Special Issue "Energy Policy and Policy Implications"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Carlos Rodríguez-Monroy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, Business Administration and Statistics, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid, Spain
Interests: Energy Policy; Sustainability; Renewable Energy; Energy Strategy; Innovation; Industrial Management
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. José Balibrea
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), 28006 Madrid, Spain
Interests: Energy Policy; Energy Markets; Finance; Real Options
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy is essential to enabling the global economy to function adequately. However, its production and consumption can also have adverse effects. Energy policy is aimed at achieving objectives related to economic growth, environmental impact, and national security. In recent years, due to exponential population growth, increased per capita energy consumption, and greater impact on the environment, energy policy is facing major additional challenges. The Special Issue “Energy Policy and Policy Implications” is meant to address a wide spectrum of issues related to these challenges. Researchers are invited to submit manuscripts showing how their research results contribute to solving the current and foreseeable problems that arise from the current dynamics in the energy field. Energy policies designed to deal with the global economy and focusing on geopolitical influences as well as energy policies related to more limited geographical circumscriptions (regional, national or local) can be suitable topics of research. Innovative aspects of the new energy policies should be stressed. Transitions to new energy models implemented at a national level and their corresponding cost–benefit analysis can be of great interest in a context of changing globalization patterns, climate change and geopolitical tensions.

Prof. Carlos Rodríguez-Monroy
Dr. José Balibrea
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Energy Policy
  • Energy Strategy
  • Energy Transition
  • Energy Economics
  • Geopolitics and Energy
  • Energy Poverty
  • Distributed Energy

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Drivers and Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency in Textile Industries of Bangladesh
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091775 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1787
Abstract
Bangladesh faced a substantial growth in primary energy demand in the last few years. According to several studies, energy generation is not the only means to address energy demand; efficient energy management practices are also very critical. A pertinent contribution in the energy [...] Read more.
Bangladesh faced a substantial growth in primary energy demand in the last few years. According to several studies, energy generation is not the only means to address energy demand; efficient energy management practices are also very critical. A pertinent contribution in the energy management at the industrial sector ensures the proper utilization of energy. Energy management and its efficiency in the textile industries of Bangladesh are studied in this paper. The outcomes demonstrate several barriers to energy management practices which are inadequate technical cost-effective measures, inadequate capital expenditure, and poor research and development. However, this study also demonstrates that the risk of high energy prices in the future, assistance from energy professionals, and an energy management scheme constitute the important drivers for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the studied textile mills. The studied textile industries seem unaccustomed to the dedicated energy service company concept, and insufficient information regarding energy service companies (ESCOs) and the shortage of trained professionals in energy management seem to be the reasons behind this. This paper likewise finds that 3–4% energy efficiency improvements can be gained with the help of energy management practices in these industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Policy Implications)
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Article
Two Birds, One Stone—Reframing Cooking Energy Policies in Africa and Asia
by , , and
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091591 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
For the past 40 years, the dominant ‘policy’ on cooking energy in the Global South has been to improve the combustion efficiency of biomass fuels. This was said to alleviate the burdens of biomass cooking for three billion people by mitigating emissions, reducing [...] Read more.
For the past 40 years, the dominant ‘policy’ on cooking energy in the Global South has been to improve the combustion efficiency of biomass fuels. This was said to alleviate the burdens of biomass cooking for three billion people by mitigating emissions, reducing deforestation, alleviating expenditure and collection times on fuels and increasing health outcomes. By 2015, international agencies were openly saying it was a failing policy. The dispersal of improved cookstoves was not keeping up with population growth, increasing urbanisation was leading to denser emissions and evidence suggested health effects of improved stoves were not as expected. A call was made for a new strategy, something other than ‘business as usual’. Conventional wisdom suggests that access to electricity is poor in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), that it is too expensive and that weak grids prevent even connected households from cooking. Could a new strategy be built around access to electricity (and gas)? Could bringing modern energy for cooking to the forefront kill two birds with one stone? In 2019, UK Aid announced a multi-million-pound programme on ‘Modern Energy Cooking Services’ (MECS), specifically designed to explore alternative approaches to address cooking energy concerns in the Global South. This paper outlines the rationale behind such a move, and how it will work with existing economies and policies to catalyse a global transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Policy Implications)
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Article
Electricity Generation in India: Present State, Future Outlook and Policy Implications
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071361 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
India is one of the fastest developing countries in the world. To sustain this growth, energy and electricity demands will increase. In 2015, of the 1337 TWh produced, 916 TWh were from fossil fuels. We prepared several models of electricity demand from 2015 [...] Read more.
