Innovative Processing Technologies for Developing Functional Ingredients and Food Products with Health Benefits from Grains

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 53635

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Jose Antonio Novais 6, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: grains; germination; fermentation; nutritional value; bioactive compounds; food quality and safety; gluten-free grain-derived products; celiac disease
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail
Guest Editor
Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Jose Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: grains; peptides; phenolic compounds; nutritional characterization; protein quality and digestibility; bioavailability of food compounds; bioactivity; germination; fermentation; enzymatic treatments
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Grains are defined as dry seeds belonging to cereals, pseudocereals, and legumes, and are important staple foods that are globally consumed. They are considered a valuable source of nutrients—mainly carbohydrates, but they also provide proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Grains are increasingly popular among consumers worldwide due to their recognized health benefits linked to the presence of a wide range of bioactive compounds. In this sense, regular grain consumption has been positively associated to the prevention of many chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain types of cancer. Due to their outstanding content of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, grains are commercially attractive ingredients for manufacturing healthy food products, the demand for which is growing rapidly. The conventional processing of raw grains into derived food products involves mechanical, chemical, and physical transformations that may have a deleterious impact on the content, bioavailability, and activity of bioactive compounds present in grains, and hence, on the health benefits of grain-derived foodstuffs.

Demographic pressure and climate change force the industry towards the use of innovative processes based on efficient and eco-friendly technologies for sustainable food production, simultaneously enabling the reduction of harmful additives. Moreover, research endeavors are being made to provide innovative food products to fulfil new personal health requirements and lifestyles. Innovative processing strategies could be used to preserve the levels of biologically active compounds and enhance their bioavailability in grains and derived products, thus increasing their health-promoting benefits. Novel processing technologies also seek the reduction of water use and environmental sustainability, and to fulfill consumers’ demands of minimally processed and healthy foods. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasound (US), cold plasma (CP), germination, fermentation, puffing, and parboiling exemplify sustainable technologies that are being explored for preserving or enhancing the levels of biologically active compounds in grains. This Special Issue is open to original research results and review articles focused on recent advances in the application of novel processing technologies aiming to produce healthier ingredients and foodstuffs from commonly produced or underutilized cereals, pseudocereals, and legumes. We encourage authors to submit research articles providing novel knowledge on the influence of processing technologies on the content, composition, and bioavailability of bioactive ingredients, and on the health-promoting properties of grains.

Dr. Elena Peñas Pozo
Dr. Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cereals 
  • Pseudocereals 
  • Legumes 
  • Processing technologies 
  • Functional ingredients and foods 
  • Food development 
  • Bioactive compounds 
  • Bioavailability 
  • Health 
  • Grain quality

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 220 KiB  
Editorial
Innovative Processing Technologies for Developing Functional Ingredients and Food Products with Health Benefits from Grains
by Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga and Elena Peñas
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071356 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Grains are dry seeds belonging to diverse crops, including cereals, pseudocereals and pulses [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

