Special Issue "Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources in Power Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Power and Energy System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Tomás Gómez San Román
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Research in Technology, Comillas Pontifical University, 28015 Madrid, Spain
Interests: economics and regulation of the energy sector; planning and operation of transmission and distribution electricity networks; integration of renewable and distributed energy resources in power systems; power quality standards and regulation; electric vehicles; smart grids
Dr. José Pablo Chaves Ávila
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Research in Technology, Comillas Pontifical University, 28015 Madrid, Spain
Interests: energy economics; integration of renewable resources and distributed energy resources in the electricity sector; smart grids and regulation of the electricity and gas sectors

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The electric power sector is poised for transformative changes. Improvements in the cost and performance of a range of distributed energy generation (DG) technologies and the potential for breakthroughs in distributed energy storage (DS) are creating new options for on-site power generation and storage, driving increasing adoption and impacting utility distribution system operations. In addition, changing uses and use patterns for electricity—from plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) to demand response (DR)—are altering demands on the electric power system. Finally, the infusion of new information and communications technology (ICT) into the electric system and its markets is enabling the collection of immense volumes of data on power sector operations and use; unprecedented control of generation, networks, and loads; and new opportunities for the delivery of energy services.

In this Special Issue of Energies, research papers on topics related to the integration of distributed energy resources (DG, DS, EV, and DR) are welcome. From technologies to business models and software tools to evaluate systemwide, both operation and planning impacts of all aforementioned distributed resources will be well received. The focus of this Special Issue is how the combination of novel distributed resources with the nature and penetration of these business models heavily influenced by policy and regulation will shape the utilities of the future.

Prof. Dr. Tomás Gómez San Román
Dr. José Pablo Chaves Ávila
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • distributed generation
  • distributed storage
  • electric vehicles
  • demand response
  • large-scale penetration of distributed resources: planning and operational tools
  • electricity market design for integration of renewable distributed resources
  • tariff design for active customers with embedded distributed resources
  • coordination between transmission and distribution system operators

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Photovoltaic Generation Impact Analysis in Low Voltage Distribution Grids
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4347; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174347 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Due to a greater social and environmental awareness of citizens, advantageous regulations and a favourable economic return on investment, the presence of photovoltaic (PV) installations in distribution grids is increasing. In the future, not only a significant increase in photovoltaic generation is expected, [...] Read more.
Due to a greater social and environmental awareness of citizens, advantageous regulations and a favourable economic return on investment, the presence of photovoltaic (PV) installations in distribution grids is increasing. In the future, not only a significant increase in photovoltaic generation is expected, but also in other of the so-called distributed energy resources (DER), such as wind generation, storage, electric vehicle charging points or manageable demands. Despite the benefits posed by these technologies, an uncontrolled spread could create important challenges for the power system, such as increase of energy losses or voltages out-of-limits along the grid, for example. These issues are expected to be more pronounced in low voltage (LV) distribution networks. This article has two main objectives: proposing a method to calculate the LV distributed photovoltaic generation hosting capacity (HC) that minimizes system losses and evaluating different management techniques for solar PV inverters and their effect on the hosting capacity. The HC calculation is based on a mixture of deterministic methods using time series data and statistical ones: using real smart meters data from customers and generating different combinations of solar PV facilities placements and power to evaluate its effect on the grid operation. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Modeling and Detection of Future Cyber-Enabled DSM Data Attacks
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4331; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174331 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
Demand-Side Management (DSM) is an essential tool to ensure power system reliability and stability. In future smart grids, certain portions of a customer’s load usage could be under the automatic control of a cyber-enabled DSM program, which selectively schedules loads as a function [...] Read more.
Demand-Side Management (DSM) is an essential tool to ensure power system reliability and stability. In future smart grids, certain portions of a customer’s load usage could be under the automatic control of a cyber-enabled DSM program, which selectively schedules loads as a function of electricity prices to improve power balance and grid stability. In this scenario, the security of DSM cyberinfrastructure will be critical as advanced metering infrastructure and communication systems are susceptible to cyber-attacks. Such attacks, in the form of false data injections, can manipulate customer load profiles and cause metering chaos and energy losses in the grid. The feedback mechanism between load management on the consumer side and dynamic price schemes employed by independent system operators can further exacerbate attacks. To study how this feedback mechanism may worsen attacks in future cyber-enabled DSM programs, we propose a novel mathematical framework for (i) modeling the nonlinear relationship between load management and real-time pricing, (ii) simulating residential load data and prices, (iii) creating cyber-attacks, and (iv) detecting said attacks. In this framework, we first develop time-series forecasts to model load demand and use them as inputs to an elasticity model for the price-demand relationship in the DSM loop. This work then investigates the behavior of such a feedback loop under intentional cyber-attacks. We simulate and examine load-price data under different DSM-participation levels with three types of random additive attacks: ramp, sudden, and point attacks. We conduct two investigations for the detection of DSM attacks. The first studies a supervised learning approach, with various classification models, and the second studies the performance of parametric and nonparametric change point detectors. Results conclude that higher amounts of DSM participation can exacerbate ramp and sudden attacks leading to better detection of such attacks, especially with supervised learning classifiers. We also find that nonparametric detection outperforms parametric for smaller user pools, and random point attacks are the hardest to detect with any method. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Simulation of Incidental Distributed Generation Curtailment to Maximize the Integration of Renewable Energy Generation in Power Systems
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4173; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164173 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
Power system security is increasingly endangered due to novel power flow situations caused by the growing integration of distributed generation. Consequently, grid operators are forced to request the curtailment of distributed generators to ensure the compliance with operational limits more often. This research [...] Read more.
