Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Biodiversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 January 2023) | Viewed by 53524

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Environment, Ionian University, Panagoula, 29 100 Zakynthos, Greece
Interests: conservation biology; spatial analysis; biodiversity; ecology and evolution; urban planning; sustainable development; environmental impact assessment; environment; ecosystem ecology

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Guest Editor
Department of Forestry and Natural Environment, International Hellenic University, 1st Km Drama-Mikrochori, GR 66100 Drama, Greece
Interests: forest ecology; landscape ecology; biodiversity conservation; restoration ecology; fire ecology; urban landscapes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Forests are extremely valuable ecosystems, associated with a number of ecosystem services of significant importance for human wellbeing. Although biodiversity conservation stands at the top of the list of desired ecosystem services, carbon storage, water regulation and supply, wood and non-wood products, recreation, soil protection, and nutrient cycling are also important. Forests harbor a large proportion of the global diversity of life, despite the relatively small part of the Earth that they cover. In recent decades, global forests have faced different and often contradicting challenges.

On one hand, the abandonment of land observed in Europe, North America, and elsewhere, which is associated with socioeconomic changes during the 20th century, provides an opportunity for degraded or even damaged forests to recover and reoccupy their pre-human areas. While this may result in a significant increase in forest cover and decrease in forest fragmentation, however, it may also lead to an increased degree of landscape homogeneity with negative impacts on local biodiversity.

On the other hand, extensive deforestation of the globally important tropical forests and land conversion to agriculture continues to occur, threatening the long-term sustainability of these biodiversity hotspots. This deforestation often occurs at large spatial scales without necessarily ensuring significant economic benefits, while the loss of habitats and biodiversity is undoubtedly huge. 

All the above issues stress the need for sustainable forest management and for reconciling land management and socioeconomic development with the need for conserving the global biodiversity at all levels, from genetic variants to species, populations, and ecosystems. In this Special Issue, we seek scientifically sound manuscripts with relevance in at least one of the following topics: (1) sustainable forest management, (2) reconciling biodiversity with land abandonment, (3) preventing the deforestation of tropical forests, (4) state-of-the-art methods for monitoring the forest ecosystem’s ecological integrity and health, (5) wildlife conservation and socioeconomic development, and (6) forest fragmentation, connectivity, and their effects on ecological processes.

Dr. Konstantinos Poirazidis
Dr. Panteleimon Xofis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable forest management
  • Forest biodiversity conservation
  • Forest monitoring
  • Forest restoration
  • Forest ecology
  • Forest fragmentation and connectivity
  • Human–wildlife conflicts

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 677 KiB  
Editorial
Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests
by Panteleimon Xofis, Georgios Kefalas and Konstantinos Poirazidis
Forests 2023, 14(9), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14091871 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Forests are extremely valuable ecosystems, associated with a number of ecosystem services that are of significant importance for human wellbeing [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

18 pages, 6508 KiB  
Article
Landscape Characteristics in Relation to Ecosystem Services Supply: The Case of a Mediterranean Forest on the Island of Cyprus
by George Kefalas, Roxanne Suzette Lorilla, Panteleimon Xofis, Konstantinos Poirazidis and Nicolas-George Homer Eliades
Forests 2023, 14(7), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14071286 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
The Mediterranean area is one of the most significantly altered biodiversity hotspots on the Earth’s surface; it has been intensively affected by anthropogenic activity for millennia, forming complex socioecological systems. In parallel, the long history of natural ecological processes and the deep interlinking [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean area is one of the most significantly altered biodiversity hotspots on the Earth’s surface; it has been intensively affected by anthropogenic activity for millennia, forming complex socioecological systems. In parallel, the long history of natural ecological processes and the deep interlinking with human populations led to landscape patterns, such as spatial heterogeneity, that facilitate the provision of essential ecosystem services (ESs). As such, a comprehensive understanding of the underlying factors that influence the supply of ESs is of paramount importance for effective forest management policies that ensure both ecological integrity and human welfare. This study aimed at identifying local specific interactions across three different spatial scales between landscape metrics and ESs using global and geographical random forest models. The findings showed that dense forest cover may have a positive effect on the supply of ESs, such as climate regulation and timber provision. Although landscape heterogeneity is considered among the main facilitators of ecosystem multifunctionality, this did not fully apply for the Marathasa region, as forest homogeneity seems to be linked with provision of multiple services. By assessing under which landscape conditions and characteristics forest ESs thrive, local stakeholders and managers can support effective forest management to ensure the co-occurrence of ESs and societal wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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23 pages, 8452 KiB  
Article
Assessing Forest Biodiversity: A Novel Index to Consider Ecosystem, Species, and Genetic Diversity
by Jana-Sophie Ette, Markus Sallmannshofer and Thomas Geburek
Forests 2023, 14(4), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14040709 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3005
Abstract
Rates of biodiversity loss remain high, threatening the life support system upon which all human life depends. In a case study, a novel biodiversity composite index (BCI) in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity is established in Tyrol, Austria, based on available [...] Read more.