23 pages, 6138 KiB  
Article
Development of Antioxidant and Nutritious Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flour Using Controlled Optimized Germination as a Bioprocess
by Daniel Rico, Elena Peñas, María del Carmen García, Dilip K. Rai, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga, Juana Frias and Ana B. Martín-Diana
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2924; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122924 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2608
Abstract
Germination is an efficient and natural strategy that allows the modification of the nutritional value and the nutraceutical properties of seeds, enabling one to tailor the process according to its final use. This study aimed at optimization of germination conditions to produce novel [...] Read more.
Germination is an efficient and natural strategy that allows the modification of the nutritional value and the nutraceutical properties of seeds, enabling one to tailor the process according to its final use. This study aimed at optimization of germination conditions to produce novel lentil flours with improved nutritional and functional features. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to model the effect of temperature (15–27 °C) and time (1–5 days) on different nutritional and quality parameters of lentil flours including proximate composition, content and profile of fatty acids, content of phytic acid, ascorbic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), content and profile of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, expected glycemic index (GI) and color during germination. As shown by RSM polynomial models, sprouting promoted the reduction of phytic acid content and enhanced the levels of ascorbic acid, GABA, insoluble phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and expected GI, and modified the color of the resultant lentil flours. RSM optimization of germination temperature and time using desirability function revealed that the optimal process conditions to maximize the nutritional, bioactive and quality properties of sprouted lentil flours were 21 °C for 3.5 days. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1234 KiB  
Article
Antihypertensive and Antioxidant Activity of Chia Protein Techno-Functional Extensive Hydrolysates
by Alvaro Villanueva-Lazo, Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Noelia Maria Rodriguez-Martin, Francisco Millan, Cecilio Carrera, Justo Javier Pedroche and Maria del Carmen Millan-Linares
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102297 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2613
Abstract
Twelve high-quality chia protein hydrolysates (CPHs) were produced from chia protein isolate (CPI) in a pilot plant of vegetable proteins. To obtain functional hydrolysate, four CPHs were hydrolyzed by the action of Alcalase, an endoprotease, and the other eight CPHs were hydrolyzed by [...] Read more.
Twelve high-quality chia protein hydrolysates (CPHs) were produced from chia protein isolate (CPI) in a pilot plant of vegetable proteins. To obtain functional hydrolysate, four CPHs were hydrolyzed by the action of Alcalase, an endoprotease, and the other eight CPHs were hydrolyzed by the action of Flavourzyme, an exoprotease. Alcalase-obtained CPHs showed significant antihypertensive properties particularly, the CPH obtained after 15 min of hydrolysis with Alcalase (CPH15A), which showed a 36.2% hydrolysis degree. In addition, CPH15A increased the antioxidant capacity compared to CPI. The CPH15A physicochemical composition was characterized and compared to chia defatted flour (CDF) and CPI, and its techno-functional properties were determined by in vitro experiments through the analysis of its oil absorption capacity, as well as the capacity and stability of foaming and emulsifying, resulting in an emulsifier and stabilizer better than the intact protein. Therefore, the present study revealed that CPH15A has potent antihypertensive and antioxidant properties and can constitute an effective alternative to other plant protein ingredients sources that are being used in the food industry. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 1703 KiB  
Article
Fermentation as a Tool to Revitalise Brewers’ Spent Grain and Elevate Techno-Functional Properties and Nutritional Value in High Fibre Bread
by Emma Neylon, Elke K. Arendt, Emanuele Zannini and Aylin W. Sahin
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071639 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4413
Abstract
Recycling of by-products from the food industry has become a central part of research to help create a more sustainable future. Brewers’ spent grain is one of the main side-streams of the brewing industry, rich in protein and fibre. Its inclusion in bread, [...] Read more.
Recycling of by-products from the food industry has become a central part of research to help create a more sustainable future. Brewers’ spent grain is one of the main side-streams of the brewing industry, rich in protein and fibre. Its inclusion in bread, however, has been challenging and requires additional processing. Fermentation represents a promising tool to elevate ingredient functionality and improve bread quality. Wheat bread was fortified with spray-dried brewers’ spent grain (BSG) and fermented brewers’ spent grain (FBSG) at two addition levels to achieve “source of fibre” and “high in fibre” claims according to EU regulations. The impact of BSG and FBSG on bread dough, final bread quality and nutritional value was investigated and compared to baker’s flour (BF) and wholemeal flour (WMF) breads. The inclusion of BSG and FBSG resulted in a stronger and faster gluten development; reduced starch pasting capacity; and increased dough resistance/stiffness. However, fermentation improved bread characteristics resulting in increased specific volume, reduced crumb hardness and restricted microbial growth rate over time. Additionally, the inclusion of FBSG slowed the release in reducing sugars over time during in vitro starch digestion. Thus, fermentation of BSG can ameliorate bread techno-functional properties and improve nutritional quality of breads. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 4339 KiB  
Article
Significance of Sodium Bisulfate (SBS) Tempering in Reducing the Escherichia coli O121 and O26 Load of Wheat and Its Effects on Wheat Flour Quality
by Jared Rivera, Aiswariya Deliephan, Janak Dhakal, Charles Gregory Aldrich and Kaliramesh Siliveru
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071479 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2666
Abstract
The occurrence of recalls involving pathogenic Escherichia coli-contaminated wheat flours show the need for incorporating antimicrobial interventions in wheat milling. The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of sodium bisulfate (SBS) tempering in reducing E. coli O121 (ATCC 2219) [...] Read more.
