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Article

Standardization of Aquafaba Production and Application in Vegan Mayonnaise Analogs

1
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
2
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada
3
Prairie Tide Diversified Inc., 102 Melville Street, Saskatoon, SK S7J 0R1, Canada
4
Guangdong Saskatchewan Oilseed Joint Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alex Martynenko
Foods 2021, 10(9), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091978
Received: 28 June 2021 / Revised: 29 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 24 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
Canning or boiling pulse seeds in water produces a by-product solution, called “aquafaba”, that can be used as a plant-based emulsifier. One of the major problems facing the commercialization of aquafaba is inconsistency in quality and functionality. In this study, chickpea aquafaba production and drying methods were optimized to produce standardized aquafaba powder. Aquafaba samples, both freeze-dried and spray-dried, were used to make egg-free, vegan mayonnaise. Mayonnaise and analog physicochemical characteristics, microstructure, and stability were tested and compared to mayonnaise prepared using egg yolk. Chickpeas steeped in water at 4 °C for 16 h, followed by cooking at 75 kPa for 30 min at 116 °C, yielded aquafaba that produced the best emulsion qualities. Both lyophilization and spray drying to dehydrate aquafaba resulted in powders that retained their functionality following rehydration. Mayonnaise analogs made with aquafaba powder remained stable for 28 days of storage at 4 °C, although their droplet size was significantly higher than the reference sample made with egg yolk. These results show that aquafaba production can be standardized for optimal emulsion qualities, and dried aquafaba can mimic egg functions in food emulsions and has the potential to produce a wide range of eggless food products. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquafaba; chickpea; emulsifiers; egg replacement; mayonnaise aquafaba; chickpea; emulsifiers; egg replacement; mayonnaise
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, Y.; Purdy, S.K.; Tse, T.J.; Tar’an, B.; Meda, V.; Reaney, M.J.T.; Mustafa, R. Standardization of Aquafaba Production and Application in Vegan Mayonnaise Analogs. Foods 2021, 10, 1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091978

AMA Style

He Y, Purdy SK, Tse TJ, Tar’an B, Meda V, Reaney MJT, Mustafa R. Standardization of Aquafaba Production and Application in Vegan Mayonnaise Analogs. Foods. 2021; 10(9):1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091978

Chicago/Turabian Style

He, Yue, Sarah K. Purdy, Timothy J. Tse, Bunyamin Tar’an, Venkatesh Meda, Martin J. T. Reaney, and Rana Mustafa. 2021. "Standardization of Aquafaba Production and Application in Vegan Mayonnaise Analogs" Foods 10, no. 9: 1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091978

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