Rates of biodiversity loss remain high, threatening the life support system upon which all human life depends. In a case study, a novel biodiversity composite index (BCI) in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity is established in Tyrol, Austria, based on available national forest inventory and forest typing data. Indicators are referenced by ecological modeling, protected areas, and unmanaged forests using a machine learning approach. Our case study displays an average biodiversity rating of 57% out of 100% for Tyrolean forests. The respective rating for ecosystem diversity is 49%; for genetic diversity, 53%; and for species diversity, 71%. Coniferous forest types are in a more favorable state of preservation than deciduous and mixed forests. The BCI approach is transferable to Central European areas with forest typing. Our objective is to support the conservation of biodiversity and provide guidance to regional forest policy. BCI is useful to set restoration priorities, reach conservation targets, raise effectiveness of financial resources spent on biodiversity conservation, and enhance Sustainable Forest Management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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16 pages, 4889 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Monthly Rainfall and Temperature on Flowering and Fruiting Intensities Vary within and among Selected Woody Species in Northwestern Ethiopia
by Sinework Dagnachew, Demel Teketay, Sebsebe Demissew, Tesfaye Awas and Debissa Lemessa
Forests 2023, 14(3), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14030541 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
The phenological responses of plants to climatic variables are critical for conservation planning; however, it is less understood in an Afrotropical context. Here, we observed how flowering and fruiting phenophases of seven indigenous plant species are related to monthly rainfall and temperature for [...] Read more.
The phenological responses of plants to climatic variables are critical for conservation planning; however, it is less understood in an Afrotropical context. Here, we observed how flowering and fruiting phenophases of seven indigenous plant species are related to monthly rainfall and temperature for 24 months in Ethiopia. We employed linear and non-linear models to test the effects on flowering and fruiting intensity. The results of the linear model showed that flowering intensity decreased with increasing monthly temperature for Maytenus arbutifolia, Prunus africana, and Solanecio gigas, but increased for Bersama abyssinica, and decreased with increasing monthly rainfall for Maytenus arbutifolia. The results of the non-linear model indicated that the flowering intensity of Brucea antidysenterica, Dombeya torrida and Rosa abyssinica decreased, leveled off and increased with increasing monthly temperature. Moreover, the fruiting intensity of Brucea antidysenterica and Rosa abyssinica decreased with increasing monthly rainfall, but increased for Bersama abyssinica; The fruiting intensity increased with increasing monthly temperature for Brucea antidysenterica and Rosa abyssinica. Altogether, the effects of climatic variables not only vary among the species, but also among the phenophases of a plant species. Hence, considering these varied effects in forest conservation schemes is critical, especially during the epoch of this continuing climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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9 pages, 2191 KiB  
Article
Rocky Area Inhabiting Daddy Long-Legs Spiders, Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 (Araneae: Pholcidae) in Mountainous Mixed Forests from South Korea
by Chang-Moon Jang, Jung-Sun Yoo, Seung-Tae Kim and Yang-Seop Bae
Forests 2023, 14(3), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14030538 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Two new spider species of the genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805, Pholcus deokjeok sp. nov. and Pholcus gangneung sp. nov. in the family Pholcidae C. L. Koch, 1850 are newly described from South Korea. The present new species belong to the phungiformes [...] Read more.
Two new spider species of the genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805, Pholcus deokjeok sp. nov. and Pholcus gangneung sp. nov. in the family Pholcidae C. L. Koch, 1850 are newly described from South Korea. The present new species belong to the phungiformes group in the genus. They are found on rock walls in mountainous mixed forests. This work provides diagnoses, detailed descriptions, and taxonomic photographs for these new species. The unusual shaped and strongly sclerotized embolus of P. gangneungsp. nov. in the Pholcus phungiformes group is the first to be reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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15 pages, 3158 KiB  
Article
Effect of Land Use and Land Cover Change on Plant Diversity in the Ghodaghodi Lake Complex, Nepal
by Manoj Naunyal, Bidur Khadka and James T. Anderson
Forests 2023, 14(3), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14030529 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
The Ghodaghodi Lake Complex is a Ramsar site, Nepal’s first bird sanctuary, and has significant ecological and economic values. The lake complex is in the western part of the lowland of the Terai region. Numerous studies indicate a relation between the normalized difference [...] Read more.
The Ghodaghodi Lake Complex is a Ramsar site, Nepal’s first bird sanctuary, and has significant ecological and economic values. The lake complex is in the western part of the lowland of the Terai region. Numerous studies indicate a relation between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land use, and land cover with plant diversity. However, the association between terrestrial plant diversity and NDVI in the Ghodaghodi Lake Complex is unknown but has important implications due to potential land use changes. We aimed to understand the relationship between plant diversity and NDVI in the Ghodaghodi Lake Complex. We performed a vegetation survey using a simple random sampling methodology. Shannon–Wiener’s diversity index (H’) was calculated from the field data, and Landsat images were used to compare land use and land cover changes and calculate NDVI values for 2000 and 2022. The image classification shows that forest cover in April and December 2000 was 71.1% and 58.5%, respectively, and was the dominant land cover in the study area. In contrast, agriculture occupied 18.8% and 27.3% in April and December 2000, respectively, and was the primary land use. Forests covered the most land in April (64.8%) and December (65.3%) of 2022. Likewise, agriculture was a widespread land use. We found a significant correlation (r = 0.80, p < 0.05) between the NDVI and plant species diversity, as the NDVI explained 65% of plant species diversity. There was a decrease in forest cover from 2000 to 2022. The strong correlation between the NDVI and vegetation species diversity shows that the NDVI can be a substitute for plant diversity. Our findings show that increased NDVI corresponds to increased plant species diversity and that the lake complex had more plant diversity in 2022 than in 2000, despite a decrease in forested lands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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23 pages, 2180 KiB  
Article
Modelling Climatically Suitable Areas for Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) and Their Shifts across Neotropics: The Role of Protected Areas
by Robinson J. Herrera-Feijoo, Bolier Torres, Rolando López-Tobar, Cristhian Tipán-Torres, Theofilos Toulkeridis, Marco Heredia-R and Rubén G. Mateo
Forests 2023, 14(2), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14020385 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2915
Abstract
Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) is a species with great economic interest worldwide and is classified as vulnerable to extinction by the IUCN. Deforestation and climate change are the main hazards to this species. Therefore, it is vital to describe possible changes in [...] Read more.
Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) is a species with great economic interest worldwide and is classified as vulnerable to extinction by the IUCN. Deforestation and climate change are the main hazards to this species. Therefore, it is vital to describe possible changes in distribution patterns under current and future climatic conditions, as they are important for their monitoring, conservation, and use. In the current study, we predict, for the very first time, the potential distribution of Mahogany based on data that reflect the total distribution of the species, climatic and edaphic variables, and a consensus model that combines the results of three statistical techniques. The obtained model was projected to future climatic conditions considering two general circulation models (GCM), under two shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP245 and SSP585) for 2070. Predictions under current climatic conditions indicated wide adequate areas in Central American countries such as Mexico and demonstrated a coverage of up to 28.5% within the limits of the protected areas. Under future scenarios, drastic reductions were observed in different regions, particularly in Venezuela, Perú, and Ecuador, with losses of up to 56.0%. On the other hand, an increase in suitable areas for the species within protected areas was also detected. The results of this study are certainly useful for identifying currently unrecorded populations of Mahogany, as well as for identifying locations that are likely to be suitable both now and in the future for conservation management planning. The methodology proposed in this work is able to be used for other forest species in tropical zones as a tool for conducting dynamic conservation and restoration strategies that consider the effects of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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15 pages, 3648 KiB  
Article
Studies on Pollen Morphology, Pollen Vitality and Preservation Methods of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (Fabaceae)
by Qiao Liu, Ju Yang, Xiurong Wang and Yang Zhao
Forests 2023, 14(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14020243 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4512
Abstract
Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (Fabaceae) is an endemic species in China, which has a wide range of ecological functions and high economic value. G. sinensis belongs to androdioecy, and the stamens of perfect flowers are aborted, meaning that a perfect flower is a functional [...] Read more.
Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (Fabaceae) is an endemic species in China, which has a wide range of ecological functions and high economic value. G. sinensis belongs to androdioecy, and the stamens of perfect flowers are aborted, meaning that a perfect flower is a functional female flower. Understanding the dynamic process of flowering and the characteristics of pollen morphology effectively determine the viability of pollen vitality, and the suitable conditions for short-term storage of pollen can provide theoretical basis and technical reference for hybrid breeding and germplasm conservation of G. sinensis. In this study, the male plants of G. sinensis in Guiyang area were used as research materials. The flowering dynamic process of male flowers was recorded through field observation. The morphology of pollen was observed and analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The germination characteristics of pollen were studied with an in vitro germination method, and the pollen vitality was also determined using four staining methods. The effects of different storage temperatures and water contents on pollen germination rate were discussed. The results showed that the male flowers of G. sinensis had a short, single flowering period, lasting 2–3 days from the opening to the shedding. The dynamic opening process of a single flower was artificially divided into five stages. Pollen grains of G. sinensis are oblate spheroidal, tricolporate with equatorial elongated endoapertures and the sporoderm surface is reticulate. The MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) staining method could accurately and quickly determine the pollen vitality of G. sinensis. The highest pollen germination rate was 65.89% ± 3.41%, and the length of the pollen tube was 3.96 mm after cultured in 15% sucrose + 100 mg/L boric acid + 20 mg/L calcium chloride for 24 h. It was necessary to collect the pollen at the big bud stage, which was conducive to improving the efficiency of pollen collection because the pollen had been mature with high pollen vitality at this stage. When it came to pollen preservation, the pollen germination rate was significantly affected by storage time, storage temperature and pollen water content. The pollen still had high vitality after being stored at −80 °C for 30 days when the moisture content of the pollen decreased to 9%, and the pollen germination rate only decreased by 28.84% compared with that before storage. In conclusion, this study has comprehensively and systematically studied the morphology, vitality determination and preservation methods of the pollen of G. sinensis, providing a theoretical basis for the cross regional breeding and the conservation and utilization of germplasm resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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21 pages, 9755 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Heterogeneity and Conservation Status of the Natura 2000 Priority Forest Habitat Type Tilio–Acerion (9180*) Based on Field Mapping
by Janez Kermavnar, Erika Kozamernik and Lado Kutnar
Forests 2023, 14(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14020232 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Priority habitat types (HTs) within the Natura 2000 network are of the highest importance for conservation in Europe. However, they often occur in smaller areas and their conservation status is not well understood. One such HT is that of the Tilio–Acerion forests of [...] Read more.
