Special Issue "Electric Distribution System Modeling and Analysis"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Power and Energy System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Ilhan Kocar

Guest Editor
Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, 5596 Montreal, Quebec PQ H3T 1J4, Canada

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

We are inviting submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject of "Electric distribution system modeling and analysis".

Electric distribution systems have been central to recent efforts in the modernization and decarbonization of electric grids. There are unprecedented challenges in the modeling and analysis of distribution grids due to large-scale integration of advanced equipment including smart grid assets and inverter-based distributed energy resources (IBDERs). To assess the potential impacts of increasing IDBERs and advanced distribution system equipment in a more comprehensive manner, there is a need for the establishment of highly accurate, efficient, and unified simulation environments. Simulation tools depend on component models and numerical analysis techniques. Component modeling and system analysis are also the key elements in the design, optimization and real-time management of electric distribution systems.

Historically, distribution system planning and protection studies have been performed in steady-state with simplified source models. State estimation, an essential element of distribution management system, has been simplified to a load allocation problem given the challenges associated with the lack of available measurements (and consequently of observability), and the large size of distribution networks and their unbalanced nature. The radial topology of conventional networks has shaped the architectures of analysis methods to favor the simplicity of algorithms and to deal with the computational limitations of the past. Today, active distribution networks with increasing IDBERs, availability of measurement data including smart meter data, and the integration of dc/ac microgrids challenge existing analysis paradigms and engineering practices. A wide range of studies from steady-state to time-series and fast transients is deliberated within the context of distribution system analysis. Large-scale system capable methods are proposed to address the need for detailed analysis of secondary grid systems found in dense urban areas and the modeling of distribution networks including sub-transmission level. Researchers try to discover generalization paths to arbitrary network topologies and include arbitrary device connections.

Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Numerical techniques and models to conduct a wide range of studies in distribution grids
  • Modeling of inverter-based distributed energy resources (IBDERs)
  • Modeling of advanced distribution system equipment and smart grid assets
  • Simulation of new distribution-level grid technologies
  • Simulation of active distribution networks
  • Integrated analysis of distribution grids, initialization of time-domain analysis from multi-phase load flow
  • Quasi-static time-series models, dynamic and EMT type models
  • Application of real-time simulation and hardware-in-the-loop methodologies in the analysis of distribution systems
  • Multiphase and unbalanced analysis of distribution systems: load flow, steady-state short circuit, state estimation, dynamic and transient analysis
  • Analysis of hybrid ac/dc microgrids
  • Analysis of inverter-based grids

