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Special Issue "Urban and Periurban Forest Diversity and Ecosystem Services"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2016)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Francisco Escobedo

Universidad del Rosario, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Functional and Ecosystem Ecology Unit (EFE) Biology Program, Kr 26 No 63B-48, Bogotá D.C., Colombia
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Phone: (+571) 2970200 ext. 4024
Guest Editor
Dr. Stephen John Livesley

Faculty of Science, Burnley Campus, The University of Melbourne, 500 Yarra Boulevard, Richmond, Victoria 3121, Australia
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Guest Editor
Dr. Justin Morgenroth

NZ School of Forestry, College of Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
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Interests: remote sensing; LiDAR; forest monitoring; urban forestry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent special issues in various journals have focused on “urban ecosystem services”. There is also an increasing amount of studies on “urban ecology”, “urban tree management”, “arboriculture”, “urban biodiversity”, and “ecosystem services” from wildland forests. This Special Issue aims to fill a void and focus on the socioecological diversity and the economic value of the ecosystem services from urban and periurban forests. Urban and periurban forests are tree dominated ecosystems in and near human settlements, while ecosystem services are the direct economic, social, and environmental benefits provided by their structural components and ecological functions. Submissions can address the botanical, structural, and faunal diversity of urban and periurban tree populations. Diversity can also be the value and perceptions of societies towards urban forests and their socioeconomic and environmental benefits. Manuscripts that analyze, map, and value urban forest diversity and ecosystem services—and their interactions or tradeoffs—are encouraged. Manuscripts evaluating available models and approaches or the use of biodiversity and ecosystem functions for addressing nature-based solutions, management problems, or climate change policies in little studied urban contexts and developing countries are particularly welcome. Manuscripts on arboriculture and those applying existing models and reporting their output are however discouraged.

Dr. Francisco Escobedo
Dr. Stephen John Livesley
Dr. Justin Morgenroth
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Urban forest structure;
  • Socioecological systems;
  • Urban forest biodiversity;
  • Non-market valuation;
  • Ecosystem service tradeoffs;
  • Perceptions and attitudes;
  • Management and planning;
  • Climate change

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial The Biodiversity of Urban and Peri-Urban Forests and the Diverse Ecosystem Services They Provide as Socio-Ecological Systems
Forests 2016, 7(12), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7120291
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban and peri-urban forests provide a variety of ecosystem service benefits for urban society. Recognising and understanding the many human–tree interactions that urban forests provide may be more complex but probably just as important to our urbanised society. This paper introduces four themes [...] Read more.
Urban and peri-urban forests provide a variety of ecosystem service benefits for urban society. Recognising and understanding the many human–tree interactions that urban forests provide may be more complex but probably just as important to our urbanised society. This paper introduces four themes that link the studies from across the globe presented in this Special Issue: (1) human–tree interactions; (2) urban tree inequity; (3) carbon sequestration in our own neighbourhoods; and (4) biodiversity of urban forests themselves and the fauna they support. Urban forests can help tackle many of the “wicked problems” that confront our towns and cities and the people that live in them. For urban forests to be accepted as an effective element of any urban adaptation strategy, we need to improve the communication of these ecosystem services and disservices and provide evidence of the benefits provided to urban society and individuals, as well as the biodiversity with which we share our town and cities. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Local and National Media Reporting: Conflict around the TV Oak in Stockholm, Sweden
Forests 2016, 7(10), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7100233
Received: 16 April 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The TV oak (Television Oak) conflict concerned felling an old tree in a wealthy area of Stockholm. The case received great public attention in different media formats with different scopes (e.g., newspapers, television, internet). The TV Oak issue involved actors with different, partly [...] Read more.