Priority habitat types (HTs) within the Natura 2000 network are of the highest importance for conservation in Europe. However, they often occur in smaller areas and their conservation status is not well understood. One such HT is that of the Tilio–Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines (9180*). The Natura 2000 study site, Boč–Haloze–Donačka gora, in the Sub-Pannonian region of eastern Slovenia is characterized by a matrix of European beech forests and includes rather small, fragmented areas covered by Tilio–Acerion forests. The goal of this research was to examine the heterogeneity and conservation status of the selected HT through field mapping, which was performed in the summer of 2020. As the conservation of HT calls for a more detailed approach, we distinguished between the following four pre-defined habitat subtypes: (i) Acer pseudoplatanus-Ulmus glabra stands growing mostly in concave terrain, (ii) Fraxinus excelsior stands growing on slopes, (iii) Tilia sp. stands with thermophilous broadleaves occurring on ridges and slopes, (iv) Acer pseudoplatanus stands occurring on more acidic soils with an admixture of Castanea sativa. Field mapping information was complemented with the assessment of habitat subtype characteristics using remote sensing data. The results showed that habitat subtypes differed significantly in terms of area, tree species composition, forest stand characteristics, relief features and the various threats they experienced (e.g., fragmentation, tree mortality, ungulate browsing pressure). The differences between subtypes were also evident for LiDAR-derived environmental factors related to topography (i.e., terrain steepness and Topographic Position Index). This study provides a baseline for setting more realistic objectives for the conservation management of priority forest HTs. Due to the specificities of each individual habitat subtype, conservation activities should be targeted to the Natura 2000 habitat subtype level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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18 pages, 50580 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Forest Ecosystems in the Chure (Siwalik Hills) Landscape of Nepal Himalaya and Their Conservation Need
by Yadav Uprety, Achyut Tiwari, Sangram Karki, Anil Chaudhary, Ram Kailash Prasad Yadav, Sushma Giri, Srijana Shrestha, Kiran Paudyal and Maheshwar Dhakal
Forests 2023, 14(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14010100 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3632
Abstract
As a basic component of the forest ecosystem, the forest structure refers to the general distribution of plant species of different life forms and sizes. The characterization of forest structure is the key to understanding the vegetation history, present status, and future development [...] Read more.
As a basic component of the forest ecosystem, the forest structure refers to the general distribution of plant species of different life forms and sizes. The characterization of forest structure is the key to understanding the vegetation history, present status, and future development trajectory of the forest ecosystems. The Chure region of Nepal covers about 12.78% of the country’s land area and extends east to west along the southern foothills. This biologically rich but geologically fragile region is home to many species and provides many ecosystem services to millions of people. The Chure landscape is severely suffered from anthropogenic disturbances including logging, grazing, fuelwood collection, solid waste disposal, encroachment, forest fire, and excavation of sand, gravel, and boulders. In this study, we aim to characterize the forest ecosystem types outside the protected areas in the Chure region of Nepal and analyze the threat and vulnerability of the landscape from the biodiversity point of view. We sampled 62 sites to study the dominant vegetation type, regeneration status, and major threats to the forest ecosystems. A distribution map of the forest ecosystem types in Chure was prepared. We identified 14 forest ecosystem types in Chure including seven new ones. The newly reported forest ecosystems are Hymenodictyon excelsum Forest, Syzygium cumini Forest, Terminalia anogeissiana Forest, Schima wallichii–Shorea robusta Forest, Pinus roxburghiiShorea robusta Forest, Pinus roxburghii Forest, and Bamboo thickets. We conclude that intensified human activities including forest encroachment and deforestation are mainly responsible for the ecological imbalance in the Chure region. We emphasize an in-depth analysis of biophysical linkage and immediate conservation efforts for the restoration of the Chure landscape in Nepal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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11 pages, 1919 KiB  
Article
Genetic Diversity, Structure, and Differentiation of Pinus sylvestris L. Populations in the East European Plain and the Middle Urals
by Yana Sboeva, Nikita Chertov, Yulia Nechaeva, Alena Valeeva, Svetlana Boronnikova and Ruslan Kalendar
Forests 2022, 13(11), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13111798 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
Genetic diversity is important for the long-term survival of species and plays a critical role in their conservation. To manifest the adaptive potential, it is necessary to preserve the allelic diversity of populations, including both typical and region-specific alleles. Molecular genetic analysis of [...] Read more.
Genetic diversity is important for the long-term survival of species and plays a critical role in their conservation. To manifest the adaptive potential, it is necessary to preserve the allelic diversity of populations, including both typical and region-specific alleles. Molecular genetic analysis of 22 populations of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.; Pinaceae) in 10 subjects of the Russian Federation in the East European Plain and the Middle Urals was carried out. Molecular genetic analysis of 22 populations of P. sylvestris revealed 182 polymorphic PCR fragments. The studied populations are characterized by a medium level of genetic diversity. A high subdivision coefficient (GST) of the studied populations was established; the intensity was 0.559. At the same time, the level of subdivision differed for different regions; for the populations from the Middle Urals, it was 15.5% (GST = 0.155), and for the populations from the East European Plain, it was 55.8% (GST = 0.558). The dendrogram of genetic similarity shows five clusters of the studied populations of P. sylvestris according to their geographical location. The populations from the East European Plain are mostly characterized by typicality, while the populations from the Middle Urals, on the contrary, are more specific in gene pools. The use of the coefficient of genetic originality to identify populations with typical and specific alleles allows for solving the problem of selecting populations for the conservation of forest genetic resources. The data obtained on genetic diversity, and the structure of populations growing in areas of active logging, are important for determining the geographical origin of plant samples, which is an integral part of the control of illegal logging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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20 pages, 1399 KiB  
Article
Criteria and Indicators to Define Priority Areas for Biodiversity Conservation in Vietnam
by Xuan Dinh Vu, Elmar Csaplovics, Christopher Marrs and Trung Thanh Nguyen
Forests 2022, 13(9), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13091341 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
Balancing biodiversity conservation with land use for agricultural production is a major societal challenge. Conservation activities must be prioritized since funds and resources for conservation are insufficient in the context of current threats, and conservation competes with other societal priorities. In order to [...] Read more.