Power system security is increasingly endangered due to novel power flow situations caused by the growing integration of distributed generation. Consequently, grid operators are forced to request the curtailment of distributed generators to ensure the compliance with operational limits more often. This research proposes a framework to simulate the incidental amount of renewable energy curtailment based on load flow analysis of the network. Real data from a 110 kV distribution network located in Germany are used to validate the proposed framework by implementing best practice curtailment approaches. Furthermore, novel operational concepts are investigated to improve the practical implementation of distributed generation curtailment. Specifically, smaller curtailment level increments, coordinated selection methods, and an extension of the n-1 security criterion are analyzed. Moreover, combinations of these concepts are considered to depict interdependencies between several operational aspects. The results quantify the potential of the proposed concepts to improve established grid operation practices by minimizing distributed generation curtailment and, thus, maximizing power system integration of renewable energies. In particular, the extension of the n-1 criterion offers significant potential to reduce curtailment by up to 94.8% through a more efficient utilization of grid capacities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Recloser-Based Decentralized Control of the Grid with Distributed Generation in the Lahsh District of the Rasht Grid in Tajikistan, Central Asia
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3673; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143673 - 16 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Small-scale power generation based on renewable energy sources is gaining popularity in distribution grids, creating new challenges for power system control. At the same time, remote consumers with their own small-scale generation still have low reliability of power supply and poor power quality, [...] Read more.
Small-scale power generation based on renewable energy sources is gaining popularity in distribution grids, creating new challenges for power system control. At the same time, remote consumers with their own small-scale generation still have low reliability of power supply and poor power quality, due to the lack of proper technology for grid control when the main power supply is lost. Today, there is a global trend in the transition from a power supply with centralized control to a decentralized one, which has led to the Microgrid concept. A microgrid is an intelligent automated system that can reconfigure by itself, maintain the power balance, and distribute power flows. The main purpose of this paper is to study the method of control using reclosers in the Lahsh district of the Rasht grid in Tajikistan with distributed small generation. Based on modified reclosers, a method of decentralized synchronization and restoration of the grid normal operation after the loss of the main power source was proposed. In order to assess the stable operation of small hydropower plants under disturbances, the transients caused by proactive automatic islanding (PAI) and restoration of the interconnection between the microgrid and the main grid are shown. Rustab software, as one of the multifunctional software applications in the field of power systems transients study, was used for simulation purposes. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that under disturbances, the proposed method had a positive effect on the stability of small hydropower plants, which are owned and dispatched by the Rasht grid. Moreover, the proposed method sufficiently ensures the quality of the supplied power and improves the reliability of power supply in the Lahsh district of Tajikistan. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Location and Sizing of Micro-Grids to Improve Continuity of Supply in Radial Distribution Networks
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3495; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133495 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 758
Abstract
The steady decline in the prices of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as distributed renewable generation and storage systems, together with more sophisticated monitoring and control strategies allow power distribution companies to enhance the performance of the distribution network, for instance improving voltage [...] Read more.
The steady decline in the prices of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as distributed renewable generation and storage systems, together with more sophisticated monitoring and control strategies allow power distribution companies to enhance the performance of the distribution network, for instance improving voltage control, congestion management, or reliability. The latter will be the subject of this paper. This paper addresses the improvement of continuity of supply in radial distribution grids in rural areas, where traditional reinforcements cannot be carried out because they are located in secluded areas or in naturally protected zones, where the permits to build new lines are difficult to obtain. When a contingency occurs in such a feeder, protection systems isolate it, and all downstream users suffer an interruption until the service is restored. This paper proposes a novel methodology to determine the optimal location and size of micro-grid systems (MGs) used to reduce non-served energy, considering reliability and investment costs. The proposed model additionally determines the most suitable combination of DER technologies. The resulting set of MGs would be used to supply consumers located in the isolated area while the upstream fault is being repaired. The proposed methodology is validated through its application to a case study of an actual rural feeder which suffers from reliability issues due to the difficulties in obtaining the necessary permissions to undertake conventional grid reinforcements. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Towards a Sustainability Assessment Model for Urban Public Space Renewable Energy Infrastructure
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3428; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133428 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 680
Abstract
As cities develop new interventions for climate change mitigation, incorporating renewable energy in urban public spaces becomes a common norm to address sustainability objectives. However, current built projects and assessment practices mainly uses a “techno-fixes” approach focusing on strategies that are related to [...] Read more.
