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Foods 2017, 6(7), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6070053

Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

1
Department Agri-Food Business and Spatial Analysis, Rural Economy and Development Programme, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin D15 KN3K, Ireland
2
Food BioSciences Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin D15 KN3K, Ireland
3
Food Quality and Sensory Science, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin D15 KN3K, Ireland
4
Teagasc Food Research Programme, Teagasc Food Research Centres, Ashtown and Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork P61 C996, Ireland
5
Food Chemistry and Technology Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin D15 KN3K, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
Full-Text   |   PDF [446 KB, uploaded 20 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein; novel protein; protein demand; in vitro meat; algae; insect; dairy; meat; vegetal; consumer protein; novel protein; protein demand; in vitro meat; algae; insect; dairy; meat; vegetal; consumer
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Henchion, M.; Hayes, M.; Mullen, A.M.; Fenelon, M.; Tiwari, B. Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium. Foods 2017, 6, 53.

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