Special Issue "Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Maria Beatriz Prior Pinto Oliveira
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Guest Editor
University of Porto, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto, Portugal
Interests: food chemistry; sustainability; agro-food quality control; byproduct valorization; food authenticity
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Francisca Rodrigues
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Guest Editor
LAQV/REQUIMTE - Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto - Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Interests: plant extracts; green extraction techniques; bioactive compounds; antioxidants; functional food; cosmetics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, there is an increasing interest in cosmetic industry on natural extracts, namely plant extracts. The inclusion of antioxidants in topical formulations can contribute to minimize oxidative stress in the skin, which has been associated with aging. Many herbal agents used in cosmetics have been selected by a process of ‘trial and error’ and, thus, are used based on experience rather than experimental investigation. There is now, however, growing scientific evidence that plants possess a vast and complex arsenal of active ingredients able, not only to calm or smooth, but also actively restore, heal, and protect the human skin. In addition, plant extracts may contain compounds with antimicrobial or other beneficial properties, influencing the formulation of natural and non-chemical cosmetic products. The public trend towards natural and sustainable products is on-going. Although the term “plant extract” inherently purports their beneficial and benign properties, these could have adverse reactions in individuals. Therefore, it is essential to attend to the issue of ensuring quality and safety of these extracts in cosmetic products before embarking on the more arduous task of ensuring efficacy. In view of this underlying principle, the screening of natural plant extracts with scavenging activity for pro-oxidant reactive species is a primary requirement for the development of new topical antioxidant formulations.

This Special Issue is dedicated to highlighting the potentialities of plant extracts on cosmetic products, their composition, and provide new insights into their mechanisms of action in skin.

Dr. M. Beatriz P.P. Oliveira
Dr. Francisca Rodrigues
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Plant extract
  • Composition
  • Antioxidant
  • Cosmetic, radical scavenging activity

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Personal-Care Products Formulated with Natural Antioxidant Extracts
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010013 - 18 Jan 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of some vegetal raw materials in personal-care products. Four ethanolic extracts (grape pomace, Pinus pinaster wood chips, Acacia dealbata flowers, and Lentinus edodes) were prepared and total phenolics, monomeric sugars, and [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of some vegetal raw materials in personal-care products. Four ethanolic extracts (grape pomace, Pinus pinaster wood chips, Acacia dealbata flowers, and Lentinus edodes) were prepared and total phenolics, monomeric sugars, and antioxidant capacity were determined on alcoholic extracts. Six of the most important groups of cosmetics products (hand cream, body oil, shampoo, clay mask, body exfoliating cream, and skin cleanser) were formulated. Participants evaluated some sensory attributes and overall acceptance by a 10-point scale; the results showed differences among age-intervals, but not between males and females. The results confirmed that all extracts presented characteristics appropriate for their use in cosmetic formulations and their good acceptability by consumers into all cosmetic products. Texture/appearance, spreadability, and skin feeling are important attributes among consumer expectations, but odor and color were the primary drivers and helped differentiate the natural extracts added into all personal-care products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Castanea sativa Bur: An Undervalued By-Product but a Promising Cosmetic Ingredient
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics4040050 - 24 Nov 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Castanea sativa fruit processing generates high amounts of by-products, mostly bur. Currently, the cosmetic industry has a great interest in natural extracts as antioxidant sources. In the present study, C. sativa bur extract was used as the active ingredient, in different amounts, in [...] Read more.
Castanea sativa fruit processing generates high amounts of by-products, mostly bur. Currently, the cosmetic industry has a great interest in natural extracts as antioxidant sources. In the present study, C. sativa bur extract was used as the active ingredient, in different amounts, in topical hydrogels. The formulations were characterized regarding total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) and technological and microbiological properties. The same parameters were evaluated after 30 days of storage at 4 °C (T30/4 °C) and 20 °C (T30/20 °C). At time 0 (T0), the TPC ranged between 0.79 and 9.65 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g gel, while TFC varied from 0.05 to 1.23 mg of catechin equivalents (CAE)/g gel. Antioxidant activity was high for both assays, with values at T0 ranging between 98.41 and 1013.43 µmol of ferrous sulphate equivalents (FSE)/g gel and varying between 431.96 and 990.84 µg of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g gel for FRAP and DPPH assays, respectively. No formulation exceeded the defined criteria in microbiological counts. All formulations showed similar technological profiles but particular attention should be given to pH. The gel with 50% of extract (F3) was selected as the best one for potential cosmetic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Targeted Secondary Metabolite Profile Study for Deciphering the Cosmeceutical Potential of Red Marine Macro Alga Jania rubens—An LCMS-Based Approach
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics4040045 - 30 Oct 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study aims to unveil the cosmeceutical traits of Jania rubens by highlighting its mineral composition, antioxidant potential, and presence of bioactive molecules using non-targeted metabolite profiling. This study showed that among minerals, (macro), Ca (14790.33 + 1.46 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)) [...] Read more.
This study aims to unveil the cosmeceutical traits of Jania rubens by highlighting its mineral composition, antioxidant potential, and presence of bioactive molecules using non-targeted metabolite profiling. This study showed that among minerals, (macro), Ca (14790.33 + 1.46 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)) and in (micro) Fe (84.93 + 0.89 mg/100 g DW) was the highest. A total of 23 putative metabolites in the +ESI (Electrospray Ionization) mode of LCMS-TOF (Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight) were detected. Two anthocyanins—malonylshisonin and 4′′′-demalonylsalvianin (m/z 825.19; anti-aging, antioxidant, anticancer properties) were detected. Two flavonoids, viz, medicocarpin and agecorynin C, 4′-O-methylglucoliquiritigenin—a flavonoid-7-O-glycoside, and 5,6,7,8,3′,4′,5′-heptamethoxyflavone, a polymethoxygenated flavone (m/z 415.15), were detected. Maclurin 3-C-(2″,3″,6″-trigalloylglucoside) (m/z 863.15) (antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer traits) and theaflavonin (m/z 919.18), belonging to the class of theaflavins (whitening and anti-wrinkle agent), were obtained. Pharmacologically active metabolites like berberrubin (m/z 305.1; antitumor activity), icaceine (m/z 358.24; anticonvulsant properties), agnuside (m/z 449.15; constituent for treatment of premenstrual syndrome), γ-coniceine (m/z 108.12; formulations to treat breast cancer), eremopetasitenin B2, and eremosulphoxinolide A (m/z 447.18; therapeutic effect of allergy and asthma) were observed. 6-O-Methylarmillaridin (m/z 445.18) (antimicrobial and antifungal) and simmondsin 2-ferulate, (m/z 534.21) (insecticidal, antifungal and antifeedant) were detected. Aromatic lignans, viz, 8-Acetoxy-4′-methoxypinoresinol, sesartemin, and cubebinone (m/z 413.16), in addition to an aromatic terpene glycoside, tsangane L3 glucoside (m/z 357.23), were detected. Zizybeoside I, benzyl gentiobioside, and trichocarposide were also detected. The determination of antioxidant potential was performed through assays such as like DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Power), ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), and total antioxidants. Therefore, this study progresses the probability for the inclusion of J. rubens as an ingredient in modern day cosmetic formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Skin Hydration and Age-related Symptoms by Oral Administration of Wheat Glucosylceramides and Digalactosyl Diglycerides: A Human Clinical Study
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics4040037 - 21 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Ceramides are known to play a key role in the skin’s barrier function. An age-dependent decrease in ceramides content correlates with cutaneous clinical signs of dryness, loss of elasticity, and increased roughness. The present placebo-controlled clinical study aims to evaluate if an oral [...] Read more.