The occurrence of recalls involving pathogenic Escherichia coli-contaminated wheat flours show the need for incorporating antimicrobial interventions in wheat milling. The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of sodium bisulfate (SBS) tempering in reducing E. coli O121 (ATCC 2219) and O26 (ATCC 2196) wheat load and to evaluate the impact of effective (≥3.0 log reductions) SBS treatments on wheat flour quality. Wheat grains were inoculated with E. coli (~6 log CFU/g) and tempered (17% moisture, 24 h) using the following SBS concentrations (%wheat basis): 0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5% SBS. Reductions in E. coli O121 and O26 wheat load at different time intervals (0.5, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h) during tempering were evaluated. The addition of SBS during tempering resulted in E. coli (O121 and O26) log reductions of 2.0 (0.5% SBS) to >4.0 logs (1.5% SBS) (p ≤ 0.05). SBS tempering (1.25 and 1.5% SBS) produced acidic wheat flours (pH = 4.51–4.60) but had comparable wheat flour properties in terms of composition, dough, and bread-making properties relative to the control (0% SBS). SBS tempering reduced the E. coli O121 and O26 load of wheat after tempering with minimal effects on wheat flour quality. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 2989 KiB  
Article
Highly-Efficient Release of Ferulic Acid from Agro-Industrial By-Products via Enzymatic Hydrolysis with Cellulose-Degrading Enzymes: Part I–The Superiority of Hydrolytic Enzymes Versus Conventional Hydrolysis
by Karina Juhnevica-Radenkova, Jorens Kviesis, Diego A. Moreno, Dalija Seglina, Fernando Vallejo, Anda Valdovska and Vitalijs Radenkovs
Foods 2021, 10(4), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040782 - 5 Apr 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4767
Abstract
Historically Triticum aestívum L. and Secale cereále L. are widely used in the production of bakery products. From the total volume of grain cultivated, roughly 85% is used for the manufacturing of flour, while the remaining part is discarded or utilized rather inefficiently. [...] Read more.
Historically Triticum aestívum L. and Secale cereále L. are widely used in the production of bakery products. From the total volume of grain cultivated, roughly 85% is used for the manufacturing of flour, while the remaining part is discarded or utilized rather inefficiently. The limited value attached to bran is associated with their structural complexity, i.e., the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which makes this material suitable mostly as a feed supplement, while in food production its use presents a challenge. To valorize these materials to food and pharmaceutical applications, additional pre-treatment is required. In the present study, an effective, sustainable, and eco-friendly approach to ferulic acid (FA) production was demonstrated through the biorefining process accomplished by non-starch polysaccharides degrading enzymes. Up to 11.3 and 8.6 g kg−1 of FA was released from rye and wheat bran upon 24 h enzymatic hydrolysis with multi-enzyme complex Viscozyme® L, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Innovative Fermented Beverages Made with Red Rice, Barley, and Buckwheat
by Federica Cardinali, Andrea Osimani, Vesna Milanović, Cristiana Garofalo and Lucia Aquilanti
Foods 2021, 10(3), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030613 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4758
Abstract
The increase in food intolerances, allergies, and food-based lifestyle choices has dramatically increased the consumer demand for healthy foods characterized by pleasant sensory traits. In such a context, innovative cereal-based beverages are characterized by high nutritional value, pleasant palatability, and potential healthy properties. [...] Read more.
The increase in food intolerances, allergies, and food-based lifestyle choices has dramatically increased the consumer demand for healthy foods characterized by pleasant sensory traits. In such a context, innovative cereal-based beverages are characterized by high nutritional value, pleasant palatability, and potential healthy properties. In the present study, a pool of 23 lactic acid bacteria strains was preliminary assayed as monocultures for the fermentation of three ad hoc formulated cereal- (red rice and barley) and pseudocereal (buckwheat) -based substrates. Eight strains with the best performance in terms of acidification rate were selected for the formulation of three multiple strain cultures to be further exploited for the manufacture of laboratory-scale prototypes of fermented beverages. The compositional and microbiological features of the three experimental beverages highlighted their high biological value for further exploitation. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 1060 KiB  
Article
Production and Characterization of a Novel Gluten-Free Fermented Beverage Based on Sprouted Oat Flour
by Natalia Aparicio-García, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga, Juana Frias and Elena Peñas
Foods 2021, 10(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010139 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4637
Abstract
This study investigates the use of sprouted oat flour as a substrate to develop a novel gluten-free beverage by fermentation with a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1) starter culture. Physicochemical, microbiological, nutritional and sensory properties of sprouted oat fermented beverage (SOFB) were characterized. [...] Read more.
This study investigates the use of sprouted oat flour as a substrate to develop a novel gluten-free beverage by fermentation with a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1) starter culture. Physicochemical, microbiological, nutritional and sensory properties of sprouted oat fermented beverage (SOFB) were characterized. After fermentation for 4 h, SOFB exhibited an acidity of 0.42 g lactic acid/100 mL, contents of lactic and acetic acids of 1.6 and 0.09 g/L, respectively, and high viable counts of probiotic starter culture (8.9 Log CFU/mL). Furthermore, SOFB was a good source of protein (1.7 g/100 mL), β-glucan (79 mg/100 mL), thiamine (676 μg/100 mL), riboflavin (28.1 μg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds (61.4 mg GAE/100 mL), and had a high antioxidant potential (164.3 mg TE/100 mL). Spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were not detected in SOFB. The sensory attributes evaluated received scores higher than 6 in a 9-point hedonic scale, indicating that SOFB was well accepted by panelists. Storage of SOFB at 4 °C for 20 days maintained L. plantarum viability and a good microbial quality and did not substantially affect β-glucan content. SOFB fulfils current consumer demands regarding natural and wholesome plant-based foods. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

9 pages, 2768 KiB  
Article
Phytic Acid in Brown Rice Can Be Reduced by Increasing Soaking Temperature
by Ayaka Fukushima, Gun Uchino, Tatsuki Akabane, Ayaka Aiseki, Ishara Perera and Naoki Hirotsu
Foods 2021, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010023 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4603
Abstract
Phytic acid (PA) is a storage form of phosphorus in seeds. Phytase enzyme is activated at germination and hydrolyses PA into myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. PA inhibits the absorption of minerals in the human intestine by chelation. Its degradation, therefore, is a [...] Read more.
Phytic acid (PA) is a storage form of phosphorus in seeds. Phytase enzyme is activated at germination and hydrolyses PA into myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. PA inhibits the absorption of minerals in the human intestine by chelation. Its degradation, therefore, is a key factor to improve mineral bioavailability in rice. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is favoured because it improves the availability of nutrients, and thus have a positive effect on health. In this study, we show the effects of soaking temperature on phytase activity and PA content in GBR. Rice phytase showed thermostability and its activity peaked at 50 °C. After 36 h of soaking, phytase activity was significantly increased at 50 °C and PA content was significantly decreased, compared to that at 30 °C. Zinc (Zn) analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in Zn content among different temperature treatments. Calculated total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ) was significantly higher in GBR compared with non-soaked seeds. Moreover, brown rice grains germinated at 50 °C showed a higher TAZ value than that at 30 °C. Seed germination and seed water soaking at high temperatures reduce PA content in brown rice showing a potentially effective way to improve mineral bioavailability in brown rice. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1775 KiB  
Article
Improving Polyphenolic Compounds: Antioxidant Activity in Chickpea Sprouts through Elicitation with Hydrogen Peroxide
by Liliana León-López, Yudith Escobar-Zúñiga, Nancy Yareli Salazar-Salas, Saraid Mora Rochín, Edith Oliva Cuevas-Rodríguez, Cuauhtémoc Reyes-Moreno and Jorge Milán-Carrillo
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121791 - 2 Dec 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3407
Abstract
Elicitation appears to be a promising alternative to enhance the bioactive compound content and biological activities of legume sprouts. Multi-response optimization by response surface methodology (RSM) with desirability function (DF) was used to optimize the elicitor concentration (hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 [...] Read more.
Elicitation appears to be a promising alternative to enhance the bioactive compound content and biological activities of legume sprouts. Multi-response optimization by response surface methodology (RSM) with desirability function (DF) was used to optimize the elicitor concentration (hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) and germination time in order to maximize total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and antioxidant activity (AOX) of chickpea sprouts. Chemical, antinutritional, and nutraceutical properties of optimized chickpea sprouts (OCS) were also determined. The predicted regression models developed were efficiently fitted to the experimental data. The results of the desirability function revealed that optimum attributes in chickpea sprouts can be achieved by the application of 30 mM H2O2 and 72 h of germination time, with global desirability value D = 0.893. These OCS had higher (p < 0.05) TPC (7.4%), total iso-flavonoids (16.5%), AOX (14.8%), and lower phytic acid (16.1%) and saponins (21.8%) compared to H2O2 non-treated chickpea sprouts. Optimized germination conditions slightly modified the flavonoid profile in chickpea; eight iso-flavonoids were identified in OCS, including formononetin and biochanin A, which were identified as the major compounds. Results from this study support elicitation with H2O2 as an effective approach to improve phytochemical content and antioxidant activity in chickpea sprouts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1708 KiB  
Article
Potential of Germination in Selected Conditions to Improve the Nutritional and Bioactive Properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.)
by Karín E. Coello, Juana Frias, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga, María Elena Cartea, Rosaura Abilleira and Elena Peñas
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111639 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5490
Abstract
Moringa oleifera L. is greatly appreciated for its high content of phytochemicals. Although most parts of moringa tree have been widely studied, seeds remained scarcely explored. The first goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of germination to improve the nutritional [...] Read more.
Moringa oleifera L. is greatly appreciated for its high content of phytochemicals. Although most parts of moringa tree have been widely studied, seeds remained scarcely explored. The first goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of germination to improve the nutritional composition (proximate composition and levels of vitamins B1 and B2), content of bioactive compounds (glucosinolates, phenolics and γ-aminobutyric acid, GABA) and antioxidant activity of moringa seed. Germination improved protein, fat, fiber, riboflavin, phenolics, some individual glucosinolates (GLS) and GABA contents, as well as the antioxidant potential in moringa sprouts, but the extent of the improvement depended on germination conditions. The second objective of this work was to identify the optimal germination conditions to maximize nutritional and bioactive quality of moringa by applying multi-response optimization (response surface methodology, RSM). RSM models indicated that 28 °C and 24 h were the optimal conditions to enhance the accumulation of riboflavin, phenolics and antioxidant activity of sprouts, while the highest GABA and total GLS contents were observed at 36 °C for 96 h and thiamine achieved the maximum content at 36 °C for 24 h. These results show that moringa sprouts are promising functional foods that might be also used as ingredients for the elaboration of novel foodstuffs. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

24 pages, 2279 KiB  
Article
Chemical Characterization and Bioaccessibility of Bioactive Compounds from Saponin-Rich Extracts and Their Acid-Hydrolysates Obtained from Fenugreek and Quinoa
by Joaquín Navarro del Hierro, Guillermo Reglero and Diana Martin
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091159 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5793
Abstract
Saponin-rich extracts from edible seeds have gained increasing interest and their hydrolysis to sapogenin-rich extracts may be an effective strategy to enhance their potential bioactivity. However, it remains necessary to study the resulting chemical modifications of the extracts after hydrolysis as well as [...] Read more.
Saponin-rich extracts from edible seeds have gained increasing interest and their hydrolysis to sapogenin-rich extracts may be an effective strategy to enhance their potential bioactivity. However, it remains necessary to study the resulting chemical modifications of the extracts after hydrolysis as well as their impact on the subsequent bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds. The chemical composition of non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed extracts from fenugreek (FE, HFE) and quinoa (QE, HQE), and the bioaccessibility of saponins, sapogenins and other bioactive compounds after an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was assessed. In general, FE mainly contained saponins (31%), amino acids (6%) and glycerides (5.9%), followed by carbohydrates (3.4%), fatty acids (FFA) (2.3%), phytosterols (0.8%), tocols (0.1%) and phenolics (0.05%). HFE consisted of FFA (35%), sapogenins (8%) and partial glycerides (7%), and were richer in phytosterols (1.9%) and tocols (0.3%). QE mainly contained glycerides (33%), FFA (19%), carbohydrates (16%) and saponins (7.9%), and to a lesser extent alkylresorcinols (1.8%), phytosterols (1.5%), amino acids (1.1%), tocols (0.5%) and phenolics (0.5%). HQE mainly consisted of FFA (57%), partial glycerides (23%) and sapogenins (5.4%), were richer in phytosterols (2.4%), phenolics (1.2%) and tocols (0.7%) but poorer in alkylresorcinols (1%). After in vitro digestion, saponins from FE and QE were fully bioaccessible, sapogenins from HFE displayed a good bioaccessibility (76%) and the sapogenin from HQE was moderately bioaccesible (38%). Digestion of saponin and sapogenin standards suggested that other components of the extracts were enhancing the bioaccessibility. Other minor bioactive compounds (phytosterols, alkylresorcinols, tocols and some phenolics) also displayed optimal bioaccessibility values (70–100%). Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

18 pages, 1930 KiB  
Review
Prebiotic Potential of Cereal Components
by Reihane Abdi and Iris J. Joye
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102338 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4045
Abstract
One type of functional food that has been receiving much attention is food rich in prebiotics. The old but still valid definition of prebiotics defines them as non-digestible food components that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria in the [...] Read more.
One type of functional food that has been receiving much attention is food rich in prebiotics. The old but still valid definition of prebiotics defines them as non-digestible food components that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria in the colon and, as a result, improve the host health. Cereals, as one of the main components in the human diet, contain substantial levels of dietary fiber with probable prebiotic potential. In addition, dietary fiber, particularly soluble dietary fiber, has recently emerged as a promising natural highly functional food ingredient in food production. This review focuses on the prebiotic potential of cereal dietary fiber types and covers the achievements and developments regarding its isolation. First, the probiotic and prebiotic concepts will be discussed. Next, different components of dietary fiber and their effect on the host bacteria through in vitro and/or in vivo studies will be reviewed. In a last part, this paper also discusses means of boosting the prebiotic properties of cereal components and innovative strategies for the extraction of cereal dietary fiber. The review focuses on wheat as a leading cereal crop that is widely and intensely used throughout the world in food production. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop