E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Ecological Management of Pine Forests"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecology and Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rodolfo Picchio

Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, SNC, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390761357400
Interests: forest logging; forestry mechanization; reduced impact logging; precision forestry; renewable energy; logging impact assessment
Guest Editor
Prof. Roberto Mercurio

Italian Forest Restoration Society, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Silviculture; Forest restoration; Agroforestry; Forest management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural pine forests characterize many landscapes preserved over time, either as a result of a specific forest management or a disturbance. In the event of a lack of management for a long time, these formations could evolve with increasingly chaotic structures towards other formations. This process can lead to landscape change, the spread of insects and pathogens, and the risk of fires and watercourse obstruction. Pine forest plantations should be considered as transients of tree populations, destined to evolve into more complex and stable formations, but sometimes to be preserved for their cultural value. Careful management of these forests also takes into account the close relationship between forest and human settlements. As a first step, ecological management assumes the definition of these two macro types. These approaches include the application of integrated methods for determining the reference conditions of the main functional and structural ecosystem components of forests. The reference conditions are the historical (or natural) variability range of ecological structures and processes, reflecting the recent evolution and dynamic interaction of biotic and abiotic conditions and patterns of disturbance. These conditions form the basis for comparison with contemporary ecosystem processes and structures and are a frame of reference for designing ecological restoration treatments and conservation plans. The productive aspects must not be overlooked, but they have to be considered, planned and managed with a perspective of sustainability and ecosystem functionality. This should be considered for a common forest management, for a forest rehabilitation or for forest restoration activities. We encourage studies from all fields, including experimental studies, monitoring approaches and models, on silviculture and logging activities, to contribute to this Special Issue in order to promote knowledge and adaptation strategies for the active management, preservation, and future development of these forest ecosystems.

Prof. Dr. Rodolfo Picchio
Prof. Roberto Mercurio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pine Forest
  • Pine Plantation
  • Forest Management
  • Forest Rehabilitation
  • Forest Restoration
  • Low Impact Logging
  • Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Ecological Indicator
  • Silviculture

Published Papers (15 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-15
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle A Crown Width-Diameter Model for Natural Even-Aged Black Pine Forest Management
Forests 2018, 9(10), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9100610
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
PDF Full-text (6555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crown size estimations are of vital importance in forest management practice. This paper presents nonlinear models that were developed for crown width prediction of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) natural, pure, even-aged stands in Olympus Mountain, central Greece. Using a number of
[...] Read more.
Crown size estimations are of vital importance in forest management practice. This paper presents nonlinear models that were developed for crown width prediction of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) natural, pure, even-aged stands in Olympus Mountain, central Greece. Using a number of measured characteristics at tree and plot level from 66 sample plots as independent variables, an attempt was made to predict crown width accurately, initially based on Least Square Analysis. At the second stage, nonlinear mixed effect modeling was performed in order to increase the fitting ability of the proposed models and to deal with the lack of between observations independence error assumption. Based on the same form, a generalized crown width model was developed by including six main regressors, such as the diameter at breast height, the total height, the canopy base height, the basal area, the relative spacing index and the diameter to quadratic mean diameter ratio, while at the final stage, the same model was expanded to mixed-effect. The proposed models were evaluated against independent crown width sample observations that were also obtained from the study area. The results showed that the two types of mixed-effect models performed equally well and, therefore, we propose those for use in forestry practice. Furthermore, the exact contribution of each inherent variable in crown width allometry was evaluated, thus providing a framework to facilitate field measurements for forest management predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Species Identification of Pinus Pollen Found in Belukha Glacier, Russian Altai Mountains, Using a Whole-Genome Amplification Method
Forests 2018, 9(8), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9080444
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pollen taxa in sediment samples can be identified based on morphology. However, closely related species do not differ substantially in pollen morphology, and accurate identification is generally limited to genera or families. Because many pollen grains in glaciers contain protoplasm, genetic information obtained
[...] Read more.
