Special Issue "Design and Testing of Power Cable System"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Power and Energy System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Eleonora Riva Sanseverino
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: power cables; distributed power generation; smart grids; substation protection; cable sheathing; power distribution faults; power system faults; power system interconnection; power system management; power system protection
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Prof. Dr. Pietro Romano
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: power cables; dielectrics materials; partial discharges measurements; space charge measurements; PEA method, polarity reversal; transient overvoltage; cable sheathing; power distribution faults; power system faults; power system interconnection
Dr. Antonino Imburgia
Website
Guest Editor
University of Palermo, Italy
Interests: power cables; dielectrics materials; space charge measurements; PEA method; partial discharges measurements; polarity reversal; transient overvoltage; cable sheathing; power distribution faults; power system faults; power system interconnection

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The substantial growth of cable HV interconnections has prompted researchers to investigate the degradation factors of the dielectric materials used in these systems. Dielectrics in AC and DC cables experience ageing phenomena that are worth of investigation due to the high costs associated to the failures of such infrastructures. In particular, HVDC systems early diagnosis poses a great challenge due to the lack of standardization and consolidated technologies for testing. As is well known, the space charge accumulation and the partial discharge (PD) phenomena play an important role in DC cables’ dielectrics ageing. For this reason, several measurement techniques were developed in order to monitor these phenomena. For instance, the Pulsed Electro Acoustic (PEA) method is one of the main techniques used to measure the space charge. Despite its wide use, the cited technique is destructive, and several technical issues are still present during testing, e.g., the attenuation of the charge signals and the presence of reflected signals in the output charge profile. Therefore, solutions regarding existing space charge measurement (like the Thermal Step Method or PEA) to improve the output charge profile and avoid cables destruction are strongly encouraged. Moreover, the measurement of the PD phenomenon under distorted waveforms is considered of great interest. This Special Issue welcomes studies on the state of the art of new methodologies for cable fault and pre-fault analysis, PD analysis in HVDC cables, innovative cables design, and possible changes of cables structures with the aim to improve and facilitate PEA and PD measurements. Apart from original research articles related to the topic, studies on the effect of the polarity reversal and transient overvoltage phenomena in the lifetime of power cables are also welcome. Finally, due to their ease of use, wireless AC PD detection methods, as well as fault detection and localization approaches, will be considered of interest.

Prof. Dr. Eleonora Riva Sanseverino
Prof. Dr. Pietro Romano
Dr. Antonino Imburgia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • power cables design
  • AC and DC partial discharge analysis
  • wireless partial discharge analysis
  • fault analysis
  • HVDC test
  • HVAC test
  • space charge
  • partial discharge
  • PEA method
  • TSM method
  • polarity reversal
  • transient overvoltage
  • power cable