Balancing biodiversity conservation with land use for agricultural production is a major societal challenge. Conservation activities must be prioritized since funds and resources for conservation are insufficient in the context of current threats, and conservation competes with other societal priorities. In order to contribute to conservation priority-setting literature, we applied an environmental model, Pressure–State–Response (PSR), to develop a set of criteria for identifying priority areas for biodiversity conservation in Vietnam. Our empirical data have been compiled from 185 respondents and categorized into three groups: Governmental Administration and Organizations, Universities and Research Institutions, and Protected Areas. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) theory was used to identify the weight of all criteria. Our results show that the priority levels for biodiversity conservation identified by these three factors are 41% for “Pressure”, 26% for “State”, and 33% for “Response”. Based on these three factors, seven criteria and seventeen indicators were developed to determine priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Besides, our study also reveals that the groups of Governmental Administration and organizations and Protected Areas put a focus on the “Pressure” factor, while the group of Universities and Research Institutions emphasized the importance of the “Response” factor in the evaluation process. We suggest that these criteria and indicators be used to identify priority areas for biodiversity conservation in Vietnam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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11 pages, 1828 KiB  
Article
Study on the Genetic Variation of Triadica sebifera (Linnaeus) Small Populations Based on SSR Markers
by Pengyan Zhou, Qi Zhou, Fengping Dong, Xin Shen and Yingang Li
Forests 2022, 13(8), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13081330 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Triadica sebifera (Linnaeus) Small is a tree species native to China. The seeds of T. sebifera are rich in oil and are widely used in industrial fields. To explore the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of T. sebifera germplasm resources, 10 pairs of [...] Read more.
Triadica sebifera (Linnaeus) Small is a tree species native to China. The seeds of T. sebifera are rich in oil and are widely used in industrial fields. To explore the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of T. sebifera germplasm resources, 10 pairs of microsatellite markers were applied to 203 samples collected from eight populations. Forty-three alleles were detected. The average expected heterozygosity (He = 0.491) revealed a low level of genetic diversity. The genetic differentiation among T. sebifera populations was low (Fst = 0.026), which might be related to high gene flow (average Nm = 11.151). Genetic distance and structure results further confirmed that the genetic compositions of the eight populations were quite similar. One of the possible reasons for this phenomenon is that the early introduction and cultivation of T. sebifera were common, so gene exchange was frequent among populations. However, UPGMA clustering results indicated that the eight T. sebifera populations could still be divided into three categories. The classification was related to their geographical location: the southwestern group (ZY), central group (HG and XY) and eastern group (LS, HS, LX, XZ and LY). The reason for this differentiation might be severe deforestation following the decline in T. sebifera economic status. In addition, the central XY population had the largest number of rare alleles (4). In conclusion, although T. sebifera germplasm resources had a low level of genetic diversity, several rare alleles were detected in the central populations, which are valuable for breeding. These resources should be conserved to maintain genetic diversity in the T. sebifera populations. Moreover, geographical distances were important reasons for the limited genetic variations among the populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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17 pages, 2727 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Bird Assemblages and Habitat Variables in a Boreal Forest of the Khentii Mountain, Northern Mongolia
by Zoljargal Purevdorj, Munkhbaatar Munkhbayar, Woon Kee Paek, Onolragchaa Ganbold, Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan, Erdenetushig Purevee, Tuvshinlkhagva Amartuvshin, Uranchimeg Genenjamba, Batbayar Nyam and Joon Woo Lee
Forests 2022, 13(7), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13071037 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2260
Abstract
In order to determine the relationships between bird assemblages and forest habitat, we conducted surveys for bird assemblages in different forest habitats in the Khentii Mountain region, Northern Mongolia. A total of 1730 individuals belonging to 71 species from 23 families of 11 [...] Read more.
In order to determine the relationships between bird assemblages and forest habitat, we conducted surveys for bird assemblages in different forest habitats in the Khentii Mountain region, Northern Mongolia. A total of 1730 individuals belonging to 71 species from 23 families of 11 orders were recorded. Our findings revealed that passeriformes are the most species-rich order, accounting for 86.2% of the total species. The dominant species were Anthus hodgsoni, Parus major, Poecile palustris, and Sitta europaea in study area. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and permutation multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) showed that bird assemblages were affected by forest habitat types. Our findings also showed significant relationships between bird assemblages and canopy height and ground cover vegetation structure, whereas there were no relationships between altitude and other habitat variables. Thus, maintaining diverse forest habitats or restoring forest would play a key role in bird conservation and sustainable management of forest areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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11 pages, 2229 KiB  
Article
Ecological Strategy Spectra for Communities of Different Successional Stages in the Tropical Lowland Rainforest of Hainan Island
by Chen Chen, Yabo Wen, Tengyue Ji, Hongxia Zhao, Runguo Zang and Xinghui Lu
Forests 2022, 13(7), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13070973 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
Plant ecological strategies are shaped by long-term adaptation to the environment and are beneficial to plant survival and reproduction. Research is ongoing to better understand how plants best allocate resources for growth, survival and reproduction, as well as how ecological strategies may shift [...] Read more.
Plant ecological strategies are shaped by long-term adaptation to the environment and are beneficial to plant survival and reproduction. Research is ongoing to better understand how plants best allocate resources for growth, survival and reproduction, as well as how ecological strategies may shift in plant communities over the course of succession. In this study, 12 forest dynamics plots in three different successional stages were selected for study in the tropical lowland rainforest ecosystem of Hainan Island. For each plot, using Grime’s competitor, a stress-tolerator, the ruderal (CSR) scheme and using the CSR ratio tool “StrateFy”, an ecological strategy spectrum was constructed using functional trait data obtained by collecting leaf samples from all woody species. The ecological strategy spectra were compared across successional stages to reveal successional dynamics. The results showed: (1) The ecological strategy spectra varied among forest communities belonging to three different successional stages. (2) The community-weighted mean CSR (CWM-CSR) strategies shifted with succession: CWM-S values decreased, while the CWM-C and CWM-R values increased. Overall, shifts in plant functional traits occurred slowly and steadily with succession showing complex and diverse trade-offs and leading to variation among the ecological strategy spectra of different successional stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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37 pages, 6703 KiB  
Article
Evidence for Alternate Stable States in an Ecuadorian Andean Cloud Forest
by Ana Mariscal, Daniel Churchill Thomas, Austin Haffenden, Rocío Manobanda, William Defas, Miguel Angel Chinchero, José Danilo Simba Larco, Edison Jaramillo, Bitty A. Roy and Mika Peck
Forests 2022, 13(6), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13060875 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
Tree diversity inventories were undertaken. The goal of this study was to understand changes in tree community dynamics that may result from common anthropogenic disturbances at the Reserva Los Cedros, a tropical montane cloud forest reserve in northern Andean Ecuador. The reserve shows [...] Read more.