Pollen taxa in sediment samples can be identified based on morphology. However, closely related species do not differ substantially in pollen morphology, and accurate identification is generally limited to genera or families. Because many pollen grains in glaciers contain protoplasm, genetic information obtained from pollen grains should enable the identification of plant taxa at the species level. In the present study, species identification of Pinus pollen grains was attempted using whole-genome amplification (WGA). We used pollen grains extracted from surface snow (depth, 1.8–1.9 m) from the Belukha glacier in the summer of 2003. WGA was performed using a single pollen grain. Some regions of the chloroplast genome were amplified by PCR, and the DNA products were sequenced to identify the pollen grain. Pinus includes approximately 111 recognized species in two subgenera, four sections, and 11 subsections. The tree species Pinus sibirica and P. sylvestris are currently found at the periphery of the glacier. We identified the pollen grains from the Belukha glacier to the level of section or subsection to which P. sibirica and P. sylvestris belong. Moreover, we specifically identified two pollen grains as P. sibirica or P. cembra. Fifteen species, including P. sibirica, were candidates for the remaining pollen grain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Toward Sustainable Cultivation of Pinus occidentalis Swartz in Haiti: Effects of Alternative Growing Media and Containers on Seedling Growth and Foliar Chemistry
Forests 2018, 9(7), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9070422
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Haiti has suffered great losses from deforestation, with little forest cover remaining today. Current reforestation efforts focus on seedling quantity rather than quality. This study examined limitations to the production of high-quality seedlings of the endemic Hispaniolan pine (Pinus occidentalis Swartz). Recognizing
[...] Read more.
Haiti has suffered great losses from deforestation, with little forest cover remaining today. Current reforestation efforts focus on seedling quantity rather than quality. This study examined limitations to the production of high-quality seedlings of the endemic Hispaniolan pine (Pinus occidentalis Swartz). Recognizing the importance of applying sustainable development principles to pine forest restoration, the effects of growing media and container types on seedling growth were evaluated with the goal of developing a propagation protocol to produce high-quality seedlings using economically feasible nursery practices. With regard to growing media, seedlings grew best in compost-based media amended with sand. Topsoil, widely used in nurseries throughout Haiti, produced the smallest seedlings overall. Despite a low water holding capacity and limited manganese, compost-based media provided adequate levels of essential mineral nutrients (particularly nitrogen), which allowed for sufficient seedling nutrition. Seedling shoot and root growth, as well as the ratio of shoot biomass to root biomass, were greater in polybags relative to D40s. Results indicate that economically feasible improvements to existing nursery practices in Haiti can improve the early growth rates of P. occidentalis seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Stem Circadian Phenology of Four Pine Species in Naturally Contrasting Climates from Sky-Island Forests of the Western USA
Forests 2018, 9(7), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9070396
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
PDF Full-text (4143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We identified intra-annual climatic drivers of stem water relationships and growth in foundation conifers at a subalpine site in the Great Basin Desert and at a montane site in the Mojave Desert (Nevada, USA). Sites were instrumented to represent naturally different levels of
[...] Read more.
We identified intra-annual climatic drivers of stem water relationships and growth in foundation conifers at a subalpine site in the Great Basin Desert and at a montane site in the Mojave Desert (Nevada, USA). Sites were instrumented to represent naturally different levels of heat and drought stress as part of NevCAN (the Nevada Climate and ecohydrological Assessment Network). We analyzed three years (2013–2015) of sub-hourly dendrometer records for limber (Pinus flexilis) and bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) at the subalpine site, and for ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla) at the montane site. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify relationships with environmental variables measured in-situ. At both sites, stem expansion occurred during the early morning and late afternoon, and irreversible stem increment was concentrated in the early morning hours. In subalpine species, stem growth started in late spring and continued until August, while at the montane site stem growth was episodic, peaking during summer monsoonal rainstorms. Circadian maximum and minimum stem size during the growing season were reversed during the dormant season at the colder/wetter subalpine site but not at the warmer/drier montane one. Knowledge of intra-annual tree-water relationships and stem growth helps understand how sky island forests grow under highly diverse climatic conditions, including severe drought and heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Secondary Invasions Hinder the Recovery of Native Communities after the Removal of Nonnative Pines Along a Precipitation Gradient in Patagonia
Forests 2018, 9(7), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9070394
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
PDF Full-text (3891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The removal of nonnative species can lead to re-invasion by nonnative species, especially in communities with multiple co-occurring invaders. Biotic and abiotic conditions shape community structure, reducing the predictability of nonnative management. We evaluated plant community recovery after the removal of nonnative pines
[...] Read more.
