Special Issue "Advances in the Valorization of Biowastes for Novel Products"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Security and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2022 | Viewed by 2483

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Manuela M. Moreira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
REQUIMTE/LAQV- Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Interests: agro-food wastes; bioactive compounds; antioxidants; green extraction techniques; value added products; food; biochar production; agroforestry wastes; contaminants; adsorption
Dr. Francisca Rodrigues
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
REQUIMTE- Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Interests: antioxidants compounds; skin application; ex-vivo assays; in-vitro 3D skin models; in-vivo assays; valorization of food by-products; green extraction techniques
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Cristina Delerue-Matos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
REQUIMTE/LAQV- Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Interests: chromatographic determinations; electrochemistry; sensors/biosensors; sample preparation; environment and food control; environmental monitoring; contaminant detection; PAHs; pesticides; pharmaceuticals; heavy metals; allergens
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of interest in recovering bioactive compounds from agricultural, forestry, and food industry wastes, aiming to reduce their environmental impact and simultaneously improve the sustainability of economy and society. The recovery of these compounds involves several steps, where the extraction technique is one of the most important techniques. Furthermore, due to their recognized health properties, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities, the recovered compounds can be incorporated in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products, giving them an extra value.

Despite the large number of publications on the extraction of bioactive compounds from agro-food wastes, there is still a great deal of interest in the topic and a lack of papers regarding the incorporation of the obtained natural extracts.

This Special Issue welcomes research articles and reviews that could fill the gap between research and industrial applications, addressing the new advances in biowaste valorization for novel product application. Manuscripts devoted to the extraction of bioactive compounds from agro-food wastes and their chemical and safety characterization are also welcome. Particular attention will be given to manuscripts that demonstrate the application of the obtained extracts in new products and evaluate their effect.

An integrated approach to the challenge of sustainable food systems: adaptive and mitigatory strategies to address climate change and malnutrition (https://www.nibio.no/en/projects/systemic).

Dr. Manuela M. Moreira
Dr. Francisca Rodrigues
Prof. Dr. Cristina Delerue-Matos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • agro-food waste valorization
  • bioactive compounds
  • green extraction techniques
  • safety assessment
  • food applications
  • non-food applications