The TV oak (Television Oak) conflict concerned felling an old tree in a wealthy area of Stockholm. The case received great public attention in different media formats with different scopes (e.g., newspapers, television, internet). The TV Oak issue involved actors with different, partly conflicting perceptions. Assuming that the relevance of urban tree management issues in particular leads to increased interest among the local audience, this paper compared differences in reporting on the TV Oak case in local and national newspapers. The comparison comprised the actors “speaking” in the newspapers, the interest roles attributed to different actors and the frames used. The empirical materials used were articles concerning the TV Oak published between October 2011 and June 2012 in one local and two national Swedish newspapers. Quantitative analysis of statements in these articles showed that the geographical scope of the newspaper was not the major driving force framing the TV Oak conflict and that variety of framings, ranging from a humanised perception of the oak to a more analytical hazard perception, were used. Differences between the interest roles allocated to different actors (e.g., in terms of victim, causer, and helper in the oak conflict) showed that the framing of conflicts very much depended on single actors, in particular a high profile journalist in the national newspapers and private individuals writing letters to the editor in the local newspaper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Urban Forest Indicators for Planning and Designing Future Forests
Forests 2016, 7(9), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7090208
Received: 8 May 2016 / Revised: 25 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 16 September 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (688 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a research project exploring future urban forests. This study uses a Delphi approach to develop a set of key indicators for healthy, resilient urban forests. Two groups of experts participated in the Delphi survey: International academics and local practitioners. The [...] Read more.
This paper describes a research project exploring future urban forests. This study uses a Delphi approach to develop a set of key indicators for healthy, resilient urban forests. Two groups of experts participated in the Delphi survey: International academics and local practitioners. The results of the Delphi indicate that “urban tree diversity” and “physical access to nature” are indicators of high importance. “Tree risk” and “energy conservation” were rated as indicators of relatively low importance. Results revealed some differences between academics and practitioners in terms of their rating of the indicators. The research shows that some indicators rated as high importance are not necessarily the ones measured or promoted by many municipal urban forestry programs. In particular, social indicators of human health and well-being were rated highly by participants, but not routinely measured by urban forestry programs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Quantifying Tree and Soil Carbon Stocks in a Temperate Urban Forest in Northeast China
Forests 2016, 7(9), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7090200
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (3908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Society has placed greater focus on the ecological service of urban forests; however, more information is required on the variation of carbon (C) in trees and soils in different functional forest types, administrative districts, and urban-rural gradients. To address this issue, we measured [...] Read more.
Society has placed greater focus on the ecological service of urban forests; however, more information is required on the variation of carbon (C) in trees and soils in different functional forest types, administrative districts, and urban-rural gradients. To address this issue, we measured various tree and soil parameters by sampling 219 plots in the urban forest of the Harbin city region. Averaged tree and soil C stock density (C stocks per unit tree cover) for Harbin city were 7.71 (±7.69) kg C·m−2 and 5.48 (±2.86) kg C·m−2, respectively. They were higher than those of other Chinese cities (Shenyang and Changchun), but were much lower than local natural forests. The tree C stock densities varied 2.3- to 3.2-fold among forest types, administrative districts, and ring road-based urban-rural gradients. In comparison, soil organic C (SOC) densities varied by much less (1.4–1.5-fold). We found these to be urbanization-dependent processes, which were closely related to the urban-rural gradient data based on ring-roads and settlement history patterns. We estimated that SOC accumulation during the 100-year urbanization of Harbin was very large (5 to 14 thousand tons), accounting for over one quarter of the stored C in trees. Our results provide new insights into the dynamics of above- and below-ground C (especially in soil) during the urbanization process, and that a city’s ability to provide C-related ecosystem services increases as it ages. Our findings highlight that urbanization effects should be incorporated into calculations of soil C budgets in regions subject to rapid urban expansion, such as China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Relationships between Socioeconomic Background and Urban Greenery in Portland, OR
Forests 2016, 7(8), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7080162
Received: 1 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Do urban residents experience societal benefits derived from urban forests equitably? We conducted a broad-scale spatial analysis of the relationship between urban greenery and socioeconomic factors in the Portland metropolitan area. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was derived from National Agriculture Imagery Program [...] Read more.
Do urban residents experience societal benefits derived from urban forests equitably? We conducted a broad-scale spatial analysis of the relationship between urban greenery and socioeconomic factors in the Portland metropolitan area. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was derived from National Agriculture Imagery Program images to map urban vegetation cover, and Outdoor Recreation and Conservation Area data were used to identify green spaces. These measures of urban greenery were correlated with census data to identify socioeconomic factors associated with high levels of green inequity. Population density, house age, income, and race were strongly correlated with vegetation cover. However, the distribution of green spaces showed a much weaker relationship with socioeconomic factors. These results highlight the importance of different measures of access to urban greenery and suggest potential solutions to the problem of urban green inequity. Cities can use our methods to conduct targeted urban forest management to maximize urban forest benefits received by residents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Removal of PM10 by Forests as a Nature-Based Solution for Air Quality Improvement in the Metropolitan City of Rome
Forests 2016, 7(7), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7070150
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (6226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nature-based solutions have been identified by the European Union as being critical for the enhancement of environmental qualities in cities, where urban and peri-urban forests play a key role in air quality amelioration through pollutant removal. A remote sensing and geographic information system [...] Read more.