The removal of nonnative species can lead to re-invasion by nonnative species, especially in communities with multiple co-occurring invaders. Biotic and abiotic conditions shape community structure, reducing the predictability of nonnative management. We evaluated plant community recovery after the removal of nonnative pines with an emphasis on the effect of environmental conditions on the nonnative species response. We compared clearcuts (where pine plantations were removed), pine plantations, and native communities along a precipitation gradient in Patagonia. Nonnative richness and cover were higher in clearcuts compared to native communities along nearly the entire precipitation gradient, with the exception of the harshest sites. Compared to native communities, invasion resistance was lower in clearcuts in the wetter sites. Native richness and cover were lower in clearcuts relative to native communities along the gradient. Species composition in clearcuts diverged in similarity from native communities towards the wetter sites. Plantations showed an extremely lower richness and cover compared to both clearcuts and native communities. Our study highlights that clearcutting is an ineffective strategy to manage nonnatives aimed at restoring native communities and elucidates the importance of environmental context in management approaches. Taken together, our findings reinforce the important consideration of both the biotic and abiotic context of nonnative management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Sustainability Assessment of Alternative Thinning Operations in Mediterranean Softwood Plantations
Forests 2018, 9(7), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9070375
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
PDF Full-text (1358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mediterranean pines account for 14,000 ha in Tuscany alone, where they form large and homogeneous stands and represent an important resource for the forest economy. Among the harvesting systems applied to thinning operations, the most popular are whole-tree and cut-to-length harvestings. Both systems
[...] Read more.
Mediterranean pines account for 14,000 ha in Tuscany alone, where they form large and homogeneous stands and represent an important resource for the forest economy. Among the harvesting systems applied to thinning operations, the most popular are whole-tree and cut-to-length harvestings. Both systems can be deployed with different levels of mechanization. The decision about which system might be the best option in a specific case possibly leads to conflicts due to different management goals, for instance when the shift from cut-to-length to whole-tree harvesting systems results in a decrease of costs and an increase of environmental burdens. Thus, an accurate determination of economic, environmental and social indicators is crucial to make balanced decisions. With that in mind, we carried out a sustainability impact assessment of typical forest-wood chain alternatives applied to young Mediterranean pine plantations and made a comparative evaluation by means of multi-criteria analyses. Trials were carried out in umbrella pine (Pinus pinea L.) plantations in Tuscany. The analyzed cases considered four thinning operations and included the processes of harvesting, extraction and chipping. In the analysis, 12 indicators were considered (e.g., global warming potential, fatal accidents). Results of the investigation allow quantifying possible sustainability impacts and, thus, supporting management decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Strip Clear-Cutting Application and Logging Typologies for Renaturalization of Pine Afforestation—A Case Study
Forests 2018, 9(6), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060366
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
PDF Full-text (4104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Renaturalization treatment in black pine afforestation is an important topic that should be considered. There is a need to favor the evolution of artificial pine forests toward natural forest systems. Overall, this study focused on pine forests, and suggests one typology of clear-cutting
[...] Read more.
