Special Issue "Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2017).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Maria Hayes
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Food BioSciences Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland
Interests: marine by-products; seaweed proteins; isolation and characterisation of bioactive peptides from protein sources using microbial strains and enzymes through controlled fermentations and hydrolysis; bioactivities and health benefits; functional foods
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will look at the advances made in the extraction and synthesis of bioactive peptides from different food protein sources, in addition to increased and novel uses of these peptides in functional foods and pharmaceuticals for the prevention of diseases associated with metabolic syndrome including diabetes, heart health, obesity and inflammation.

Dr. Maria Hayes
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine-derived peptides,
  • dairy peptides,
  • in vivo assessment,
  • functional foods,
  • pharmaceuticals,
  • co-products,
  • microalgal proteins,
  • diabetes,
  • metabolic syndrome,
  • heart health,
  • circular economy,
  • biorefinery concepts and the circular economy

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides: New and Novel Sources, Characterisation Strategies and Applications
Foods 2018, 7(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7030038 - 14 Mar 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3923
Abstract
By 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but [...] Read more.
By 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but additionally have nutritional and health maintenance and well-being benefits. Proteins provide energy, but additionally have a wide range of functions from enzymatic activities in the body to bioactivities including those associated with heart health, diabetes-type 2-prevention and mental health maintenance; stress relief as well as a plethora of other health beneficial attributes. Furthermore, proteins play an important role in food manufacture and often provide the binding, water- or oil-holding, emulsifying, foaming or other functional attributes required to ensure optimum sensory and taste benefits for the consumer. The purpose of this issue is to highlight current and new protein sources and their associated functional, nutritional and health benefits as well as best practices for quantifying proteins and bioactive peptides in both a laboratory and industry setting. The bioaccessibility, bioavailability and bioactivities of proteins from dairy, cereal and novel sources including seaweeds and insect protein and how they are measured and the relevance of protein quality measurement methods including the Protein Digestibility Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) are highlighted. In addition, predicted future protein consumption trends and new markets for protein and peptide products are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)