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Sustainable Valorization of Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. Residue as the New Lauric Oil Source Using Alternative Green Extraction and Refining Methods
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142047 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Litsea cubeba is an ethnic woody oil plant, in which essential oil rather than oil has been the main foreign trade product through the decades. Concerning large amounts of residue generated from L. cubeba essential oil processing, a sustainable valorization pathway of these [...] Read more.
Litsea cubeba is an ethnic woody oil plant, in which essential oil rather than oil has been the main foreign trade product through the decades. Concerning large amounts of residue generated from L. cubeba essential oil processing, a sustainable valorization pathway of these biowastes is proposed in this study. First, such biowastes have been systematically investigated for the first time regarding their oils extracted by three extraction methods, where ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) could significantly improve the extraction rate of traditional pressing and solvent extraction without any changes in oil quality. Moreover, the composition of acylglycerols and fatty acids in L. cubeba fruit, kernel, and peel oils were also first identified, which further proved that peels with abundant free fatty acids could lead to high acid value of L. cubeba fruit oils. Compared to virgin coconut oils, L. cubeba kernel oils have a more balanced fatty acid composition with a high lauric acid level, which could be applied as a promising lauric oil resource. Considering the high acid value in L. cubeba kernel oils, both decoloration using activated clay and alkali deacidification were attempted, where the combination of alkali deacidification and 10% of activated clay performed the best considering both quality and cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Valorization of Biowastes for Novel Products)
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Article
Valorization of Spent Coffee Grounds as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds for Several Industrial Applications—A Volatilomic Approach
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1731; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121731 - 13 Jun 2022
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, whose production and consumption result in large amounts of waste, namely spent coffee grounds, constituting an important source of compounds for several industrial applications. This work focused on the establishment of the volatile fingerprint [...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, whose production and consumption result in large amounts of waste, namely spent coffee grounds, constituting an important source of compounds for several industrial applications. This work focused on the establishment of the volatile fingerprint of five spent coffee grounds from different geographical origins using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS), as a strategy to identify volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) with potential application in the food industry as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative agents. One hundred eleven VOMs belonging to different chemical families were identified, of which 60 were found in all spent coffee grounds analyzed. Furanic compounds (34%), nitrogen compounds (30%), and esters (19%) contributed significant to the total volatile fingerprint. The data obtained suggest that spent coffee grounds have great potential to be used as raw material for different approaches in the food industry towards the development of new food ingredients or products for human consumption, in addition to pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications, namely as antioxidant (e.g., limonene, carvacrol), antimicrobial (e.g., pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, β-myrcene) and anti-inflammatory (e.g., furfural, 2-furanmethanol) agents, promoting their integral valorization within the circular bioeconomy concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Valorization of Biowastes for Novel Products)
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Article
Arabinoxylans Release from Brewers’ Spent Grain Using Extrusion and Solid-State Fermentation with Fusarium oxysporum and the Antioxidant Capacity of the Extracts
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101415 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 671
Abstract
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant byproduct generated from the beer-brewing process. BSG is a material rich in hemicellulose, composed of arabinoxylans (AX). However, the high crosslinking of this material causes low availability of AX, for which it is necessary to [...] Read more.
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant byproduct generated from the beer-brewing process. BSG is a material rich in hemicellulose, composed of arabinoxylans (AX). However, the high crosslinking of this material causes low availability of AX, for which it is necessary to apply different treatments. The objective of this research is to increase the release of arabinoxylans through solid-state fermentation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using extruded brewery spent grain. First, the BSG is subjected to two types of physical treatments: extrusion at 20% moisture, 200 rpm and 50 °C (BSGe), and blade milling (BSGm). The chemical composition is determined for each sample (BSG, BSGe and BSGm). Subsequently, the solid-state fermentation process (SSF) is carried out on each sample. The fermentation kinetics at 30 °C are monitored for 7 days. Once the SSF concludes, AX are extracted, and the purity of AX is determined by the phloroglucinol colorimetric assay. Finally, the total phenolic compounds, phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity by DPPH are quantified. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) in the protein, lipid, ash or total dietary fiber contents are found among the samples. No significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) in the content of soluble fiber is found, although BSGe and BSGm have higher values than BSG. On the other hand, the yields of soluble AX exhibit significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among nonfermented samples (BSG, 0.03%; BSGm, 0.53%; BSGe, 0.70%) and with SSF (BSG, 2.95%; BSGm, 6.24%; and BSGe, 9.58%). In addition, the contents of free phenolic compounds and free phenolic acids and the percent inhibition of free extracts by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) differ significantly (p ≤ 0.05) between samples subjected to SSF and nonfermented samples. Therefore, extrusion and SSF treatment increase AX release from BSG as well as the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Valorization of Biowastes for Novel Products)
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Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of interest in recovering bioactive compounds from agricultural, forestry, and food industry wastes, aiming to reduce their environmental impact and simultaneously improve the sustainability of economy and society. The recovery of these compounds involves several steps, where the extraction technique is one of the most important techniques. Furthermore, due to their recognized health properties, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities, the recovered compounds can be incorporated in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products, giving them an extra value.

Despite the large number of publications on the extraction of bioactive compounds from agro-food wastes, there is still a great deal of interest in the topic and a lack of papers regarding the incorporation of the obtained natural extracts.

This Special Issue welcomes research articles and reviews that could fill the gap between research and industrial applications, addressing the new advances in biowaste valorization for novel product application. Manuscripts devoted to the extraction of bioactive compounds from agro-food wastes and their chemical and safety characterization are also welcome. Particular attention will be given to manuscripts that demonstrate the application of the obtained extracts in new products and evaluate their effect.


Dr. Manuela M. Moreira

Dr. Francisca Rodrigues

Prof. Dr. Cristina Delerue-Matos

Title: Natural antioxidant extracts from vineyard pruning residues obtained by subcritical water extraction: bioactive composition and safety evaluation
Authors: Manuela M. Moreira1,*, Olena Dorosh1, Ana Margarida Silva1, Clara Grosso1, Elsa F. Vieira1, Francisca Rodrigues1, Virgínia C. Fernandes1, Andreia F. Peixoto2, Cristina Freire2, and Cristina Delerue-Ma
Affiliation: 1REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal 2REQUIMTE/LAQV, Departamento. de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Abstract: Biomass represents a natural source of valuable components with potential application in many industries. Recently, it has been demonstrated that vineyard pruning residues can be used as a potential source of bioactive compounds, namely polyphenols. In this study, a central composite design was used to optimize the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (by FRAP and ABTS assays) of vine-canes from Touriga Nacional variety. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) was employed, and the independent parameters studied were extraction temperature (150-280 °C) and time (20-50 min). The optimal extraction conditions were 33 min and 280 °C, revealing a high total phenolic content (229 ± 23 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dw), as well as a high antioxidant activity by FRAP and ABTS assays (228 ± 20 and 236 ± 11 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g dw, respectively). The optimal extract also displayed strong in vitro neuroprotective effects, inhibiting several brain enzymes involved in neurodegeneration: acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 290.5 µg/mL), butyrylcholinesterase (IC50 = 244.0 µg/mL), tyrosinase (IC50 = 1459.0 µg/mL) and monoamine oxidase B (~53.4 % of inhibition at 1000 µg/mL). The phenolic composition determined by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of compounds belonging to different families, with gallic acid (118 ± 6 mg/100 g dw), catechin (468 ± 23 mg/100 g dw) and quercetin (153 ± 8 mg/100 g dw) being the major contributors to the demonstrated antioxidant properties of the produced vine-cane extracts. The extracts were evaluated regarding the presence of 14 organochlorine pesticides and the absence of these compounds was confirmed. The results proved that SWE can be a useful extraction technique for obtaining phenolic compounds from vineyard pruning residues, which can be further safely applied to food or cosmetic industries creating an added value to this residue.