Renaturalization treatment in black pine afforestation is an important topic that should be considered. There is a need to favor the evolution of artificial pine forests toward natural forest systems. Overall, this study focused on pine forests, and suggests one typology of clear-cutting (dismantling cutting) on strips, which is associated with different extraction management techniques. Some ecological and environmental aspects associated with renaturalization treatments that have been applied by different mechanizations in black pine afforestation have been highlighted, as well as how renaturalization and the active ecological management of these stands could affect soil and vegetation. The main objectives of this research were to: (1) analyze the impact of silvicultural treatment and logging activities on forest soil, and (2) assess tree regeneration and floristic biodiversity in an ecological management system, in terms of both quantity and quality characteristics. These analyses were planned to obtain an overview of the environmental impact related to a multifunctional approach to the forest management of black pine afforestation. Essentially, the answers to the main research questions are: (1) less invasive extraction systems seem to use a cable yarder and forest winch; (2) a clear soil recovery trend with good capabilities is visible, in particular for the two extraction systems by cable; however, over a three-year period, only a partial but substantial recovery has been shown; (3) in general, silvicultural treatment showed qualitative and quantitative improvement in terms of tree regeneration; in particular, the extraction systems by forest winch and cable yarder showed better results; (4) silvicultural treatment seems not to have led to improvement at the level of the herbaceous and shrubby layers; however, clear differences are shown among the different harvesting systems. Significant recovery after use of the cable yarder was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Palaeoecological Evidence for Survival of Scots Pine through the Late Holocene in Western Ireland: Implications for Ecological Management
Forests 2018, 9(6), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060350
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
PDF Full-text (9423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Europe during the Holocene have been spatially and temporally complex. The species underwent extirpation and reintroduction in several north-west European countries. This study investigated the late Holocene vegetation history of a present-day pinewood
[...] Read more.
The dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Europe during the Holocene have been spatially and temporally complex. The species underwent extirpation and reintroduction in several north-west European countries. This study investigated the late Holocene vegetation history of a present-day pinewood in western Ireland, to test the widely accepted hypothesis that P. sylvestris became extinct in Ireland c. AD 400. Palaeoecological, chronological and loss-on-ignition analyses were conducted on a sediment core extracted from an adjacent lake. The pollen profile showed no major Pinus decline and a Pinus macrofossil occurred c. AD 840, indicating localised survival of P. sylvestris from c. AD 350 to the present. The available archival maps and historical literature provide supporting evidence for continuity of forest cover. The hypothesis that P. sylvestris became extinct in Ireland is rejected. The implications for ecological management are significant. We argue that P. sylvestris should be considered native to Ireland, at least at this site. As Ireland’s only putative native P. sylvestris population and the western limit of the species’ native range, this site is of high conservation value and must be carefully managed and monitored. Seed-sourcing for ex-situ forest restoration must be compatible with the long-term viability of the population in-situ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Designing Thinning Operations in 2nd Age Class Pine Stands—Economic and Environmental Implications
Forests 2018, 9(6), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060335
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of a harvester for thinning operations in young stands can pose several dilemmas. Firstly, the value of the timber obtained should be higher than the cost of the thinning operation—this is especially difficult with young stands, where the timber is of
[...] Read more.
The application of a harvester for thinning operations in young stands can pose several dilemmas. Firstly, the value of the timber obtained should be higher than the cost of the thinning operation—this is especially difficult with young stands, where the timber is of a small size and productivity is low. In addition, small harvesters used for thinning usually have short cranes, less than 10 m in length, which is rather impractical in stands where the distance between strip roads is a standard 20 m. The aim of this research was to select the best mechanised thinning operation, taking into account economic suitability and some environmental aspects (damage to the remaining stand and density of strip roads). The research was carried out in a 31-year-old pine stand (11.27 ha) in which three different harvester thinning (T) operations were designed: TM1) with midfield and one harvester pass, TM2) with midfield and two harvester passes and TWM) without midfield and one harvester pass. In all the proposed operations, a Vimek 404 T5 harvester (with a 4.6 m-long crane) and a Vimek 606 TT forwarder were used. The most economic operation was TWM, with a total cost of €13.73 m−3, while TM1 was 13% more expensive at €15.51 m−3. The lowest level of damage, 1.5%, was recorded in TWM, while in TM1 the level was 2.1%. The TWM operation required a net of strip roads twice as dense as in TM1. Taking into account all the analysed aspects, a thinning operation with midfield and one harvester pass is recommended when using the Vimek 404 T5 harvester and the Vimek 606 TT forwarder in the first thinning of a pine stand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Post-Fire Regeneration and Diversity Response to Burn Severity in Pinus halepensis Mill. Forests
Forests 2018, 9(6), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060299
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In recent decades, fire regimes have been modified by various factors such as changes in land use, global change or forest management policies. The vulnerability of Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is increasing due to more severe and frequent droughts. This study aimed to determine
[...] Read more.