As cities develop new interventions for climate change mitigation, incorporating renewable energy in urban public spaces becomes a common norm to address sustainability objectives. However, current built projects and assessment practices mainly uses a “techno-fixes” approach focusing on strategies that are related to the environmental benefits and neglecting other potential strategies instigating social and economic benefits of renewable energy. The purpose of this study is to present a potential sustainability assessment model introducing new strategies for public space renewable energy use where social and economic benefits of renewables become evident. Supplemented with theories and principles from ecology, the model’s economic strategies refer whether the project considers meaningful part of the produced electricity for generating a local economy; environmental strategy comprises embodied energy, energy storage and self-maintenance; social strategy includes whether the project considers generating active and passive interaction using on-site electricity. Ballast Point Park in Sydney was used as a test bed to examine the model and sustainability of park’s renewable energy use. The findings showed that environmental strategies were evident in the park, social strategies remained average and economic strategies with renewable energy were lacking. Interactions with on-site produced electricity was further claimed to be an imperative feature of any public space. Recommendations were made specific to operational and planning impacts of the integrated model. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Adaptable Source-Grid Planning for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Integrated System
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3304; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133304 - 28 Jun 2020
Viewed by 544
Abstract
To adapt to the growing scale of renewable energy and improve the consume ability of the power system, it is necessary to design a highly adaptable planning scheme for high penetration of the renewable energy integrated system. Thus, this paper firstly gives the [...] Read more.
To adapt to the growing scale of renewable energy and improve the consume ability of the power system, it is necessary to design a highly adaptable planning scheme for high penetration of the renewable energy integrated system. Thus, this paper firstly gives the conception of system adaptability and designs an adaptability index system, which considers the supply and demand balance, operation state, and network structure of the high penetrated renewable energy integrated system. It can help to comprehensively evaluate the system ability towards uncertain shocks. Then, a two-stage source-grid coordinative expansion planning model is presented. The adaptability indexes of supply and demand balance are used as objection of the source planning stage, the adaptability indexed of the operation state and network structure are used to guide the grid planning stage. The model is further solved based on the coordination between the source and grid planning stage. Finally, the case study verifies that the obtained optimal plan has good adaptability to the impact of renewable energy on the power supply capacity and security operation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Optimising a Microgrid System by Deep Reinforcement Learning Techniques
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2830; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112830 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
The deployment of microgrids could be fostered by control systems that do not require very complex modelling, calibration, prediction and/or optimisation processes. This paper explores the application of Reinforcement Learning (RL) techniques for the operation of a microgrid. The implemented Deep Q-Network (DQN) [...] Read more.
The deployment of microgrids could be fostered by control systems that do not require very complex modelling, calibration, prediction and/or optimisation processes. This paper explores the application of Reinforcement Learning (RL) techniques for the operation of a microgrid. The implemented Deep Q-Network (DQN) can learn an optimal policy for the operation of the elements of an isolated microgrid, based on the interaction agent-environment when particular operation actions are taken in the microgrid components. In order to facilitate the scaling-up of this solution, the algorithm relies exclusively on historical data from past events, and therefore it does not require forecasts of the demand or the renewable generation. The objective is to minimise the cost of operating the microgrid, including the penalty of non-served power. This paper analyses the effect of considering different definitions for the state of the system by expanding the set of variables that define it. The obtained results are very satisfactory as it can be concluded by their comparison with the perfect-information optimal operation computed with a traditional optimisation model, and with a Naive model. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Review of Positive and Negative Impacts of Electric Vehicles Charging on Electric Power Systems
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4675; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184675 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
There is a continuous and fast increase in electric vehicles (EVs) adoption in many countries due to the reduction of EVs prices, governments’ incentives and subsidies on EVs, the need for energy independence, and environmental issues. It is expected that EVs will dominate [...] Read more.
There is a continuous and fast increase in electric vehicles (EVs) adoption in many countries due to the reduction of EVs prices, governments’ incentives and subsidies on EVs, the need for energy independence, and environmental issues. It is expected that EVs will dominate the private cars market in the coming years. These EVs charge their batteries from the power grid and may cause severe effects if not managed properly. On the other hand, they can provide many benefits to the power grid and get revenues for EV owners if managed properly. The main contribution of the article is to provide a review of potential negative impacts of EVs charging on electric power systems mainly due to uncontrolled charging and how through controlled charging and discharging those impacts can be reduced and become even positive impacts. The impacts of uncontrolled EVs charging on the increase of peak demand, voltage deviation from the acceptable limits, phase unbalance due to the single-phase chargers, harmonics distortion, overloading of the power system equipment, and increase of power losses are presented. Furthermore, a review of the positive impacts of controlled EVs charging and discharging, and the electrical services that it can provide like frequency regulation, voltage regulation and reactive power compensation, congestion management, and improving power quality are presented. Moreover, a few promising research topics that need more investigation in future research are briefly discussed. Furthermore, the concepts and general background of EVs, EVs market, EV charging technology, the charging methods are presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop