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Article

Sprouted Barley Flour as a Nutritious and Functional Ingredient

1
Subdirection of Research and Technology, Agro-Technological Institute of Castilla y León, Consejería de Agricultura y Ganadería, Finca de Zamadueñas, 47171 Valladolid, Spain
2
Department of Food Characterization, Quality and Safety, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), 28006 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Food BioSciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre Ashtown, 15 Dublin, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030296
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 25 February 2020 / Accepted: 2 March 2020 / Published: 5 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)
The increasing demand for healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated seeds to produce functional flours. In this study, germination conditions were optimized in barley grains with the aim to produce flours with high nutritional and biofunctional potential using response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of germination time (0.8–6 days) and temperature (12–20 °C) on barley quality was studied. Non-germinated barley was used as the control. The content of vitamins B1, B2 and C, and proteins increased notably after germination, especially at longer times, while levels of fat, carbohydrates, fibre, and β-glucan were reduced. Total phenolic compounds, γ-aminobutyric acid and antioxidant activity determined by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity increased between 2-fold and 4-fold during sprouting, depending on germination conditions and this increase was more pronounced at higher temperatures (16–20 °C) and longer times (5–6 days). Procyanidin B and ferulic acid were the main phenolics in the soluble and insoluble fraction, respectively. Procyanidin B levels decreased while bound ferulic acid content increased during germination. Germinated barley flours exhibited lower brightness and a higher glycemic index than the control ones. This study shows that germination at 16 °C for 3.5 days was the optimum process to obtain nutritious and functional barley flours. Under these conditions, sprouts retained 87% of the initial β-glucan content, and exhibited levels of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, phenolic compounds and GABA between 1.4-fold and 2.5-fold higher than the non-sprouted grain. View Full-Text
Keywords: barley; germination; flour; RSM; nutritional properties; bioactive compounds; quality barley; germination; flour; RSM; nutritional properties; bioactive compounds; quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rico, D.; Peñas, E.; García, M.d.C.; Martínez-Villaluenga, C.; Rai, D.K.; Birsan, R.I.; Frias, J.; Martín-Diana, A.B. Sprouted Barley Flour as a Nutritious and Functional Ingredient. Foods 2020, 9, 296. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030296

AMA Style

Rico D, Peñas E, García MdC, Martínez-Villaluenga C, Rai DK, Birsan RI, Frias J, Martín-Diana AB. Sprouted Barley Flour as a Nutritious and Functional Ingredient. Foods. 2020; 9(3):296. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030296

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rico, Daniel, Elena Peñas, María d.C. García, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga, Dilip K. Rai, Rares I. Birsan, Juana Frias, and Ana B. Martín-Diana. 2020. "Sprouted Barley Flour as a Nutritious and Functional Ingredient" Foods 9, no. 3: 296. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030296

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