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Design of Power Cable Lines Partially Exposed to Direct Solar Radiation—Special Aspects
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102650 - 22 May 2020
Abstract
Power cable lines are usually buried in the ground. However, in some cases, their ending sections are mounted along the supports of overhead lines. This leads to a situation where the cables are exposed to direct solar radiation and, consequentially, overheat. The paper [...] Read more.
Power cable lines are usually buried in the ground. However, in some cases, their ending sections are mounted along the supports of overhead lines. This leads to a situation where the cables are exposed to direct solar radiation and, consequentially, overheat. The paper presents the advanced computer modelling of power cables’ heating, considering their insolation as well as the effect of wind. The temperature and current-carrying capacity of power cables—during exposure to direct solar radiation—are evaluated. An effective method of limiting the unfavourable impact of the sun is discussed. In the presence of solar radiation, the proposed method enables a significant increase in the power cables current-carrying capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Testing of Power Cable System)
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Open AccessArticle
Space Charge Measurement and Modelling in Cross-Linked Polyethylene
Energies 2020, 13(8), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081906 - 13 Apr 2020
Abstract
Cross-linked polyethylene, commercially known as XLPE, is widely used as an insulating material in high voltage cables. However, space charge accumulation under the DC field is one of the most challenging problems in the further development of XLPE insulated cable. Due to the [...] Read more.
Cross-linked polyethylene, commercially known as XLPE, is widely used as an insulating material in high voltage cables. However, space charge accumulation under the DC field is one of the most challenging problems in the further development of XLPE insulated cable. Due to the potential electrical degradation ageing process triggered by the accumulated space charges, the IEEE standard 1732 was established for measuring space charge in HVDC extruded cables as the qualification tests. Previous research has revealed that space charge originates from either charge injection at the electrodes or ionization of impurities presenting inside the bulk. In the light of this, this paper aims to simulate the accumulation of space charge in XLPE under DC stress. Space charge measurements have been carried on the fresh and degassed XLPE samples. A modified bipolar charge transport model, by considering the dissociation of impurities, has been employed to simulate the space charge behavior in XLPE. Compared with the experimental observations, the simulation results can reveal appropriate features of hetero charge formation. Both the calculated charge dynamics and field variation are consistent with the experiment results. The restrictions and potential improvements of this preliminary model are also discussed for its future application of XLPE cables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Testing of Power Cable System)
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Open AccessArticle
The Industrial Applicability of PEA Space Charge Measurements, for Performance Optimization of HVDC Power Cables
Energies 2019, 12(21), 4186; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214186 - 02 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cable manufacturing industries are constantly trying to improve the electrical performance of power cables. During the years, it was found that one of the most relevant degradation factors influencing the cable lifetime is the presence of space charge in the insulation layer. To [...] Read more.
Cable manufacturing industries are constantly trying to improve the electrical performance of power cables. During the years, it was found that one of the most relevant degradation factors influencing the cable lifetime is the presence of space charge in the insulation layer. To detect the accumulated charge, the pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method is the most used technique. Despite the wide use of the PEA cell, several issues are still present. In particular, the PEA output signal is strongly disturbed by the acoustic waves reflections within the PEA cell. This causes the distortion of the output signal and therefore the misinterpretation of the charge profiles. This, in turn, may result in an incorrect cable characterization from the space charge phenomenon point of view. In 2017, due to the proved degradation effect of the space charge accumulation phenomenon, the IEEE Std 1732 was developed. This standard describes the steps to be followed for the space charge measurement in cables specimens during pre-qualification or type tests. Therefore, cable manufacturing industries started to take a particular interest in these measures. In the light of this, the aim of the present work is to highlight that the enacted standard is not easily applicable since various problems are still present in the PEA method for cables. In particular, in this work, the effect of multiple reflected signals due to the different interfaces involved, but also the effect of the signal attenuation due to cable dielectric thickness, as well as the effect of the PEA cell ground electrode thickness in the output charge profile, are reported. These issues have been demonstrated by means of an experimental test carried out on a full-size cable in the Prysmian Group High Voltage laboratory. To better understand the PEA cell output signal formation, a PEA cell model was developed in a previous work and it has been experimentally validated here. In particular, simulations have been useful to highlight the effect of the reflection phenomena due to the PEA cell ground electrode thickness on the basis of the specimen under test features. Moreover, by analyzing the simulation results, it was possible to separate the main signal from the reflected waves and, in turn, to calculate the suitable ground electrode thickness for the cable specimen under test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Testing of Power Cable System)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Modeling and Simulation of the Electro-Quasistatic Field in HVDC Cable Systems
Authors: Christoph Jörgens; Markus Clemens
Affiliation: University of Wuppertal, Germany
Abstract: High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cable systems have several advantages in comparison to High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC), w.r.t. long distance transmission and transmitted power. The insulation materials of such cable systems are governed by a nonlinear electric field and temperature dependent electric conductivity. With a constant applied voltage, space charges accumulate within the insulation and result in a slowly time varying electric field, until a steady state configuration is reached. Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to determine the corresponding electric field distribution in the insulation. The obtained simulation results can be used for the design process to ensure the reliability of HVDC cable systems. This work gives a review about the effective mechanisms, their descriptions and the numerical simulation of the time varying electric field distribution within HVDC cable insulations, using conductivity based cable models. Different conductivity models are presented and the corresponding numerical simulations are compared against analytic approximations and measurements. Using recently improved conductivity based cable models, simulation results compare well against time varying and stationary reference results of electric field and space charge distributions. Furthermore, the accuracy and the computation time of different numerical computation techniques are compared e.g. in cable joints that consists multiple dielectrics and resistive “field grading materials” (FGM), where unstable electric field values may be computed during the conventional explicit time integration of the slowly varying electric field distributions. Considering the ambient environment of a HVDC cable, within a coupled electro-thermal field simulation the effect of the environment on the resulting electric field distribution can be determined. For the drying process of the soil accelerated by the electric field and the temperature a special case of the electro-quasistatic field is formulated. This model allows to consider the effect of electro-osmosis at HVDC ground electrodes, where the earth soil dries out and changes its electric conductivity and electric field distribution also at the surface level.

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