In recent decades, fire regimes have been modified by various factors such as changes in land use, global change or forest management policies. The vulnerability of Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is increasing due to more severe and frequent droughts. This study aimed to determine the plant response of ecosystems during the short-term post-fire period by relating alpha diversity, floristic richness and tree recruitment dynamics to burn severity 5 years after a wildfire. Our results conclude that in the short term, Pinus halepensis Mill. stands in southeastern Spain quickly recovered alpha diversity values, mainly in areas burned with low severity. We observed that moderate and high severities affected the ecosystem more significantly, showing higher values for the Shannon Index but lower for the Simpson index. Pine recruitment was higher in burned areas, and we found the highest number of Aleppo pine seedlings under a moderate burn severity. Post-fire regeneration functional groups (obligate seeders and resprouters) were promoted under moderate and high burn severity, increasing their abundance. Annual species (mainly herbs) colonized burned areas, persisting with higher presence under moderate burn severity. Restoration tools should be focused on reducing fire severity, mainly in areas at high risk of desertification, and promoting resistance, vulnerability and resilience of these ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Corsican Pine (Pinus laricio Poiret) Stand Management: Medium and Long Lasting Effects of Thinning on Biomass Growth
Forests 2018, 9(5), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9050257
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3730 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the aim of acquiring better comprehension of the ecological and productive aspects of the management of pine forests, we monitored logging damage and evaluated the effects of thinning on stand growth 20 years after the treatment in a Pinus laricio Poiret stand
[...] Read more.
With the aim of acquiring better comprehension of the ecological and productive aspects of the management of pine forests, we monitored logging damage and evaluated the effects of thinning on stand growth 20 years after the treatment in a Pinus laricio Poiret stand in central Italy. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the injury levels to the remaining trees after thinning; to assess logging damage in the long-term by monitoring residual trees at the end of thinning; to evaluate the effect of damage on the radial growth of trees; to assess the stand dynamics in relation to injury levels and the treatment applied in a twenty-year range; to understand a possible treatment return time; and to evaluate the existence of the “thinning shock”. The results were that 20 years after treatment, the stand dynamics showed a complete recovery; logging damage did not affect the radial growth of P. laricio over time; a second treatment seem to be sustainable starting from the fifteenth year after the previous treatment; and the thinning shock can be clearly evaluated in the first six to seven years after the treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Management Practices and Topography on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi of Maritime Pine during Seedling Recruitment
Forests 2018, 9(5), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9050245
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
PDF Full-text (7338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can be important for regeneration success. In a context of increasing regeneration failures in the coastal forest of maritime pine in Southwest France, we tried to identity whether differences in ECM communities could partly explain the variation of
[...] Read more.
Symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can be important for regeneration success. In a context of increasing regeneration failures in the coastal forest of maritime pine in Southwest France, we tried to identity whether differences in ECM communities could partly explain the variation of regeneration success and how they are influenced by forest practices and stand characteristics. In particular, we focused on the effects of harvesting methods (comparing mature forest with seed-tree regeneration and clear-cuts) and topography (bottom-, mid-, and top positions). Five field trials (two in regeneration failure areas and three in successful areas) were used to sample 450 one-year-old seedlings. Assessments of ECM of seedling nutrient concentrations and of seedling growth based on exploration types were made. ECM root colonisation was similar in all harvesting treatments, suggesting that enough inoculum remained alive after logging. Harvesting-induced effects modifying soil properties and light availability respectively impacted ECM composition and seedling growth. Topography-induced variations in water and nutrient availability led to changes in ECM composition, but had little impact on seedling growth. Contact, short-distance, and long-distance exploration types improved the nutritional status of seedlings (Ca, K, and N), showing that mycorrhization could play an important role in seedling vitality. However, neither ECM root colonisation nor exploration types could be related to regeneration failures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Radial Growth Behavior of Pines on Romanian Degraded Lands
Forests 2018, 9(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040213
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
PDF Full-text (17674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
More than a third of Romania’s surface has low-productive soils, at the same time exposed to risks of climatic phenomena and generating high economic loss. Afforestation with pine has been the most common solution for the recovery of sheet erosion. Many of the
[...] Read more.