Research

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Article
Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Treatment on Soymilk for Inactivation of Trypsin Inhibitors and In Vitro Protein Digestibility
Foods 2018, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7010006 - 08 Jan 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4107
Abstract
Soymilk is lower in calories compared to cow’s milk, since it is derived from a plant source (no cholesterol) and is an excellent source of protein. Despite the beneficial factors, soymilk is considered as one of the most controversial foods in the world. [...] Read more.
Soymilk is lower in calories compared to cow’s milk, since it is derived from a plant source (no cholesterol) and is an excellent source of protein. Despite the beneficial factors, soymilk is considered as one of the most controversial foods in the world. It contains serine protease inhibitors which lower its nutritional value and digestibility. Processing techniques for the elimination of trypsin inhibitors and lipoxygenase, which have shorter processing time and lower production costs are required for the large-scale manufacturing of soymilk. In this study, the suitable conditions of time and temperature are optimized during microwave processing to obtain soymilk with maximum digestibility with inactivation of trypsin inhibitors, in comparison to the conventional thermal treatment. The microwave processing conditions at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and temperatures of 70 °C, 85 °C and 100 °C for 2, 5 and 8 min were investigated and were compared to conventional thermal treatments at the same temperature for 10, 20 and 30 min. Response surface methodology is used to design and optimize the experimental conditions. Thermal processing was able to increase digestibility by 7% (microwave) and 11% (conventional) compared to control, while trypsin inhibitor activity reduced to 1% in microwave processing and 3% in conventional thermal treatment when compared to 10% in raw soybean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Article
Protein Determination—Method Matters
Foods 2018, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7010005 - 01 Jan 2018
Cited by 112 | Viewed by 13252
Abstract
The reported protein content of foods depends on the analytical method used for determination, making a direct comparison between studies difficult. The aim of this study was to examine and compare protein analytical methods. Some of these methods require extraction preceding analysis. The [...] Read more.
The reported protein content of foods depends on the analytical method used for determination, making a direct comparison between studies difficult. The aim of this study was to examine and compare protein analytical methods. Some of these methods require extraction preceding analysis. The efficacy of protein extraction differs depending on food matrices and thus extraction yield was determined. Overall, most analytical methods overestimated the protein contents. The inaccuracies were linked to indirect measurements, i.e. nitrogen determination and subsequent conversion to protein, or interference from other chemical substances. Amino acid analysis is the only protein analysis method where interfering substances do not affect the results. Although there is potential for improvement in regards to the hydrolysis method, we recommend that this method should be the preferred for food protein determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
Article
Predicted Release and Analysis of Novel ACE-I, Renin, and DPP-IV Inhibitory Peptides from Common Oat (Avena sativa) Protein Hydrolysates Using in Silico Analysis
Foods 2017, 6(12), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6120108 - 04 Dec 2017
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3712
Abstract
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in regulating hypertension by controlling vasoconstriction and intravascular fluid volume. RAAS itself is largely regulated by the actions of renin (EC 3.4.23.15) and the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I; EC 3.4.15.1). The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV; EC [...] Read more.
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in regulating hypertension by controlling vasoconstriction and intravascular fluid volume. RAAS itself is largely regulated by the actions of renin (EC 3.4.23.15) and the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I; EC 3.4.15.1). The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV; EC 3.4.14.5) also plays a role in the development of type-2 diabetes. The inhibition of the renin, ACE-I, and DPP-IV enzymes has therefore become a key therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the bioactivity of different oat (Avena sativa) protein isolates and their ability to inhibit the renin, ACE-I, and DPP-IV enzymes. In silico analysis was carried out to predictthe likelihood of bioactive inhibitory peptides occurring from oat protein hydrolysates following in silico hydrolysis with the proteases papain and ficin. Nine peptides, including FFG, IFFFL, PFL, WWK, WCY, FPIL, CPA, FLLA, and FEPL were subsequently chemically synthesised, and their bioactivities were confirmed using in vitro bioassays. The isolated oat proteins derived from seven different oat varieties were found to inhibit the ACE-I enzyme by between 86.5 ± 10.7% and 96.5 ± 25.8%, renin by between 40.5 ± 21.5% and 70.9 ± 7.6%, and DPP-IV by between 3.7 ± 3.9% and 46.2 ± 28.8%. The activity of the synthesised peptides was also determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Article
Immunodetection of Porcine Red Blood Cell Containing Food Ingredients Using a Porcine-Hemoglobin-Specific Monoclonal Antibody
Foods 2017, 6(11), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6110101 - 20 Nov 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3253
Abstract
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 24C12-E7 has been found to bind to a 12 kDa antigenic protein in the red blood cell (RBC) of porcine blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the identity of this 12 kDa protein and consequently examine its [...] Read more.
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 24C12-E7 has been found to bind to a 12 kDa antigenic protein in the red blood cell (RBC) of porcine blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the identity of this 12 kDa protein and consequently examine its potential as a marker for monitoring porcine RBC-containing ingredients (PRBCIs) in foods. Proteomic techniques identified the 12 kDa antigenic protein to be a monomer of the tetrameric hemoglobin molecule. Further heat-processing of spray-dried PRBCIs diminishes its detectability. Whereas mAb 24C12-E7-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) could detect 1% (v/v) or less of PRBCIs in raw and cooked ground meats (beef, pork and chicken), the detection limits were 3 to 30 times higher for spiked cooked beef and pork. The assay is effective for monitoring the presence of PRBCIs in foods to protect the billions of people that avoid consuming blood. In situations where these PRBCIs are present as ingredients in foods that have undergone further heat processing, the assay, however, may not be as sensitive depending on the types of sample matrix, types of PRBCIs and the level of inclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Article
Glycomacropeptide Reduces Intestinal Epithelial Cell Barrier Dysfunction and Adhesion of Entero-Hemorrhagic and Entero-Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Vitro
Foods 2017, 6(11), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6110093 - 27 Oct 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3286
Abstract
In recent years, the potential of glycosylated food components to positively influence health has received considerable attention. Milk is a rich source of biologically active glycoconjugates which are associated with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-adhesion, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic properties. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the C-terminal portion [...] Read more.
In recent years, the potential of glycosylated food components to positively influence health has received considerable attention. Milk is a rich source of biologically active glycoconjugates which are associated with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-adhesion, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic properties. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the C-terminal portion of kappa-casein that is released from whey during cheese-making by the action of chymosin. Many of the biological properties associated with GMP, such as anti-adhesion, have been linked with the carbohydrate portion of the protein. In this study, we investigated the ability of GMP to inhibit the adhesion of a variety of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains to HT-29 and Caco-2 intestinal cell lines, given the importance of E. coli in causing bacterial gastroenteritis. GMP significantly reduced pathogen adhesion, albeit with a high degree of species specificity toward enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains O125:H32 and O111:H2 and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain 12900 O157:H7. The anti-adhesive effect resulted from the interaction of GMP with the E. coli cells and was also dependent on GMP concentration. Pre-incubation of intestinal Caco-2 cells with GMP reduced pathogen translocation as represented by a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Thus, GMP is an effective in-vitro inhibitor of adhesion and epithelial injury caused by E. coli and may have potential as a biofunctional ingredient in foods to improve gastrointestinal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Article
Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Meats Using Bacteriocin Mixtures Based on Mode-of-Action
Foods 2017, 6(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6030022 - 14 Mar 2017
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4673
Abstract
Bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac+ strains, or their [...] Read more.
Bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac+ strains, or their cell-free supernatants (CFS), were grouped according to mode-of-action (MOA) as determined from prior studies. Making a mixture of as many MOAs as possible is a practical way to obtain a potent natural antimicrobial mixture to address L. monocytogenes contamination of RTE meat products (i.e., hotdogs). The heat resistance of the bacteriocins allowed the use of pasteurization to eliminate residual producer cells for use as post-process surface application or their inclusion into hotdog meat emulsion during cooking. The use of Bac+ LAB comprising 3× MOAs directly as co-inoculants on hotdogs was not effective at inhibiting L. monocytogenes. However, the use of multiple MOA Bac+ CFS mixtures in a variety of trials demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach by showing a >2-log decrease of L. monocytogenes in treatment samples and 6–7 log difference vs. controls. These data suggest that surface application of multiple mode-of-action bacteriocin mixtures can provide for an Alternative 2, and possibly Alternative 1, process category as specified by USDA-FSIS for control of L. monocytogenes on RTE meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Review