Ceramides are known to play a key role in the skin’s barrier function. An age-dependent decrease in ceramides content correlates with cutaneous clinical signs of dryness, loss of elasticity, and increased roughness. The present placebo-controlled clinical study aims to evaluate if an oral supplementation with glucosylceramides (GluCers) contained in a wheat polar lipids complex (WPLC) was able to improve such skin conditions. Sixty volunteers presenting dry and wrinkled skin were supplemented during 60 days with either a placebo or a WPLC extract in oil or powder form (1.7 mg GluCers and 11.5 mg of digalactosyldiglycerides (DGDG)). Skin parameters were evaluated at baseline and after 15, 30, and 60 days of supplementation. Oral intake of WPLC significantly increased skin hydration (p < 0.001), elasticity, and smoothness (p < 0.001), and decreased trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) (p < 0.001), roughness (p < 0.001), and wrinkledness (p < 0.001) in both WPLC groups compared to placebo. In both WPLC treated groups, all parameters were significantly improved in a time-dependent manner compared to baseline. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the positive effect of oral supplementation with GluCers on skin parameters and could reasonably reinforce the observations made on mice that orally-supplied sphingolipids can reach the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Nanoemulsion Containing Vegetable Extracts
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics4030032 - 07 Sep 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Oil/Water nanoemulsions were obtained, employing PEG castor oil derivatives/fatty esters surfactant, babassu oil, and purified water from a study based on phase diagrams. The nanoemulsions had been prepared by a low energy process inversion phase emulsion. Different parameters, such as order of addition [...] Read more.
Oil/Water nanoemulsions were obtained, employing PEG castor oil derivatives/fatty esters surfactant, babassu oil, and purified water from a study based on phase diagrams. The nanoemulsions had been prepared by a low energy process inversion phase emulsion. Different parameters, such as order of addition of the components, temperature, stirring speed, and time, were studied to prepare O/W nanoemulsions. The influence of vegetable extract addition on size distribution of nanoemulsions was also analyzed. Evaluation of the nanoemulsions was studied in vitro by HET-CAM and RDB methods. Stable transparent bluish O/W babassu oil nanoemulsion were obtained with surfactant pair fatty ester/PEG-54 castor oil, in an HLBrequired value = 10.0 and with a particle droplet size of 46 ± 13 nm. Vegetable extract addition had not influenced nanoemulsion’s stability. The results obtained for in vitro and in vivo nanoemulsion evaluation, based on the hydration and oiliness, and pH of the skin, shows O/W nanoemulsions as potential vehicle for topical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Effect of Plant Mixture Ethanol Extracts Containing Biota orientalis L. Extract on Suppression of Sebum in Cultured Sebocytes and on Stimulation of Growth of Keratinocytes Co-cultured with Hair Papilla Cells
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics4030029 - 14 Aug 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Biota orientalis L. leaf extract (BOLE) is used medically to improve strength and arrest hemorrhage. In China, BOLE has been used in traditional medicine for its antibacterial properties and for hair restoration. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of hair restoration by [...] Read more.
Biota orientalis L. leaf extract (BOLE) is used medically to improve strength and arrest hemorrhage. In China, BOLE has been used in traditional medicine for its antibacterial properties and for hair restoration. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of hair restoration by BOLE from the point of view of the sebum suppressant effect and hair loss prevention. BOLE at 25 or 50 μg/mL final concentrations, a hair growth plant ethanol extract (HGPEE), and a hair growth plant water extract (HGPWE) (the latter two each containing BOLE and other plant compounds), were used to study: (1) the sebum suppressant effect in sebocytes from normal golden hamster ear pinna origin; (2) the effect on the growth of human fetal epidermal keratinocytes; and (3) the effect on gene expression related to hair growth stimulation, with (2) and (3) studied in human fetal epidermal keratinocytes and hair papilla cells. BOLE had a sebum depletion effect in cultured sebocytes; moreover, the amounts of mRNA of the hair growth factors, KGF, VEGF, and G3PDH analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in human hair papilla cells were increased by HGPEE. The amount of mRNA of Wnt10b in cultured epidermal keratinocytes was increased by the addition of BOLE, and the growth of the cultured epidermal keratinocytes was promoted by HGPEE in a two-layer culture system of hair papilla cells and epidermal keratinocytes. HGPEE had a hair growth promotion/hair restoration effect and a sebum suppression effect. Hair restorers containing HGPEE may be useful for stimulating hair growth and suppressing excess scalp sebum in males and females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Toxic Evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus Chemical Fractions in E. coli
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics4020020 - 17 Jun 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is consumed as a popular decoction owing to its nice flavor and hypotensor property. Its aqueous extract radioprotector and antimutagenic properties have been experimentally demonstrated. In addition, its DNA protective activity against UV light has been proved in plasmid [...] Read more.
Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is consumed as a popular decoction owing to its nice flavor and hypotensor property. Its aqueous extract radioprotector and antimutagenic properties have been experimentally demonstrated. In addition, its DNA protective activity against UV light has been proved in plasmid DNA and bacterial models. The fractioning process is important in order to identify phytocompounds responsible for this activity. In this work, the toxicity of three fractions obtained from Cymbopogon citratus (essential oils, butanolic and aqueous fractions) were tested using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. Cymbopogon citratus chemical fractions possess cytotoxic properties in E. coli in the following order butanolic > aqueous > essentials oils. Genotoxic properties were detected in any of the fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products) Printed Edition available

Review

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Open AccessReview
Coffee Silverskin: A Review on Potential Cosmetic Applications
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010005 - 03 Jan 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Coffee silverskin, the major coffee-roasting by-product, is currently used as fuel and for soil fertilization. However, there are several studies reporting silverskin as a good source of bioactive compounds that can be extracted and further used by cosmetic industry. Its high antioxidant potential [...] Read more.
Coffee silverskin, the major coffee-roasting by-product, is currently used as fuel and for soil fertilization. However, there are several studies reporting silverskin as a good source of bioactive compounds that can be extracted and further used by cosmetic industry. Its high antioxidant potential may be due to the synergistic interaction of chlorogenic acids (1–6%), caffeine (0.8–1.25%), and melanoidins (17–23%), among other antioxidant compounds. The bioactive compounds of silverskin can answer to the new fields of cosmetic industry on natural active ingredient resources that improve health skin appearance, counteract skin aging and related diseases, in an environmentally friendly approach. Skin aging is a complex process associated with oxidative metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. ROS production increase matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as well as pro-inflammatory mediators, resulting in consequent skin damage and aging. To counteract this process, cosmetic industry is looking for compounds able to increase MMP inhibitory activities, hyaluronidase inhibitory activity, expression of collagen and elastase inhibitory activity, as potential bioactive ingredients with anti-aging purposes. This review focuses on skin aging factors and the potential anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-cellulite and anti-hair loss activity, as well as protection against UV damage, of coffee silverskin and their bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Macroalgae-Derived Ingredients for Cosmetic Industry—An Update
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010002 - 25 Dec 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of [...] Read more.
Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of its natural functions. With the new societal paradigms regarding youth and beauty have emerged new concerns about appearance, encouraging millions of consumers to use cosmetic/personal care products as part of their daily routine. Hence, cosmetics have become a global and highly competitive market in a constant state of evolution. This industry is highly committed to finding natural sources of functional/bioactive-rich compounds, preferably from sustainable and cheap raw materials, to deliver innovative products and solutions that meet consumers’ expectations. Macroalgae are an excellent example of a natural resource that can fit these requirements. The incorporation of macroalgae-derived ingredients in cosmetics has been growing, as more and more scientific evidence reports their skin health-promoting effects. This review provides an overview on the possible applications of macroalgae as active ingredients for the cosmetic field, highlighting the main compounds responsible for their bioactivity on skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Revisiting Amazonian Plants for Skin Care and Disease
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics4030025 - 26 Jul 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., [...] Read more.
This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., family Meliaceae; Eperua falcata Aubl., family Fabaceae; Quassia amara L., family Simaroubaceae; and Attalea speciosa Mart. and Oenocarpus bataua Mart., family Arecaceae. For each species, the general features, major constituents, overall medicinal properties, detailed dermatological and skin care applications, and possible harmful effects have been considered. The major products include seed oils from A. speciosa and C. guianensis, fruit oil from O. bataua, and active compounds such as limonoids from C. guianensis, flavonoids from E. falcata, and quassinoids from Q. amara. The dermatologic and cosmetic applications of these plants are growing rapidly but are still widely based on empiric knowledge. Applications include skin rehydration and soothing; anti-inflammatory, antiage, and antiparasite effects; hair care; burn and wound healing; and the amelioration of rosacea and psoriasis conditions. Despite a limited knowledge about their constituents and properties, these species appear as promising sources of bioactive compounds for skin care and health applications. An improvement of knowledge about their properties will provide added value to the exploitation of these forest resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products) Printed Edition available
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