Special Issue "Emerging Technologies for Improving Properties, Shelf Life and Analysis of Dairy Products"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 June 2023 | Viewed by 9084

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Golfo Moatsou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Dairy Research, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: cheese science and technology; analytical methods; effect of processing on the composition and the biochemical characteristics of milk and dairy products; indices of heat treatment; properties of yoghurt; differentiation of milk from different species; casein genotypes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Processing results in various kinds of dairy products with variable properties and shelf life that preserve and often enhance the unique nutritional and biological value of milk. Apart from nutritional properties, functional and sensory properties are of great importance for dairy products. There is a constant research effort aiming to improve the processing conditions as well as the analytical methods or strategies employed in the dairy sector. This type of research has a multidisciplinary character, since chemical, physical, microbiological, enzymatic, and microstructural modifications should be considered. The present Special Issue aims to present a collection of articles related to the application of different types of emerging technologies in the manufacture and preservation of dairy products or dairy components. Some examples are non-thermal and novel thermal processing, membrane methods, enzymatic or fermentation procedures, supplementation with non-dairy substances, analytical methodologies, diagnostics, blockchain technology, packaging, and preservation.

 The submission of regular research papers, reviews, and short communications is encouraged.

Dr. Golfo Moatsou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dairy products
  • non-thermal or novel thermal processing
  • membrane methods
  • enzymatic or fermentation procedures
  • supplementation with non-dairy substances
  • analytical methodologies
  • diagnostics
  • blockchain technology
  • packaging
  • preservation

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Extending the Shelf Life of Raw Milk and Pasteurized Milk with Plantaricin FB-2
Foods 2023, 12(3), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030608 - 01 Feb 2023
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Raw milk and pasteurized milk are characterized by a short shelf life, and drinking expired raw milk and pasteurized milk causes illness. In the study, Plantaricin FB-2 (extracted from Lactiplantibacillus plantarum FB-2) was added to liquid milk. By evaluating the microbial growth, acidity [...] Read more.
Raw milk and pasteurized milk are characterized by a short shelf life, and drinking expired raw milk and pasteurized milk causes illness. In the study, Plantaricin FB-2 (extracted from Lactiplantibacillus plantarum FB-2) was added to liquid milk. By evaluating the microbial growth, acidity changes, protein content, and sensory changes in raw milk and pasteurized milk during storage, it was found that when Plantaricin FB-2 was added at 0.4 g/kg, the shelf life of raw milk was extended by 3 days (7 days if not added). The shelf life of pasteurized milk with Plantaricin FB-2 was extended to 31 days (25 days in the control group), and the optimal amount was 0.3 g/kg. This confirmed that Plantaricin FB-2 can effectively prolong the shelf life of raw and pasteurized milk. This study provides valuable information for the application of bacteriocins produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum in raw milk and pasteurized milk to improve their shelf life. Full article
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Article
Effect of Modified Manufacturing Conditions on the Composition of Greek Strained Yogurt and the Quantity and Composition of Generated Acid Whey
Foods 2022, 11(24), 3953; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11243953 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 536
Abstract
Greek strained yogurt is produced in high quantities worldwide. This production leaves behind acid whey, a by-product that is an environmental challenge. Hence, efforts are made to minimize the acid whey generation. In this study, the combined effect of the different heat treatment [...] Read more.