Tree diversity inventories were undertaken. The goal of this study was to understand changes in tree community dynamics that may result from common anthropogenic disturbances at the Reserva Los Cedros, a tropical montane cloud forest reserve in northern Andean Ecuador. The reserve shows extremely high alpha and beta tree diversity. We found that all primary forest sites, regardless of age of natural gaps, are quite ecologically resilient, appearing to return to a primary-forest-type community of trees following gap formation. In contrast, forests regenerating from anthropogenic disturbance appear to have multiple possible ecological states. Where anthropogenic disturbance was intense, novel tree communities appear to be assembling, with no indication of return to a primary forest state. Even in ancient primary forests, new forest types may be forming, as we found that seedling community composition did not resemble adult tree communities. We also suggest small watersheds as a useful basic spatial unit for understanding biodiversity patterns in the tropical Andes that confound more traditional Euclidean distance as a basic proxy of dissimilarity. Finally, we highlight the conservation value of Reserva Los Cedros, which has managed to reverse deforestation within its boundaries despite a general trend of extensive deforestation in the surrounding region, to protect a large, contiguous area of highly endangered Andean primary cloud forest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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18 pages, 4456 KiB  
Article
Allometric Equation for Aboveground Biomass Estimation of Mixed Mature Mangrove Forest
by Hazandy Abdul-Hamid, Fatin-Norliyana Mohamad-Ismail, Johar Mohamed, Zaiton Samdin, Rambod Abiri, Tuan-Marina Tuan-Ibrahim, Lydia-Suzieana Mohammad, Abdul-Majid Jalil and Hamid-Reza Naji
Forests 2022, 13(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020325 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4452
Abstract
The disturbance of mangrove forests could affect climate regulation, hydrological cycles, biodiversity, and many other unique ecological functions and services. Proper biomass estimation and carbon storage potential are needed to improve forest reference on biomass accumulation. The establishment of a site-specific allometric equation [...] Read more.
The disturbance of mangrove forests could affect climate regulation, hydrological cycles, biodiversity, and many other unique ecological functions and services. Proper biomass estimation and carbon storage potential are needed to improve forest reference on biomass accumulation. The establishment of a site-specific allometric equation is crucial to avert destructive sampling in future biomass estimation. This study aimed to develop a site-specific allometric equation for biomass estimation of a mix-mature mangrove forest at Sungai Pulai Forest Reserve, Johor. A stratified line transect was set up and a total of 1000 standing trees encompassing seven mangrove tree species were inventoried. Destructive sampling was conducted using the selective random sampling method on 15 standing trees. Five allometric equations were derived by using diameter at breast height (D), stem height (H), and wood density (ρ) which were then compared to the common equation. Simulations of each allometric equation regarding species were performed on 1000 standing trees. Results showed that the single variable (D) equation provided an accurate estimation, which was slightly improved when incorporated with the H variable. Both D and H variables, however, gave inconsistent results for large-scale data and imbalance of sampled species. Meanwhile, the best fit either for small-scale or large-scale data, as well as for imbalanced sample species was achieved following the inclusion of the ρ variable when developing the equation. Hence, excluding the H variable while including the ρ variable should be considered as an important determinant in mixed mangrove species and uneven-aged stand for aboveground biomass estimation. This valuation can both improve and influence decision-making in forest development and conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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13 pages, 2877 KiB  
Article
Population Genetic Structure Analysis Reveals Significant Genetic Differentiation of the Endemic Species Camellia chekiangoleosa Hu. with a Narrow Geographic Range
by Bin Huang, Zhongwei Wang, Jianjian Huang, Xiaohui Li, Heng Zhu, Qiang Wen and Li-an Xu
Forests 2022, 13(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020234 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
In order to protect and utilize the germplasm resource better, it is highly necessary to carry out a study on the genetic diversity of Camellia chekiangoleosa Hu. However, systematic research on population genetics analysis of the species is comparatively rare. Herein, 16 highly [...] Read more.
