘UF-950’ mandarin as the scion, respectively. Tree canopy volume, trunk diameter, CLas titer, HLB severity index, and leaf nutrient concentrations were evaluated during 2020 and 2021. Significant differences among rootstock-scion combinations were found in each trial for most of the assessed traits. In T2, UFR-15 consistently developed the largest ‘Ray Ruby’ grapefruit trees during both years. In T3, ‘Glenn’ navel orange F-56-11 trees were larger on C-22, and US-802. Similarly, US-802 and US-942 generated the largest ‘UF-950’ mandarin trees. Overall, trees had optimum levels of macro- and micronutrients except for calcium. CLas infection and HLB visual index varied among scion-rootstock combinations, especially during the first year of growth when intensive flushing was produced. Generally, trees grew vigorously with WGFT+50-7 and Willits inducing the lowest HLB symptoms in all evaluations. Production and fruit quality need to be evaluated to determine the suitability of potential scion-rootstock combinations that can confer consistent economical and biological advantages under the current HLB scenario in the Indian River District. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A New Decade in the Propagation of Horticultural and Medicinal Plants)
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Article
Potato Aeroponics: Effects of Cultivar and Plant Origin on Minituber Production
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100915 - 06 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Aeroponics is a modern and soilless technology that is used for the efficient production of pre-basic seed potatoes, namely minitubers. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the cultivar and type of planting material on the production of minitubers in the aeroponic [...] Read more.
Aeroponics is a modern and soilless technology that is used for the efficient production of pre-basic seed potatoes, namely minitubers. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the cultivar and type of planting material on the production of minitubers in the aeroponic facility in Guča, Serbia, at short, 7-day harvest intervals. Although aeroponic cultivation prolonged the vegetative cycle in all five investigated cultivars, the dynamics of minituber formation varied between genotypes. Two early maturing cultivars, Cleopatra and Sinora, quickly completed the vegetative cycle and formed a small number of minitubers, while the medium-late to late cultivars, Kennebec and Agria, steadily tuberized during the entire cultivation period in the aeroponic facility. The type of planting material affected the dynamics of minituber formation in three investigated cultivars. Sinora, Cleopatra, and Désirée’s plants of in vitro origin reached the final number of minitubers and the vines started senescing much earlier than plants of minituber origin. Kennebec and Agria plants of in vitro origin produced the largest number of minitubers (53.8–54.5) and showed the highest yield (9.8–10.5 kg m−2) during the cultivation period, while the heaviest minitubers were formed by Sinora plants of minituber origin (15.48 g). In addition, the temperature during pre-harvest periods significantly affected the number of tubers at harvests in Kennebec and Agria, and minituber mass in Désirée. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A New Decade in the Propagation of Horticultural and Medicinal Plants)
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