Nature-based solutions have been identified by the European Union as being critical for the enhancement of environmental qualities in cities, where urban and peri-urban forests play a key role in air quality amelioration through pollutant removal. A remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) approach was applied to the Metropolitan City (MC) of Rome to assess the seasonal particulate matter (PM10) removal capacity of evergreen (broadleaves and conifers) and deciduous species. Moreover, a monetary evaluation of PM10 removal was performed on the basis of pollution externalities calculated for Europe. Deciduous broadleaves represent the most abundant tree functional group and also yielded the highest total annual PM10 deposition values (1769 Mg). By contrast, PM10 removal efficiency (Mg·ha−1) was 15%–22% higher in evergreen than in deciduous species. To assess the different removal capacity of the three functional groups in an area with homogeneous environmental conditions, a study case was performed in a peri-urban forest protected natural reserve (Castelporziano Presidential Estate). This study case highlighted the importance of deciduous species in summer and of evergreen communities as regards the annual PM10 removal balance. The monetary evaluation indicated that the overall PM10 removal value of the MC of Rome amounted to 161.78 million Euros. Our study lends further support to the crucial role played by nature-based solutions for human well-being in urban areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle City “Green” Contributions: The Role of Urban Greenspaces as Reservoirs for Biodiversity
Forests 2016, 7(7), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7070146
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 6 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urbanization poses important environmental, social, and ecological pressures, representing a major threat to biodiversity. However, urban areas are highly heterogeneous, with some greenspaces (e.g., urban forests, parks, private gardens) providing resources and a refuge for wildlife communities. In this study we surveyed 10 [...] Read more.
Urbanization poses important environmental, social, and ecological pressures, representing a major threat to biodiversity. However, urban areas are highly heterogeneous, with some greenspaces (e.g., urban forests, parks, private gardens) providing resources and a refuge for wildlife communities. In this study we surveyed 10 taxonomic groups to assess their species richness and composition in six greenspaces that differ in size, location, management, and human activities. Species richness differed among taxonomic groups, but not all differed statistically among the studied greenspaces (i.e., sac fungi, bats). Plants, basidiomycetous and sac fungi, and birds showed intermediate assemblage composition similarity (<54%). The composition of assemblages of copro-necrophagous beetles, grasshoppers, amphibians, and bats was related to the specific traits of greenspaces, mainly size and location. The species richness contribution of each greenspace considering all studied taxonomic groups was highest in the largest greenspace that is located at the southeastern border of the city, while the lowest contribution was recorded in the smallest ones, all of them closer to the city’s center. Our results shed some light on the way in which different taxonomic groups respond to an array of neotropical urban greenspaces, providing an important basis for future studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Do Indigenous Street Trees Promote More Biodiversity than Alien Ones? Evidence Using Mistletoes and Birds in South Africa
Forests 2016, 7(7), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7070134
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trees in urban landscapes provide a range of ecosystem services, including habitat, refugia, food, and corridors for other fauna and flora. However, there is some debate whether the richness and abundance of other biodiversity supported is influenced by the provenance of trees, i.e., [...] Read more.
Trees in urban landscapes provide a range of ecosystem services, including habitat, refugia, food, and corridors for other fauna and flora. However, there is some debate whether the richness and abundance of other biodiversity supported is influenced by the provenance of trees, i.e., native or non-native. This study assessed the presence of mistletoes and birds (and nests) in 1261 street trees. There were marked differences between native and non-native street trees, with the former having a significantly higher prevalence of birds (and nests) and supporting more species and in greater densities, whilst the latter supported a higher prevalence of mistletoes. Additionally, for birds, the proximity to green space, tree size and species were also important, whilst for mistletoes, the proximity to green space, slope aspect, and tree species were significant. Preference ratios indicated that some tree species had a higher than random occurrence of birds or mistletoes, whilst others had a low abundance. The indigenous tree species, Acacia karroo Hayne was the only reasonably abundant street tree species that was important for birds, nests, and mistletoes. At the street scale, there was a positive relationship between street tree species richness and bird species richness. These results emphasise the importance of selecting appropriate tree species if biodiversity conservation is a core outcome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimating Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stocks in Periurban Andean Secondary Forests Using Very High Resolution Imagery
Forests 2016, 7(7), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7070138
Received: 30 April 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 July 2016 / Published: 9 July 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Periurban forests are key to offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions, but they are under constant threat from urbanization. In particular, secondary Neotropical forest types in Andean periurban areas have a high potential to store carbon, but are currently poorly characterized. To address this lack [...] Read more.