In order to protect and utilize the germplasm resource better, it is highly necessary to carry out a study on the genetic diversity of Camellia chekiangoleosa Hu. However, systematic research on population genetics analysis of the species is comparatively rare. Herein, 16 highly variable simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used for genetic structure assessment in 12 natural C. chekiangoleosa populations. The genetic diversity of C. chekiangoleosa was low (h = 0.596), within which, central populations (such as Damaoshan (DMS), Sanqingshan (SQS), and Gutianshan (GTS)) at the junction of four main mountain ranges presented high diversity and represented the center of the C. chekiangoleosa diversity distribution; the Hengshan (HS) population in the west showed the lowest diversity, and the diversity of the eastern and coastal populations was intermediate. C. chekiangoleosa exhibited a high level of genetic differentiation, and the variation among populations accounted for approximately 24% of the total variation. The major reasons for this situation are the small population scale and bottleneck effects in some populations (HS and Lingshan (LS)), coupled with inbreeding within the population and low gene flow among populations (Nm = 0.796). To scientifically protect the genetic diversity of C. chekiangoleosa, in situ conservation measures should be implemented for high-diversity populations, while low-diversity populations should be restored by reintroduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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23 pages, 4692 KiB  
Article
Effects of Forestry Transformation on the Landscape Level of Biodiversity in Poland’s Forests
by Ewa Referowska-Chodak and Bożena Kornatowska
Forests 2021, 12(12), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12121682 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
At all times, historical, political, economic, and social factors have affected the management of forests, with direct and indirect effects on the landscape. This study aimed to trace the impact of Poland’s forestry evolution over the last 75 years (1945–2020) on forest biodiversity [...] Read more.
At all times, historical, political, economic, and social factors have affected the management of forests, with direct and indirect effects on the landscape. This study aimed to trace the impact of Poland’s forestry evolution over the last 75 years (1945–2020) on forest biodiversity at the landscape level. Five indicators were selected (forest area, forest fragmentation, protected forests, protective forests, harvesting intensity) to identify directions and dynamics of changes of the forest landscape and their determinants and repercussions. In addition, there were determined forest landscapes threats and recommendations for further action and intervention were formulated. The study period embraced two eras of widely divergent political-economic conditions in Poland (socialism and democracy). In the socialism era (1945–1989), there promptly increased total forest cover, wood resources (total growing stock) and the total area of protective forests (essential for safeguarding biodiversity, including the landscape level). In the era of democracy (1990–2020), average growing stock density increased intensely, and at the same time, a greater emphasis was put on reducing forest fragmentation and clear-cut logging. The results obtained showed equal average increase in the area of protected forests in both eras under the study (most intense at their crossing point). In view of the protection of biodiversity at the forest landscape level, the changes throughout the study period were considered positive, although not without problems and challenging consequences for foresters. The determined pressures to the forest landscapes, requiring legal, political, or financial solutions, include a risk of alteration of the ownership structure of Poland’s forests or possibility of operational changes in the State Forests National Forest Holding; outdated forest policies; organizational difficulties in the forest landscape protection; insufficient conservation funding; uneven distribution and further fragmentation of forests; and—last but not least—climate change impacts, including extreme weather events and droughts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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17 pages, 73319 KiB  
Article
Interspecific Variance of Suitable Habitat Changes for Four Alpine Rhododendron Species under Climate Change: Implications for Their Reintroductions
by Jin-Hong Zhang, Kun-Ji Li, Xiao-Fei Liu, Liu Yang and Shi-Kang Shen
Forests 2021, 12(11), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12111520 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Rapid temperature changes in mountain ecosystems pose a great threat to alpine plant species and communities. Rhododendron species, as the major component of alpine and sub-alpine vegetation, have been demonstrated to be sensitive to climate changes. Therefore, understanding how alpine Rhododendron species spread [...] Read more.
Rapid temperature changes in mountain ecosystems pose a great threat to alpine plant species and communities. Rhododendron species, as the major component of alpine and sub-alpine vegetation, have been demonstrated to be sensitive to climate changes. Therefore, understanding how alpine Rhododendron species spread to new habitats and how their geographical distribution range shifts is crucial for predicting their response to global climate change and for facilitating species conservation and reintroduction. In this study, we applied MaxEnt modeling and integrated climate, topography, and soil variables in three periods under three climate change scenarios to predict the suitable habitat for four Rhododendron species in China. We measured the potential distribution change in each species using the change ratio and the direction of centroid shifts. The predicted results showed that (1) the threatened species R. protistum would have a maximum decrease of 85.84% in its distribution range in the 2070s under RCP 8.5, and R. rex subsp. rex as a threatened species would experience a distribution range expansion (6.62–43.10%) under all of the three climate change scenarios in the 2070s. (2) R. praestans would experience a reduction in its distribution range (7.82–28.34%) under all of the three climate change scenarios in the 2070s. (3) The four Rhododendron species would be moved to high latitudes in the north-westward direction as a whole in the future, especially the two threatened species R. protistum and R. rex subsp. rex. (4) Aside from climate variables, soil factors also exert an important influence on the distribution of Rhododendron species. This study revealed the species-specific response of Rhododendron species to climate change. The results can not only provide novel insights into conservation strategies of Rhododendron species, but also propose a valuable method for the habitat selection during the reintroduction of endangered species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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13 pages, 2336 KiB  
Article
Employing Genome-Wide SNP Discovery to Characterize the Genetic Diversity in Cinnamomum camphora Using Genotyping by Sequencing
by Xue Gong, Aihong Yang, Zhaoxiang Wu, Caihui Chen, Huihu Li, Qiaoli Liu, Faxin Yu and Yongda Zhong
Forests 2021, 12(11), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12111511 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl is a representative tree species of evergreen broad-leafed forests in East Asia and has exceptionally high economic, ornamental, and ecological value. However, the excessive exploitation and utilization of C. camphora trees have resulted in the shrinking of wild population [...] Read more.
Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl is a representative tree species of evergreen broad-leafed forests in East Asia and has exceptionally high economic, ornamental, and ecological value. However, the excessive exploitation and utilization of C. camphora trees have resulted in the shrinking of wild population sizes and rare germplasm resources. In this study, we characterized 171 C. camphora trees from 39 natural populations distributed throughout the whole of China and one Japanese population. We investigated genetic diversity and population structure using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified by genotyping by sequencing (GBS) technology. The results showed the genetic diversity of the C. camphora populations from western China > central China > eastern China. Moreover, the Japanese population showed the highest diversity among all populations. The molecular variance analysis showed 92.03% of the genetic variation within populations. The average pairwise FST was 0.099, and gene flow Nm was 2.718, suggesting a low genetic differentiation among populations. Based on the genetic clustering analysis, the 40 C. camphora populations clustered into three major groups: Western China, Central China, and Eastern China + Japan. Eastern China’s population had the closest genetic relationship with the Japanese population, suggesting possible gene exchange between the two adjacent areas. This study furthers our understanding of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of C. camphora in East Asia and provides genetic tools for developing strategies of C. camphora germplasm utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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12 pages, 1427 KiB  
Article
Genetic Structure and Geographical Differentiation of Larix sibirica Ledeb. in the Urals
by Nikita Chertov, Yulia Vasilyeva, Andrei Zhulanov, Yulia Nechaeva, Svetlana Boronnikova and Ruslan Kalendar
Forests 2021, 12(10), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12101401 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
The Ural Mountains and the West Eurasian Taiga forests are one of the most important centers of genetic diversity for Larix sibirica Ledeb. Forest fragmentation negatively impacts forest ecosystems, especially due to the impact of their intensive use on the effects of climate [...] Read more.
The Ural Mountains and the West Eurasian Taiga forests are one of the most important centers of genetic diversity for Larix sibirica Ledeb. Forest fragmentation negatively impacts forest ecosystems, especially due to the impact of their intensive use on the effects of climate change. For the preservation and rational use of forest genetic resources, it is necessary to carefully investigate the genetic diversity of the main forest-forming plant species. The Larix genus species are among the most widespread woody plants in the world. The Siberian larch (Larix sibirica, Pinaceae) is found in the forest, forest-tundra, tundra (Southern part), and forest-steppe zones of the North, Northeast, and partly East of the European part of Russia and in Western and Eastern Siberia; in the Urals, the Siberian larch is distributed fragmentarily. In this study, eight pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used to analyse the genetic diversity and population structure of 15 Siberian larch populations in the Urals. Natural populations in the Urals exhibit indicators of genetic diversity comparable to those of Siberia populations (expected heterozygosity, He = 0.623; expected number of alleles, Ne = 4017; observed heterozygosity, Ho = 0.461). Genetic structure analysis revealed that the examined populations are relatively highly differentiated (Fst = 0.089). Using various algorithms for determining the spatial genetic structure, the examined populations formed three groups according to geographical location. The data obtained are required for the development of species conservation and restoration programs, which are especially important in the Middle Urals, which is the region with strong forest fragmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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Review

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24 pages, 7750 KiB  
Review
Conserving Potential and Endangered Species of Pericopsis mooniana Thwaites in Indonesia
by Julianus Kinho, Suhartati, Husna, Faisal Danu Tuheteru, Diah Irawati Dwi Arini, Moh. Andika Lawasi, Resti Ura’, Retno Prayudyaningsih, Yulianti, Subarudi, Lutfy Abdulah, Ruliyana Susanti, Totok Kartono Waluyo, Sona Suhartana, Andianto, Marfuah Wardani, Titi Kalima, Elis Tambaru, Wahyudi Isnan, Adi Susilo, Ngatiman, Laode Alhamd, Dulsalam and Soenarnoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Forests 2023, 14(2), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14020437 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
Indonesia has around 4000 wood species, and 10% (400) of species are categorized as commercial wood. One species is kayu kuku (Pericopsis mooniana Thwaites), native to Southeast Sulawesi. This species is considered a fancy wood used for sawn timber, veneer, plywood, carving, [...] Read more.
Indonesia has around 4000 wood species, and 10% (400) of species are categorized as commercial wood. One species is kayu kuku (Pericopsis mooniana Thwaites), native to Southeast Sulawesi. This species is considered a fancy wood used for sawn timber, veneer, plywood, carving, and furniture. The high demand for wood caused excessive logging and threatened its sustainability. In addition, planting P. mooniana has presented several challenges, including seedling production, viability and germination rate, nursery technology, and silviculture techniques. As a result, the genera of Pericopsis, including P. elata (Europe), P. mooniana (Sri Lanka), and P. angolenses (Africa), have been listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Appendix. Based on The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, P. mooniana is categorized as Vulnerable (A1cd). This conservation status has raised issues regarding its biodiversity, conservation, and sustainability in the near future. This paper aims to review the conservation of potential and endangered species of P. mooniana and highlight some efforts for its species conservation and sustainable use in Indonesia. The method used is a systematic literature review based on P. mooniana’s publication derived from various reputable journal sources and additional literature sources. The results revealed that the future demand for P. mooniana still increases significantly due to its excellent wood characteristics. This high demand should be balanced with both silviculture techniques and conservation efforts. The silviculture of P. mooniana has been improved through seed storage technology, improved viability and germination rates, proper micro and macro propagation, applying hormones, in vitro seed storage, improved nursery technology, and harvesting techniques. P. mooniana conservation can be conducted with both in situ and ex situ conservation efforts. In situ conservation is carried out by protecting its mother trees in natural conditions (i.e., Lamedae Nature Reserve) for producing good quality seeds and seedlings. Ex situ conservation is realized by planting seeds and seedlings to produce more wood through rehabilitating and restoring critical forests and lands due to its ability to adapt to marginal land and mitigate climate change. Other actions required for supporting ex situ conservation are preventing illegal logging, regeneration, conservation education, reforestation, agroforestry system applied in private and community lands, and industrial forest plantations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests)
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