India is one of the fastest developing countries in the world. To sustain this growth, energy and electricity demands will increase. In 2015, of the 1337 TWh produced, 916 TWh were from fossil fuels. We prepared several models of electricity demand from 2015 to 2030, based on publicly available datasets and trends. Models were tested on data from previous years and adjusted accordingly. From several scenarios, we decided to introduce two possibilities, i.e., a scenario using high energy savings in all sectors, and a scenario counting on a high industrial growth not supported by an equal increase of electricity savings. For both cases we prepared models for extreme situations: (1) where coal- and lignite-based power plants are preferred after slow-down of a renewable energy boom, and (2) with high utilization of renewable energy supported by natural gas and nuclear energy. With GDP and population increasing at the same rate as in previous years, the unambiguous result in all scenarios is a 2 to 3-fold increase of the electricity demand by 2030. On the electricity production side, all scenarios stress the role of coal, renewables and nuclear sources. Both energy and climate policies should be prepared for such a development in advance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Policy Implications)
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Article
The Efficacy of the Tolling Model’s Ability to Improve Project Profitability on International Steel Plants
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071221 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
To overcome profitability deterioration in executing steel price projects, companies are seeking overseas expansion, which increases market size while reducing profit certainty. Special purpose companies (SPCs) have been found to better manage these risks through tolling agreements which transfer the local pricing volatility [...] Read more.
To overcome profitability deterioration in executing steel price projects, companies are seeking overseas expansion, which increases market size while reducing profit certainty. Special purpose companies (SPCs) have been found to better manage these risks through tolling agreements which transfer the local pricing volatility risks (raw material, steel sales, licensing and income tax) to the project sponsor. The energy market has benefited from policy changes allowing the use of the tolling model, finding an increase in profitability for both project sponsors and SPCs through more effective risk sharing. While successes have been published in the energy, gas, and highway sectors, the tolling model’s efficacy has yet to be tested on the steel sector. As such, this research adds to the existing body of knowledge by testing the financial feasibility of using the tolling model on three million ton/year capacity steel projects. The data analyzed has been collected from “Company A”, a company with 50 years of domestic and 20 years international steel-iron plant project execution and operation experience. An economic analysis is performed on the best, most likely, and worst-case cost/revenue scenarios of a virtual project (which represents the average of all Company A projects) and two Company A projects under construction/operation. The findings support the use of the tolling model in volatile markets, showing a net present value (NPV) profitability increase of up to $940 versus the traditional project company model under worst case market conditions. However, the traditional project company model was found to be superior in best case market conditions. With these findings, international steel companies are able to consider alternative financing structures when executing projects in volatile markets, potentially resulting in greater project sponsor and SPC profit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Policy Implications)
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Article
Brexit and UK Energy Security: Perspectives from Unconventional Gas Investment and the Effects of Shale Gas on UK Energy Prices
Energies 2019, 12(4), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040600 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Many aspects of the present and future effects on the UK economy, industry, and households, of Brexit have been researched. One thing which appears certain about Brexit is the shadow of uncertainty it casts on the future of business in the UK and [...] Read more.