More than a third of Romania’s surface has low-productive soils, at the same time exposed to risks of climatic phenomena and generating high economic loss. Afforestation with pine has been the most common solution for the recovery of sheet erosion. Many of the pines grown on such land have run down. This paper presents the results of the first dendroecological investigation of degraded lands in Romania, 80 years after the first ecological reconstruction. In this way, the effects of reconstruction were assessed, supporting the adoption of future solutions for the improvement and efficiency of recovered ecosystems. Reconstructed radial growth was set against rainfall, air temperature, and management history. A total of 330 black pine and Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arn.) of different ages and social positions from 11 stands of different densities were cored for retrospective tree-ring analysis. Scots pine has made better use of these sites, with a better growth rate than black pine especially in plantations with lower survival and on dominant trees. The dynamics of radial growth distinguish the two pine species, with Scots pine showing an accentuated juvenile growth spurt and bigger growth range. The growth decline is predominantly a maturation effect that begins when the tree is around 40 years old and seems to be irreversible. After this age, weak or moderated removal is not enough to revive growth. The contribution of climate (air temperature and rainfall) to the last radial increments in decline is 3–57% and is higher than in the previous decades. On moderately degraded land by farming and grazing, the mixture of Scots pine and black pine, rather than monocultures, proved to be a sustainable solution. Dendrochronological surveying of restored ecosystems allows development of management strategies, which becomes critically important in the circumstances of climate warming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparing Thinning System Effects on Ecosystem Services Provision in Artificial Black Pine (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold) Forests
Forests 2018, 9(4), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040188
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (7508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Provision of forest ecosystem services is influenced by site and stand characteristics as well as forest management practices. In order to evaluate the influence of forest management on ecosystem services provision, two artificial black pine forests located in Central Italy were studied where
[...] Read more.
Provision of forest ecosystem services is influenced by site and stand characteristics as well as forest management practices. In order to evaluate the influence of forest management on ecosystem services provision, two artificial black pine forests located in Central Italy were studied where two different thinning approaches (traditional and selective) were applied under the SelPiBio LIFE project. Four main ecosystem services were selected and assessed: timber and bioenergy production, carbon sequestration, forest stand stability-protection, and biodiversity conservation. Even if not supported by statistical evidence, results highlighted an interesting trend just 2 years after treatment. The selective thinning was able to enhance the majority of ecosystem services compared to the traditional one. A higher growth rate of selected crop trees was measured (i.e., carbon sequestration). The slenderness ratio was sensibly reduced (i.e., mechanical stability) with a positive implication on soil retention and the prevention of landslides. Moreover, valuable and interesting commercial assortments have been proven to be retrieved from the stands with the selective approach. Larger and also better formed trees were harvested, given the impact of selective thinning on the co-dominant class. The Shannon index increased only with the selective thinning intervention. In conclusion, the provided results and methods are encouraging and might represent the basis for novel and longer monitoring efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dispersal Patterns of Pine Wilt Disease in the Early Stage of Its Invasion in South Korea
Forests 2017, 8(11), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8110411
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
PDF Full-text (2005 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We characterized the dispersal patterns of pine wilt disease (PWD) in the early stage of its invasion in the South Korea, and estimated the influence of environmental factors on the dispersal of PWD. Data were obtained in 10 regions with at least five
[...] Read more.
We characterized the dispersal patterns of pine wilt disease (PWD) in the early stage of its invasion in the South Korea, and estimated the influence of environmental factors on the dispersal of PWD. Data were obtained in 10 regions with at least five consecutive years of data for 10 years from 1994 to 2005. The dispersal patterns of PWD were categorized into four types: type 1 is a jumping type of dispersal, forming new patches; type 2 infestations are ones without any expansion of patch size; and types 3 and 4, respectively, show uni-directional or multi-directional dispersal outward from an existing patch. Dispersal patterns changed during different phases of the pathogen’s invasion history: type 1 was the most frequent in the early invasion stage. Annual dispersal distance showed regional variations. Human population density had a positive correlation with the dispersal distance of PWD, indicating that anthropogenic factors can contribute to the dispersal of PWD. Our results suggested that dispersal through jumping from areas occupied by PWD was the main dispersal route in the early stage of invasion and that after this phase, the existing colonies expanded and merged. These results supported the existence of stratified dispersal patterns of PWD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top