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Open AccessArticle

Development, Characterization, and Bioactivity of Non-Dairy Kefir-Like Fermented Beverage Based on Flaxseed Oil Cake

1
Center of Bioimmobilisation and Innovative Packaging Materials, Faculty of Food Sciences and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin, Janickiego 35, 71-270 Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Allergology and Respiratory Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, Zeligowskiego 7/9, 90-752 Lodz, Poland
3
Department of Diagnostic Immunology, Chair of Microbiology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 72 Powstancow Wielkopolskich Avenue, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(11), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110544
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 23 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Flaxseed oil cake (FOC) was evaluated as a potential substrate for the production of a novel kefir-like fermented beverage. Three variants containing 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) of FOC were inoculated with kefir grains and incubated at 25 °C for 24 h. After processing, beverages were stored in refrigerated conditions (6 °C) for 21 days. Changes in microbial population, pH, acidity, levels of proteins, polyphenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars were estimated. Additionally, viscosity, firmness, color, and antioxidant properties were determined. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria as well as yeast were capable of growing well in the FOC without any supplementation. During refrigerated storage, the viability of the microorganisms were over the recommended minimum level for kefir products. As a result of fermentation, the beverages showed excellent antioxidant activity. Because of the functional characteristics conferred to the FOC beverages, the use of kefir grains showed adequate potential for the industrial application. Therefore, this beverages could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for beneficial microflora consumption, especially by vegans and lactose-intolerant consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: flaxseed; oil cake; beverage; fermentation; non-dairy; kefir grains; kefir-like flaxseed; oil cake; beverage; fermentation; non-dairy; kefir grains; kefir-like
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Łopusiewicz, Ł.; Drozłowska, E.; Siedlecka, P.; Mężyńska, M.; Bartkowiak, A.; Sienkiewicz, M.; Zielińska-Bliźniewska, H.; Kwiatkowski, P. Development, Characterization, and Bioactivity of Non-Dairy Kefir-Like Fermented Beverage Based on Flaxseed Oil Cake. Foods 2019, 8, 544.

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