Greek strained yogurt is produced in high quantities worldwide. This production leaves behind acid whey, a by-product that is an environmental challenge. Hence, efforts are made to minimize the acid whey generation. In this study, the combined effect of the different heat treatment levels of milk and the different time of straining on the composition of the produced strained yogurt, as well as on the quantity and composition of the expelled acid whey, was investigated. The initial yogurts were prepared with bovine milk heated at 85 °C/16 s or 100 °C/16 s or 90 °C/5 min, and the acid whey was removed by centrifugation (5500 rpm, 5 min, 25 °C) either immediately after incubation or after 24 h. The results showed that, regardless of the heat treatment of milk, straining after 24 h resulted in an 8% increase in the yield in strained yogurt and about an 11% decrease in the generated acid whey, compared to straining immediately after incubation. The heat treatment level of milk significantly influenced the fat, lactose, and total solids contents of the strained yogurts, as well as the residual whey proteins, protein, and total solids contents of acid whey. Yogurt’s sensory properties were not affected significantly. It was concluded that the quantity of the acid whey expelled during the production of Greek strained yogurt could be decreased without affecting the general quality of the yogurt. Full article
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Article
Influence of Emulsifying Salts on the Growth of Bacillus thuringiensis CFBP 3476 and Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 in Processed Cheese
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3217; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203217 - 14 Oct 2022
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Processed cheese is a dairy product with multiple end-use applications, where emulsifying salts play a fundamental role in physicochemical changes during production. Moreover, some of these salts may be a strategy to control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, contributing to safety and shelf life [...] Read more.
Processed cheese is a dairy product with multiple end-use applications, where emulsifying salts play a fundamental role in physicochemical changes during production. Moreover, some of these salts may be a strategy to control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, contributing to safety and shelf life extension. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity of two emulsifying salts (ESSP = short polyP and BSLP = long polyP) against Bacillus thuringiensis CFBP 3476 and Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124, and to compare the in situ effects of two emulsifying salts treatments (T1 = 1.5% ESSP and T2 = 1.0% ESSP + 0.5% BSLP) in processed cheeses obtained by two different methods (laboratory- and pilot-scales), during 45-day storage at 6 °C. C. perfringens ATCC 13124 growth was not affected in vitro or in situ (p > 0.05), but both of the treatments reduced B. thuringiensis CFBP 4376 counts in the tested condition. Counts of the treatments with B. thuringiensis CFBP 3476 presented a higher and faster reduction in cheeses produced by the laboratory-scale method (1.6 log cfu/g) when compared to the pilot-scale method (1.8 log cfu/g) (p < 0.05). For the first time, the inhibitory effect of emulsifying salts in processed cheeses obtained by two different methods was confirmed, and changes promoted by laboratory-scale equipment influenced important interactions between the processed cheese matrix and emulsifying salts, resulting in B. thuringiensis CFBP 4376 growth reduction. Full article
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Article
Modification of Biotesting-Based Fermented Dairy Product Design for Curd and Curd Products
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3166; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203166 - 11 Oct 2022
Viewed by 540
Abstract
The key trends driving the global dairy market are shelf-life extension and generating consumer demand for new products. Healthy diets and special foods meet the criteria based on the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score, while other factors affecting the digestibility and actual biological [...] Read more.
The key trends driving the global dairy market are shelf-life extension and generating consumer demand for new products. Healthy diets and special foods meet the criteria based on the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score, while other factors affecting the digestibility and actual biological value of the protein are not considered. Express biological evaluation tests are very important for choosing the optimal formulation and efficient manufacturing process in order to maximize the biological value (BV). Such tests adequately represent the food properties: safety, nutrition value, digestibility, health benefits, etc. This study deals with the procedures for the quick biological evaluation of dairy products using indicator organisms. We adapted the relative biological value evaluation procedure, involving Tetrahymena pyriformis, for curd (cottage cheese) and curd products. The experiments showed that the most significant parameters are the milk pasteurization temperature and the curd heating temperature. The full factorial experiment identified the optimal curd production conditions to maximize the relative biological value (RBV): 81 °C milk pasteurization temperature and 54 °C curd heating temperature using the acid method of curd production. With these parameters, the RBV is at least 282%. Biotesting confirmed the optimal curd product component ratio of 60% curd to 40% fermented dairy beverage. Full article
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Article
Value-Added Utilization of Citrus Peels in Improving Functional Properties and Probiotic Viability of Acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-Type Synbiotic Yoghurt during Cold Storage
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2677; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172677 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
Citrus peel, a fruit-processing waste, is a substantial source of naturally occurring health-promoting compounds, including polyphenols, and has great potential as a dietary supplement for enhancing the functional properties of food. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of sour orange (SO), [...] Read more.