Periurban forests are key to offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions, but they are under constant threat from urbanization. In particular, secondary Neotropical forest types in Andean periurban areas have a high potential to store carbon, but are currently poorly characterized. To address this lack of information, we developed a method to estimate periurban aboveground biomass (AGB)—a proxy for multiple ecosystem services—of secondary Andean forests near Bogotá, Colombia, based on very high resolution (VHR) GeoEye-1, Pleiades-1A imagery and field-measured plot data. Specifically, we tested a series of different pre-processing workflows to derive six vegetation indices that were regressed against in situ estimates of AGB. Overall, the coupling of linear models and the Ratio Vegetation Index produced the most satisfactory results. Atmospheric and topographic correction proved to be key in improving model fit, especially in high aerosol and rugged terrain such as the Andes. Methods and findings provide baseline AGB and carbon stock information for little studied periurban Andean secondary forests. The methodological approach can also be used for integrating limited forest monitoring plot AGB data with very high resolution imagery for cost-effective modelling of ecosystem service provision from forests, monitoring reforestation and forest cover change, and for carbon offset assessments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Regional Differences in Upland Forest to Developed (Urban) Land Cover Conversions in the Conterminous U.S., 1973–2011
Forests 2016, 7(7), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7070132
Received: 27 March 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 28 June 2016
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Abstract
In this U.S. Geological Survey study of forest land cover across the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), specific proportions and rates of forest conversion to developed (urban) land were assessed on an ecoregional basis. The study period was divided into six time intervals between 1973 [...] Read more.
In this U.S. Geological Survey study of forest land cover across the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), specific proportions and rates of forest conversion to developed (urban) land were assessed on an ecoregional basis. The study period was divided into six time intervals between 1973 and 2011. Forest land cover was the source of 40% or more of the new urban land in 35 of the 84 ecoregions located within the CONUS. In 11 of these ecoregions this threshold exceeded in every time interval. When the percent of change, forest to urban, was compared to the percent of forest in each ecoregion, 58 ecoregions had a greater percent of change and, in six of those, change occurred in every time interval. Annual rates of forest to urban land cover change of 0.2% or higher occurred in 12 ecoregions at least once and in one ecoregion in all intervals. There were three ecoregions where the above conditions were met for nearly every time interval. Even though only a small number of the ecoregions were heavily impacted by forest loss to urban development within the CONUS, the ecosystem services provided by undeveloped forest land cover need to be quantified more completely to better inform future regional land management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Changes in Structure for a Mediterranean Urban Forest: Santiago, Chile 2002 to 2014
Forests 2016, 7(6), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7060121
Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 11 June 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is little information on how urban forest ecosystems in South America and Mediterranean climates change across both space and time. This study statistically and spatially analyzed the spatio-temporal dynamics of Santiago, Chile’s urban forest using tree and plot-level data from permanent plots [...] Read more.
There is little information on how urban forest ecosystems in South America and Mediterranean climates change across both space and time. This study statistically and spatially analyzed the spatio-temporal dynamics of Santiago, Chile’s urban forest using tree and plot-level data from permanent plots from 2002 to 2014. We found mortality, ingrowth, and tree cover remained stable over the analysis period and similar patterns were observed for basal area (BA) and biomass. However, tree cover increased, and was greater in the highest socioeconomic stratum neighborhoods while it dropped in the medium and low strata. Growth rates for the five most common tree species averaged from 0.12 to 0.36 cm·year−1. Spatially, tree biomass and BA were greater in the affluent, northeastern sections of the city and in southwest peri-urban areas. Conversely, less affluent central, northwest, and southern areas showed temporal losses in BA and biomass. Overall, we found that Santiago’s urban forest follows similar patterns as in other parts of the world; affluent areas tend to have more and better managed urban forests than poorer areas, and changes are primarily influenced by social and ecological drivers. Nonetheless, care is warranted when comparing urban forest structural metrics measured with similar sampling-monitoring approaches across ecologically disparate regions and biomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle How Do Urban Forests Compare? Tree Diversity in Urban and Periurban Forests of the Southeastern US
Forests 2016, 7(6), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7060120
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 9 June 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There is a need to understand how anthropogenic influences affect urban and periurban forest diversity at the regional scale. This study aims to compare urban and periurban tree composition along a geographic gradient, and test hypotheses about species composition and ecological homogeneity. We [...] Read more.
