Forest Health: Fungal and Insect Ecology

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecophysiology and Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019) | Viewed by 9895

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Forest Health Dynamics Laboratory, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA
Interests: mycology; host-fungal interactions; fungal-insect interactions; fungal and insect ecology; forest health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Native diseases and insects are an integral part of forest ecosystems that kill weakened trees to make way for new, dynamic forests. They help recycle forests by decomposing trees to replenish the soil and supply vital nutrients necessary for tree growth. The process of regeneration, growth, and renewal has repeated for centuries and is essential to maintain a stable, healthy forest ecosystem. However, many insects and their associated fungal symbionts are a serious threat and can have devastating impacts on the long-term survival and sustainability of these forest ecosystems.

This Special Issue of Forests is focused on these important insect invaders and their associated fungal symbionts. It will explore the relationship between the insect, fungi, host and their environment. Research articles may focus on any aspect of the ecology of these insects and fungal symbionts, including interactions with each other, their environment, host and other organisms, as well as detection, monitoring, impacts, and management.

Prof. Dr. Lori G. Eckhardt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Insect Ecology
  • Fungal Ecology
  • Forest Pest
  • Forest Health
  • Symbiosis

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2656 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Pine Wilt Disease Outbreaks and Climatic Variables in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region
by Ruihe Gao, Zhuang Wang, Haixiang Wang, Yanping Hao and Juan Shi
Forests 2019, 10(9), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10090816 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
Outbreaks of pine wilt disease (PWD, caused by the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), have caused mass mortality of the genus Pinus in Eurasia. Climate change may greatly influence the distribution and population dynamics of longhorn beetles of the genus Monochamus (the main [...] Read more.
Outbreaks of pine wilt disease (PWD, caused by the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), have caused mass mortality of the genus Pinus in Eurasia. Climate change may greatly influence the distribution and population dynamics of longhorn beetles of the genus Monochamus (the main vector of B. xylophilus), the survival and development of B. xylophilus, and the resistance of pines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of climatic variables associated with extensive PWD outbreaks in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) forest across the eastern part of the Three Gorges Reservoir region. Since its discovery in 2006, the most serious PWD outbreak occurred from 2014 to 2018; the most striking characteristic of this outbreak is the consistent increase in Masson pine mortality and extent of the affected areas. Moreover, 28 out of 46 PWD biological relevant climatic variables were selected and used for redundancy analysis. The ordination biplots reflect the complicated quantitative relationship between the PWD epidemic variables and the biologically relevant climatic variables of temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and wind speed. The results will be useful for understanding the role climatic variables play in PWD outbreaks, for predicting the spread and pattern of PWD outbreaks, and for the advance preparation of management strategies with the purpose of preventing future PWD outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Health: Fungal and Insect Ecology)
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16 pages, 2411 KiB  
Article
The Resistance of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Half-sib Families to Heterobasidion annosum
by Adas Marčiulynas, Vaida Sirgedaitė-Šėžienė, Povilas Žemaitis and Virgilijus Baliuckas
Forests 2019, 10(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10030287 - 23 Mar 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3671
Abstract
This study observed the genotypic variation among Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) half-sib families’ susceptibility to Heterobasidion annosum. Scots pine susceptibility was tested in 12 half-sib families by inoculating them with four different H. annosum strains. At two, six, and ten [...] Read more.
This study observed the genotypic variation among Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) half-sib families’ susceptibility to Heterobasidion annosum. Scots pine susceptibility was tested in 12 half-sib families by inoculating them with four different H. annosum strains. At two, six, and ten months after the inoculations, the susceptibility indicators (incidence rate, pathogen spread, and mortality rate) were compared and the total phenolic compounds (TPC) in the inoculated and control groups determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Among half-sib families, significant differences were found for seedling mortality (range: 1.3%–21.2%); however, the differences in incidence rate (range: 54%–77%) and pathogen spread (range: 24–53 mm) were not significant. The incidence rate among half-sib families correlated positively and significantly (r = 0.72, p < 0.05) with the mortality rate, while the pathogen spread correlated negatively with mortality, although the correlation was not significant (r = −0.29, p > 0.05). The TPC comparison with susceptibility indicators showed that the half-sib families with lower susceptibility were characterized by the ability to increase TPC after inoculation compared to the control group. This tendency was most apparent in stems and roots six and two months after inoculation, respectively. Correlation analyses revealed that higher TPC in stems six months after inoculation determined a lower incidence rate (r = −0.32, p < 0.05), while higher Change in concentration of total phenolic compounds (TPCΔ) indicated a lower pathogen spread (r = −0.60, p < 0.05). The lowest incidence of the pathogen was determined in half-sib families with the highest TPCΔ in the roots two months after inoculation. The lower susceptibility of Scots pine half-sib families is based on a combination of enhanced constitutive and inducible phenolic defense mechanisms. The data may facilitate the selection of Scots pine half-sib families with low susceptibility for breeding programs and forest management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Health: Fungal and Insect Ecology)
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17 pages, 4593 KiB  
Article
Impact of Rhabdocline pseudotsugae and Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii on the Selection of Suitable Provenances of Douglas Fir in Central Europe
by Michal Samek, Petr Novotný, Roman Modlinger, Martin Fulín, František Beran, Amit Roy and Vítězslava Pešková
Forests 2019, 10(3), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10030204 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3069
Abstract
Two diseases, Rhabdocline needle cast caused by Rhabdocline pseudotsugae Sydow, and Swiss needle cast caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rohde) Petr., recently became a severe threat to Central European Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands. Both pathogens infect assimilative organs causing needle [...] Read more.
Two diseases, Rhabdocline needle cast caused by Rhabdocline pseudotsugae Sydow, and Swiss needle cast caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rohde) Petr., recently became a severe threat to Central European Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands. Both pathogens infect assimilative organs causing needle chloritization and drop off. Pervasive infection by these pathogens has been recorded at the Hůrky provenance trial (Písek, South Bohemia, Czech Republic), established in 1971 as part of a series of experiments by International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO). The intensity and duration of needle cast sporulation were monitored using a Burkard spore trap, and the health status of 24 Douglas fir provenances from the original areal of distribution (British Columbia, Washington, Oregon) was evaluated under this trial. While comparing provenances, the following characteristics were surveyed: trunk volume, defoliation rate, and the difference in tree diameter between measurements in 2011 and 2016. A statistical evaluation was performed using the regression model and a decision tree. The highest sporulation rates on needles for both needle casts were observed from April to July. The Washington provenances 1069 North Bend, 1075 Enumclaw, and 1089 Cathlamet can be recommended for plantation, considering the provenances’ satisfactory productivity and low extent of damage from needle casts, while the provenances such as 1104 Brookings, 1028 Merritt (due to high mortality) and 1010 Barrière, 1021 D’Arcy, and 1067 Skykomish (due to high defoliation) are not suitable for plantation under Central European conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Health: Fungal and Insect Ecology)
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