Citrus peel, a fruit-processing waste, is a substantial source of naturally occurring health-promoting compounds, including polyphenols, and has great potential as a dietary supplement for enhancing the functional properties of food. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of sour orange (SO), sweet orange (SWO), and lemon (LO) peels on the typical physiochemical, antioxidant, antibacterial, and probiotic properties of synbiotic yoghurt fermented by acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type cultures during cold storage (0–28 days). High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis showed that the total phenolic content in the SO peel were more than 2-fold higher than that in the SWO and LO peel. The predominant phenolic compounds were myricetin (2.10 mg/g dry weight) and o-coumaric acid (1.13 mg/g) in SO peel, benzoic acid (0.81 mg/g) and naringin (0.72 mg/g) in SWO peel, and benzoic acid (0.76 mg/g) and quercetin (0.36 mg/g) in LO peel. Only 0.5% (w/w) of citrus peel addition did not reduce the overall acceptance of ABT synbiotic yoghurt but led to increased acidity and decreased moisture during cold storage (14 and 28 days). Additionally, compared to control samples without citrus peel addition, supplementation with citrus peels improved the antioxidant property of the ABT synbiotic yoghurt. ABT milks with SO and SWO peel addition had significantly stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than that with LO peel addition (p < 0.05). Antibacterial analysis of ABT synbiotic yoghurt with citrus peel addition showed that the diameters of inhibition zones against S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli increased by 0.6–1.9 mm relative to the control groups, suggesting the enhancement of antibacterial activities by citrus peels. The viabilities of probiotic starter cultures (L. acidophilus, S. thermophilus, and Bifidobacterial sp.) were also enhanced by the incorporation of citrus peels in synbiotic yoghurt during cold storage. Hence, our results suggest that citrus peels, especially SO and SWO peels, could be recommended as a promising multifunctional additive for the development of probiotic and synbiotic yoghurt with enhanced antioxidant and antibacterial properties, as well as probiotic viability. Full article
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Article
Whey Protein Hydrolysates of Sheep/Goat Origin Produced by the Action of Trypsin without pH Control: Degree of Hydrolysis, Antihypertensive Potential and Antioxidant Activities
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142103 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Tryptic WPHs with considerable residual whey protein content intact were developed from two sheep/goat WPCs (65% and 80% protein) without pH control. Pasteurization was used to avoid denaturation. Changes in non-protein nitrogen (DH_TCASN), free amino groups (DH_TNBS), and major whey proteins were used [...] Read more.
Tryptic WPHs with considerable residual whey protein content intact were developed from two sheep/goat WPCs (65% and 80% protein) without pH control. Pasteurization was used to avoid denaturation. Changes in non-protein nitrogen (DH_TCASN), free amino groups (DH_TNBS), and major whey proteins were used to investigate the degree and extent of hydrolysis. Antihypertensive potential (ACE-IA), radical scavenging (DPPH-RSA), and iron chelation (Fe-CA) were assessed. No statistically significant changes in pH (5.84–6.29) were observed during hydrolysis and storage. At the start of hydrolysis, DH_TCASN was ≅11% for both substrates whereas DH_TNBS was >10% and >5% for WP65 and WP80, respectively. After one-hour hydrolysis, DH_TCASN was ≅17% for both substrates and DH_TNBS was ≅15% and ≅11% for WP65 and WP80, respectively. The β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and caseinomacropeptide of WP65 were hydrolyzed by 14 ± 1.3%, 73.9 ± 2.6% and 37 ± 2.6%. The respective values for WP80 were 14.9 ± 1.7%, 79.9 ± 1%, and 32.7 ± 4.8%. ACE-IA of the hydrolysates of both substrates was much higher (>80%) than that of controls (<10%). Hydrolysis, substrate type, and storage did not affect the DPPH-RSA (45–54%). Fe-CA of the WP65 and WP80 hydrolysates were ≅40% and ≅20%, respectively; a similar outcome was found in the respective controls. Refrigerated storage for 17 h did not affect the degree of hydrolysis and biofunctional activities. Full article
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Article
Application of Micro- and Nano-Bubbles as a Tool to Improve the Rheological and Microstructural Properties of Formulated Greek-Style Yogurts
Foods 2022, 11(4), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040619 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop an alternative novel process technology for enhancing the rheological and functional properties of Greek-style yogurt (GSY). The GSY was formulated and prepared in the lab using micellar casein concentrate as a source of protein to [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to develop an alternative novel process technology for enhancing the rheological and functional properties of Greek-style yogurt (GSY). The GSY was formulated and prepared in the lab using micellar casein concentrate as a source of protein to achieve a protein content of 10% (w/w). The changes in physicochemical, microstructural, rheological, and functional properties of control (C-GSY) and micro- and nano-bubbles-treated GSY (MNB-GSY) were studied and compared before and after storage for 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Before storage, the apparent viscosity at 100 s−1100) was 1.09 Pa·s for C-GSY and 0.71 Pa·s for MNB-GSY. Incorporation of MNBs into GSY significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the η100 by 30% on 1 week of storage. Additionally, the η100 of MNB-GSY was lesser than C-GSY on week 2, 3, and 4 of storage. Notable microstructural changes and significant rheological differences were observed between the C-GSY and MNB-GSY samples. Differences were also noticed in syneresis, which was lower for the MNB-GSY compared with the control. Overall, the incorporation of MNBs into GSY showed considerable improvements in rheological and functional properties. Additionally, it’s a simple, cost-effective process to implement in existing GSY production plants. Full article
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Communication
Effect of Fortification with Mushroom Polysaccharide β-Glucan on the Quality of Ovine Soft Spreadable Cheese
Foods 2022, 11(3), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030417 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
In the present work, a fresh spreadable cheese from ovine milk with or without (control) fortification with β-glucan was manufactured. β-Glucan was extracted from the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and its concentration in the cheese was 0.4% (w/w). The composition, [...] Read more.
In the present work, a fresh spreadable cheese from ovine milk with or without (control) fortification with β-glucan was manufactured. β-Glucan was extracted from the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and its concentration in the cheese was 0.4% (w/w). The composition, biochemical, and sensory properties of the cheeses during 21 days of storage were determined. At the end of storage, cheese fortified with beta-glucan had 75.26% moisture content, 10.30% fat, 1.71% salt, and 8.50% protein. Generally, the addition of β-glucan at this concentration did not significantly affect the composition, color, and viscosity measurements or the level of proteolysis and lipolysis and the antioxidant activity of the cheeses. However, cheese fortified with β-glucan showed a higher moisture content than control cheese on the 1st and 21st day of storage while the levels of proteolysis and the sensory properties of the cheeses were unaffected. During the sensory evaluation, panelists evaluated cheese with β-glucan with higher scores regarding the flavor characteristic compared to control cheese. The major free fatty acid was acetic acid in both cheeses and its concentration was higher in cheese with β-glucan. The results of the present study could be used by the dairy industry for manufacturing new products with improved health benefits. Full article
Article
A Novel qPCR Method for the Detection of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3066; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123066 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
The number of live lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is an important quality indicator for yogurt, the quantitative testing of LAB has become an important task in the evaluation of product quality and function. By analyzing and comparing the performance of 16S rRNA gene [...] Read more.
The number of live lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is an important quality indicator for yogurt, the quantitative testing of LAB has become an important task in the evaluation of product quality and function. By analyzing and comparing the performance of 16S rRNA gene and tuf gene used in absolute quantification, the tuf gene with copy number 1 was selected as the target gene of six LAB. By drawing a standard curve to achieve qualitative and quantitative detection of six strains of LAB, the detection range was found to be 1 × 103–1 × 108 copies/µL. The traditional plate colony count and Flow Cytometry (FCM) were compared with the method of qPCR, which was used in this experiment. Meanwhile, the confocal laser microscope combined with STYO 9 and propidium iodide dyes was used to determine that the content of viable bacteria in the yogurt was more than 90%, which proved that the detection result using qPCR method was closer to the true level of LAB in yogurt. Compared with the existing methods, the method in this study allowed the qualitative and quantitative detection of the six kinds of LAB in yogurt, and the distribution of live and dead bacteria in yogurt could be calculated. Full article
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