There is a need to understand how anthropogenic influences affect urban and periurban forest diversity at the regional scale. This study aims to compare urban and periurban tree composition along a geographic gradient, and test hypotheses about species composition and ecological homogeneity. We paired urban forest (UF) data from eight cities across the southeastern US with periurban forest (PF) data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program. We found that tree diversity, as well as both observed and estimated species richness values were greater in UF versus PF. Community size structure analysis also indicated a greater proportion of large trees and greater numbers of non-native, invasive, and unclassified tree species in the UF versus the PF, regardless of location. Both forest type and ecological province had a significant effect on community species composition, with forests closer together in space being more similar to each other than those more distant. While land use change and management has been associated with ecological homogenization in human dominated landscapes, we found that species composition was more dissimilar along latitudinal lines than compared to between forest types, refuting this hypothesis, at least in terms of tree diversity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Managing Tree Diversity: A Comparison of Suburban Development in Two Canadian Cities
Forests 2016, 7(6), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7060119
Received: 2 April 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (9710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Is (sub)urban forest diversity shaped by previous land use? This study was designed to quantitatively assess the impacts of subdivision development on urban tree-species composition in two Canadian cities: Halifax, Nova Scotia, and London, Ontario. The main goal was to determine whether cities [...] Read more.
Is (sub)urban forest diversity shaped by previous land use? This study was designed to quantitatively assess the impacts of subdivision development on urban tree-species composition in two Canadian cities: Halifax, Nova Scotia, and London, Ontario. The main goal was to determine whether cities with contrasting pre-urbanized or pre-settlement landscapes—woodlands in Halifax and agricultural fields in London—also revealed differences in urban tree diversity losses and/or gains due to urbanization. In each city, four residential neighbourhoods representing two age categories, older and newer (40–50 years, <15 years), were examined and trees on three land types were sampled: public (street), private (residential), and remnant (woodland). All public street trees within the chosen neighbourhoods were inventoried and approximately 10% of the residential property lots were sampled randomly. Plots were examined in remnant forests in or near each city, representing the original forest habitats prior to agricultural and/or urban landscape transformations. Diameter at breast height, species richness and evenness, and proportions of native and non-native trees were measured. In both cities, streetscapes in newer neighbourhoods exhibit greater species richness and evenness, and are characterized by substantially more native trees. Despite this trend, developers and home owners continue to intensively plant non-native species on newer and smaller property lots. Older neighbourhoods in Halifax containing remnant forest stands hold the greatest number of native trees on private property, alluding to the importance of residual forest buffers and patches in promoting naturalness in the private urban forest. These results suggest that identifying and quantifying flows of species between green spaces during and after development is valuable in order to effectively promote native species establishment and enhance overall urban forest diversity. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Surface Soil Carbon Storage in Urban Green Spaces in Three Major South Korean Cities
Forests 2016, 7(6), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7060115
Received: 17 March 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 28 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2106 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantifying and managing carbon (C) storage in urban green space (UGS) soils is associated with the ecosystem services necessary for human well-being and the national C inventory report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Here, the soil C stocks at 30-cm [...] Read more.
Quantifying and managing carbon (C) storage in urban green space (UGS) soils is associated with the ecosystem services necessary for human well-being and the national C inventory report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Here, the soil C stocks at 30-cm depths in different types of UGS’s (roadside, park, school forest, and riverside) were studied in three major South Korean cities that have experienced recent, rapid development. The total C of 666 soil samples was analyzed, and these results were combined with the available UGS inventory data. Overall, the mean soil bulk density, C concentration, and C density at 30-cm depths were 1.22 g·cm−3, 7.31 g·C·kg−1, and 2.13 kg·C·m−2, respectively. The UGS soil C stock (Gg·C) at 30-cm depths was 105.6 for Seoul, 43.6 for Daegu, and 26.4 for Daejeon. The lower C storage of Korean UGS soils than those of other countries is due to the low soil C concentration and the smaller land area under UGS. Strategic management practices that augment the organic matter supply in soil are expected to enhance C storage in South Korean UGS soils. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tree Species and Their Space Requirements in Six Urban Environments Worldwide
Forests 2016, 7(6), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7060111
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban trees have gained in importance during recent decades, but little is known about the temporal dynamic of tree growth in urban areas. The present study investigated the allometric relationships of stem diameter, tree height, and crown radius for six different tree species [...] Read more.
Urban trees have gained in importance during recent decades, but little is known about the temporal dynamic of tree growth in urban areas. The present study investigated the allometric relationships of stem diameter, tree height, and crown radius for six different tree species in six metropolises worldwide. Increment cores of the trees were used for identifying the relationship of basal area and basal area increment and for extrapolating the temporal dynamics for each species in relation to the allometric parameters and growth extensions. Space limitation and its direct influence on growth were quantified, as well as the aboveground woody biomass and the carbon storage capacity. The results show that, among the investigated species, Quercus nigra and Khaya senegalensis have the highest growth rates for stem diameter and crown radius, whereas Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum remain on a lower level. A significant reduction of tree growth due to restricted non-paved area was found for Aesculus hippocastanum and Khaya senegalensis. Estimations of aboveground biomass were highest for Quercus nigra and lowest for Tilia cordata. These results show the species-specific allometries of urban trees over a projected time period. Thus, the data set is highly relevant for planners and urban green managers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)
Forests 2016, 7(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7030071
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and [...] Read more.
The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researched. This study aimed to analyze the annual growth and drought tolerance of two common urban tree species, namely small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. (T. cordata)) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. (R. pseudoacacia)), in two cities in southern Germany in relation to their urban growing conditions. Marked growth reductions during drought periods and subsequent fast recovery were found for R. pseudoacacia, whereas T. cordata exhibited continued reduced growth after a drought event, although these results were highly specific to the analyzed city. We further show that individual tree characteristics and environmental conditions significantly influence the growth of urban trees. Canopy openness and other aspects of the surrounding environment (water supply and open surface area of the tree pit), tree size, and tree species significantly affect urban tree growth and can modify the ability of trees to tolerate the drought stress in urban areas. Sustainable tree planting of well adapted tree species to their urban environment ensures healthy trees providing ecosystem services for a high quality of life in cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tree Mortality Undercuts Ability of Tree-Planting Programs to Provide Benefits: Results of a Three-City Study
Forests 2016, 7(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7030065
Received: 16 December 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
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Abstract
Trees provide numerous benefits for urban residents, including reduced energy usage, improved air quality, stormwater management, carbon sequestration, and increased property values. Quantifying these benefits can help justify the costs of planting trees. In this paper, we use i-Tree Streets to quantify the [...] Read more.
Trees provide numerous benefits for urban residents, including reduced energy usage, improved air quality, stormwater management, carbon sequestration, and increased property values. Quantifying these benefits can help justify the costs of planting trees. In this paper, we use i-Tree Streets to quantify the benefits of street trees planted by nonprofits in three U.S. cities (Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis, Indiana, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) from 2009 to 2011. We also use both measured and modeled survival and growth rates to “grow” the tree populations 5 and 10 years into the future to project the future benefits of the trees under different survival and growth scenarios. The 4059 re-inventoried trees (2864 of which are living) currently provide almost $40,000 (USD) in estimated annual benefits ($9–$20/tree depending on the city), the majority (75%) of which are increased property values. The trees can be expected to provide increasing annual benefits during the 10 years after planting if the annual survival rate is higher than the 93% annual survival measured during the establishment period. However, our projections show that with continued 93% or lower annual survival, the increase in annual benefits from tree growth will not be able to make up for the loss of benefits as trees die. This means that estimated total annual benefits from a cohort of planted trees will decrease between the 5-year projection and the 10-year projection. The results of this study indicate that without early intervention to ensure survival of planted street trees, tree mortality may be significantly undercutting the ability of tree-planting programs to provide benefits to neighborhood residents. Full article
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