Title: Arabinoxylan release from brewers’ spent grain using extrusion and solid-state fermentation with Fusarium oxysporum and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts
Authors: Joel Cervantes-Ramirez, Francisco Vasquez-Lara, Alberto Sanchez-Estrada, Rosalba Troncoso-Rojas, Erick Heredia-Olea, Alma Islas-Rubio*
Affiliation: Coordinación de Tecnología de Alimentos de Origen Vegetal, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C., Carretera Gustavo E. Astiazaran Rosas # 46, Colonia La Victoria, CP 83304, Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Centro de Biotecnología FEMSA. Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada No. 2501. Monterrey Nuevo León, México, CP 64849.
Abstract: Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant byproduct generated from the beer-brewing process. BSG is a material rich in hemicellulose composed of arabinoxylans (AX). However, the high crosslinking of this material causes a low availability of AX, for which it is necessary to apply different treatments. The objective of this research was to increase the release of arabinoxylans through solid-state fermentation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using extruded brewery spent grain. First, the BSG was subjected to two types of physical treatments: extrusion at 20% moisture, 200 rpm and 50 °C (BSGe), and blade milling (BSGm). The chemical composition was determined for each sample (BSG, BSGe and BSGm). Subsequently, the solid-state fermentation process (SSF) was carried out on each sample. The fermentation kinetics at 30 °C were monitored for 7 days. Once the SSF concluded, AX were extracted, and the purity of AX was determined by the phloroglucinol colorimetric assay. Finally, the total phenolic compounds, phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity by DPPH were quantified. No significant differences (p≥0.05) in the protein, lipid, ash, or total dietary fiber contents were found among the samples. No significant difference (p≥0.05) in the content of soluble fiber was found, although BSGe and BSGm had higher values than did BSG. On the other hand, the yields of soluble AX exhibited significant differences (p≤0.05) among nonfermented samples (BSG, 0.03%; BSGm, 0.53%; BSGe, 0.70%) and with SSF (BSG, 2.95%; BSGm, 6.24%; and BSGe, 9.58%). In addition, the contents of free phenolic compounds and free phenolic acids and the percent inhibition of free extracts by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) differed significantly (p≤0.05) between samples subjected to SSF and nonfermented samples. Therefore, extrusion and SSF treatment increase AX release from BSG as well as the antioxidant capacity of the extracts.

Title: Valorization of spent coffee grounds as a natural source of bio-active compounds for application in the food industry. A volatilomic approach
Authors: Carolina Andrade; Rosa Perestrelo; José S. Câmara
Affiliation: CQM – Centro de Química da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Portugal; [email protected] (C.A.); [email protected] (R.P.) Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Portugal; [email protected] (J.S.C.)
Abstract: Coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, whose production and consumption originate large amounts of waste, namely spent coffee grounds, constituting an important source of compounds for several industrial applications. This work focused of the establishment of the volatile fingerprint of five spent coffee grounds from different geographical origin using head-space solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS), as a strategy to identify volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) with potential application in food industry as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative agents. One hundred eleven VOMs belonging to different chemical families have been identified, of which 60 were found in all spent coffee grounds analyzed. Furanic compounds (34 %), nitrogen compounds (30 %), and esters (19 %) contributed significantly for the total volatile fingerprint. The data ob-tained suggest that spent coffee grounds have great potential to be used as raw material for dif-ferent approaches in the food industry towards the development of new food ingredients or products for human consumption, namely as antioxidant (e.g., limonene, carvacrol), antimicrobial (e.g., pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, β-myrcene) and anti-inflammatory (e.g., furfural, 2-furanmethanol) agents, promoting their integral valorization and reincorporation to the food supply chain within the circular bioeconomy concept.

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