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Review
Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium
Foods 2017, 6(7), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6070053 - 20 Jul 2017
Cited by 269 | Viewed by 16129
Abstract
A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative [...] Read more.
A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Review
Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products
Foods 2017, 6(5), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6050035 - 09 May 2017
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5116
Abstract
Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw [...] Read more.
Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation) of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
Review
Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production
Foods 2017, 6(5), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6050033 - 26 Apr 2017
Cited by 240 | Viewed by 13156
Abstract
Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. [...] Read more.
Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. This review details the characteristics of commonly consumed algae, as well as their potential for use as a protein source based on their protein quality, amino acid composition, and digestibility. Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field, and microwave-assisted extraction are discussed. Moreover, existing protein enrichment methods used in the dairy industry and the potential of these methods to generate high value ingredients from algae, such as bioactive peptides and functional ingredients are discussed. Applications of algae in human nutrition, animal feed, and aquaculture are examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Review
Bioactive Peptides
Foods 2017, 6(5), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6050032 - 26 Apr 2017
Cited by 151 | Viewed by 9454
Abstract
The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, [...] Read more.
The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, the search for food-derived bioactive peptides has increased exponentially. Over the years, many potential bioactive peptides from food have been documented; yet, obstacles such as the need to establish optimal conditions for industrial scale production and the absence of well-designed clinical trials to provide robust evidence for proving health claims continue to exist. Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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