Prof. Ilhan Kocar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Heuristic Coordinated Voltage Control Schemes in Distribution Network with Distributed Generations
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2849; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112849 - 03 Jun 2020
Abstract
The voltage and reactive power control (Volt/VAR Control, VVC) in distribution networks has become a challenging issue with the increasing utilization of distributed generations (DGs). In this paper, a heuristic-based coordinated voltage control scheme that considers distribution voltage control devices, i.e., on-load tap [...] Read more.
The voltage and reactive power control (Volt/VAR Control, VVC) in distribution networks has become a challenging issue with the increasing utilization of distributed generations (DGs). In this paper, a heuristic-based coordinated voltage control scheme that considers distribution voltage control devices, i.e., on-load tap changers (OLTC) and step voltage regulators (SVR), as well as reactive power control devices, i.e., DGs, are proposed. Conventional voltage control methods using non-linear node voltage equations require complex computation. In this paper, the formulation of simplified node voltage equations accounting for changes in tap position of distribution voltage control devices and reactive power changes of reactive power control devices are presented. A heuristic coordinated voltage control scheme using the proposed simplified node voltage equations is proposed. A coordinated voltage control scheme to achieve voltage control for nominal voltage and conservative voltage reduction (CVR) is presented. The results of the proposed schemes are compared with the results from the quadratic optimization method to confirm that the proposed schemes yields suitably similar results. Furthermore, a tap scheduling method is proposed to reduce the number of tap changes while controlling network voltage. The tap position is readjusted using a voltage control performance index (PI). Simulation results confirm that when using this method the number of tap changes is reduced. The proposed scheme not only produces reasonable performance in terms of control voltage of networks but also reduces the number of tap changes made by OLTC. The proposed control method is an alternative candidate for a system to be applied to practical distribution networks due to its simplified calculations and robust performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Distribution System Modeling and Analysis)
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Internal Overvoltages in Transformer Windings during Transients in Electrical Networks
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2644; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102644 - 22 May 2020
Abstract
Due to the increasing requirements for the reliability of electrical power supply and associated apparatus, it is necessary to provide a detailed analysis of the overvoltage risk of power transformer insulation systems and equipment connected to their terminals. Exposure of transformer windings to [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing requirements for the reliability of electrical power supply and associated apparatus, it is necessary to provide a detailed analysis of the overvoltage risk of power transformer insulation systems and equipment connected to their terminals. Exposure of transformer windings to overvoltages is the result of the propagation condition of electromagnetic waves in electrical networks and transformer windings. An analysis of transformer winding responses to transients in power systems is of particular importance, especially when protection against surges by typical overvoltage protection systems is applied. The analysis of internal overvoltages in transformers during a typical transient related to switching operations and selected failures is of great importance, particularly to assess the overvoltage exposure of insulation systems in operating conditions. The random nature of overvoltage phenomena in electrical networks implies the usage of computer simulations for the analysis of overvoltage exposures of electrical devices in operation. This article presents the analysis of the impact of transient phenomena in a model of a medium-voltage electrical network during switching operations and ground faults on overvoltages in the internal insulation systems of transformer windings. The basis of the analysis is simulations of overvoltages in the windings, made in the Electromagnetic Transients Program/Alternative Transients Program (EMTP/ATP) using a model with lumped parameters of transformer windings. The analysis covers the impact of the cable line length and the ground fault resistance value on internal overvoltage distributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Distribution System Modeling and Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Capacity Exploitation of Distribution Networks and Its Effect on the Planning of Distribution Networks
Energies 2020, 13(8), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081920 - 14 Apr 2020
Abstract
The continuous variation and dispersion of the load demand during a 24-h day are uncontrolled aspects that affect the efficiency, operational conditions, and total cost of the power distribution network. The cost of the network is strongly related to the peak of demand, [...] Read more.
The continuous variation and dispersion of the load demand during a 24-h day are uncontrolled aspects that affect the efficiency, operational conditions, and total cost of the power distribution network. The cost of the network is strongly related to the peak of demand, but the available capacity of the network is not used efficiently during the day because feeders and branches usually work under 70% of their full capacity. In this way, it is necessary to measure how efficiently the distribution network capacity is used and to identify the aspects that can be modified to improve it. This article proposes a new exploitation capacity index to measure the efficiency of a/the whole distribution network throughout the day in relation to the total available capacity of the branches that compose the network. The paper presents the mathematical formulation and the validation process of the index, and then it provides a planning case study in which the index and the total cost of the planning problem are calculated and compared in four different scenarios in which the peak of the load demand changes. The results show a direct relation between the exploitation capacity and the peak of demand, so lower exploitation capacities are strongly related to higher peaks of demand. As for the capital investments for the network planning, it is found that higher peaks of demand involve more upgrade necessities and higher capital investments compared to the other cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Distribution System Modeling and Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
A Reliability-Based Network Reconfiguration Model in Distribution System with DGs and ESSs Using Mixed-Integer Programming
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051219 - 06 Mar 2020
Abstract
Widely used distribution generations (DGs) and energy storage systems (ESSs) enable a distribution system to have a more flexible fault reconfiguration capability. In order to enhance the service reliability and the benefit of distribution networks with DGs and ESSs, this paper proposes a [...] Read more.
Widely used distribution generations (DGs) and energy storage systems (ESSs) enable a distribution system to have a more flexible fault reconfiguration capability. In order to enhance the service reliability and the benefit of distribution networks with DGs and ESSs, this paper proposes a novel distribution system reconfiguration (DSR) model including DGs and ESSs. Meanwhile, the impact of sectionalizing switches and tie switches on reliability is considered. The concept of “boundary switch” is introduced for quantifying the customer interruption duration. The DSR model is presented to minimize the sum of the customer interruption cost, the operation cost of switches, and the depreciation cost of DGs and ESSs. Furthermore, the proposed model is converted into a mixed-integer linear programming, which can be efficiently solved by commercial solvers. Finally, the validity and efficiency of the proposed DSR model are verified by a modified IEEE 33-bus system and a modified PG&E69-bus network. The obtained results indicate the advantages of DGs and ESSs in reducing outage time, and suggest that the types and locations of SSs have great effects on the resulting benefit of DGs and ESSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Distribution System Modeling and Analysis)
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