Many aspects of the present and future effects on the UK economy, industry, and households, of Brexit have been researched. One thing which appears certain about Brexit is the shadow of uncertainty it casts on the future of business in the UK and its telling effects on the UK economy. It is believed that Brexit has negatively affected the level of investments in the UK, including investments in energy and crucially the upstream oil and gas, with the UK North Sea being starved of investments since 2014, leading already to increased energy bills. The UK is a net importer of natural gas—a major source of its energy, with some dependence on supplies from interconnectors from Europe. At the same time, UK energy companies participate in the common energy market which enables them to undertake arbitrage trading under the common market rules. However, both of these benefits could be lost under a Brexit scenario where the UK and EU come to a no-deal or hard border arrangement. Meanwhile, domestic production of energy in the UK has declined for nearly two decades now and import bills for natural gas are growing—they were £14.2 billion in 2017; £11.7 billion in 2016 and £13.4 billion in 2015—with Government projections indicating an upward trajectory for natural gas imports. It is however believed that the UK has great potential to exploit shale gas to her advantage in order to reduce her reliance on foreign energy which is: (1) less predictable in terms of supply and price affordability and (2) dependent on exchange rates—a primary means through which energy prices increased in 2016/17 post-Brexit referendum vote. The current study extends discussions on shale gas to cover a review of the potential of natural gas from shale formations to cushion UK households against further erratic gas prices due to Brexit and also assesses the potential effects Brexit may have had on the level of investments in shale gas, in order to suggest policy options for government consideration. Contrary to popular studies, we find evidence to suggest that shale gas has the potential to reduce energy prices for UK businesses and households at commercial extractions, under both hard and soft Brexit scenarios, but with more benefits under hard Brexit. Importantly, we find that from 2008 to 2017, average UK net export of natural gas was 5,191 GWh per year to the EU. We also find and argue that Brexit may have starved the nascent fracking industry of investments in a similar way it did to investments in conventional oil and gas and could have increased investor risk premium for shale gas development, the ultimate effect of which was a categorisation of fracking (company stock) as riskier asset for investors on the London Stock Exchange. We recommend that shale gas development be expedited to maximise its benefits to UK energy consumers post-Brexit or economic benefits from the resource could be diminished by rising operator costs due to delays and effects of the public’s perceived negative opinion of the method of extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Policy Implications)
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Article
Persistence of Oil Prices in Gas Import Prices and the Resilience of the Oil-Indexation Mechanism. The Case of Spanish Gas Import Prices
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3486; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123486 - 13 Dec 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
Regardless of the rapid development of national gas centers around the world, oil price indexation remains the prevailing pricing process in Continental Europe and the Far East. The instance of Spain is a genuine case where gas supply conditions may, to some extent, [...] Read more.
Regardless of the rapid development of national gas centers around the world, oil price indexation remains the prevailing pricing process in Continental Europe and the Far East. The instance of Spain is a genuine case where gas supply conditions may, to some extent, clarify the slower pace of execution of a traded gas hub in the nation. This article seeks to explain the persistence of oil-indexed pricing mechanisms, a price model that differs oddly from that of other major commodities, the price of which is normally discovered on the market. In order to do that, we examine time-varying volatility to find that since 2013 until 2016, just about 33% of gradual volatility clustering rooted within oil Brent prices is reflected in Spanish gas prices. In this sense, our research provides quantitative tools to better understand that market-based approaches such as spot and medium-term supply alternatives seem to be a key driver for success in transforming gas markets. Regular updates on the size of the effects observed should facilitate an exact appraisal of the level of progression of national gas liberalization processes and enhance gas markets transparency, these issues of extraordinary importance for both policymakers and gas market agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Policy Implications)
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Article
The Rebound Effect of Energy Efficiency Policy in the Presence of Energy Theft
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3379; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123379 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Introduction: Estimating the effectiveness of energy efficiency policy in reducing energy use requires a full understanding of the energy efficiency rebound effect, where energy use reductions differ from engineering expectations. Prior models that estimate the size of the total rebound effect ignore [...] Read more.
Introduction: Estimating the effectiveness of energy efficiency policy in reducing energy use requires a full understanding of the energy efficiency rebound effect, where energy use reductions differ from engineering expectations. Prior models that estimate the size of the total rebound effect ignore energy theft, which is a common feature in developing economies. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the role that energy theft plays in determination of the size of the rebound effect of energy efficiency policy in developing countries, using the Turkish economy and the specific Turkish regulation regarding compensation for energy theft as an example. Methods: We construct two energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for Turkey that do and do not incorporate energy theft. Costs of energy theft are passed on to consumers through a recovery surcharge. Two energy efficiency policies are modeled; one leading to a 42% energy efficiency increment for the service sector and another leading to a 48% energy efficiency increment for households. Results: Without energy theft, rebound effects for both policies are small: between −1.4% and 3.1% for the service sector and between 0.4% and 2.1% for households. With energy theft, we see a −7.9% to −19.7% rebound for the service sector and a 10.4% to 40.7% rebound for households. The recovery surcharge on energy sales rises when energy efficiency gains affect the service sector but fall when they affect households. Conclusions: The interaction between energy efficiency and energy theft may be critical in accurate estimation of rebound effects where energy theft is prevalent. Where energy efficiency gains disproportionately reduce electricity sales rather than theft, the rising recovery surcharge leads to a negative rebound or super-conservation. However, where theft is disproportionately reduced rebound will be higher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Policy Implications)
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