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Smart Green Cities—Energy Treatment and Management

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B: Energy and Environment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 November 2023) | Viewed by 5690

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra, 65-417 Zielona Góra, Poland
Interests: biological wastewater treatment; biochemical processes; anaerobic digestion; disintegration of sewage sludge; renewable energy; environmental analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Infrastructure and Environment, Częstochowa University of Technology, 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
Interests: water and wastewater technology; innovative technologies; water reuse; advanced oxidation processes; fates “emerging contaminants” in the environment; circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra, 65-417 Zielona Góra, Poland
Interests: environmental impact assessment; soil degradation; SUITMA-s; trace elements; heavy metals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing demand for sustainable development has led to the emergence of several key areas of focus including electromobility, the circular economy, renewable energy sources, energy adaptation to climate change, waste energy management in the circular economy, sustainable management of natural resources, energy efficiency of facilities and systems, water and wastewater treatment technologies, thermal energy, ventilation and air conditioning, and sustainable energy management in the environment. These areas emphasize sustainability and responsible resource use in various sectors, such as transportation, infrastructure, and energy production. By focusing on these areas, it is possible to create a more sustainable future that balances economic growth with environmental preservation. This Special Issue aims to promote sustainable development and encourage the implementation of policies and practices that can create a more sustainable future.

Specific topics of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Electromobility;
  • Circular economy;
  • Renewable energy sources;
  • Energy adaptation to climate change;
  • Waste energy management in the circular economy;
  • Sustainable management of natural resources;
  • Energy efficiency of facilities and systems;
  • Water and wastewater treatment technologies;
  • Thermal energy;
  • Ventilation and air conditioning;
  • Sustainable energy management in the environment.

Prof. Dr. Sylwia Myszograj
Dr. Maria Włodarczyk-Makuła
Dr. Jakub Kostecki
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 8948 KiB  
Article
An Assessment of the Possibility of Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Identify and Map Air Pollution from Infrastructure Emissions
by Agata Jaroń, Anna Borucka, Paulina Deliś and Aleksandra Sekrecka
Energies 2024, 17(3), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17030577 - 25 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 820
Abstract
Sustainable development and the creation of smart, green cities requires cooperation in many scientific fields, including those related to ecology, mobility, or sustainable management, among others. Environmental protection is a particularly important element here. Atmospheric pollution, due to air movements, spreads over very [...] Read more.
Sustainable development and the creation of smart, green cities requires cooperation in many scientific fields, including those related to ecology, mobility, or sustainable management, among others. Environmental protection is a particularly important element here. Atmospheric pollution, due to air movements, spreads over very large areas; therefore, air quality monitoring is crucial to ensure protection from harmful substances. One of the most severe sources of air pollution, accounting for as much as approximately 25% of total annual emissions within the EU, is road transport. Therefore, the European Union has set an ambitious target to reduce total emissions to 55% for cars and 50% for vans by 2030. In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become increasingly popular in many scientific fields, including environmental protection and photogrammetry. The use of UAVs to identify harmful pollutants allows them to gain an advantage over conventional detection methods, due to the possibility of remote (therefore safe for humans), faster, and area-based measurements. Given the ever-expanding scale of the use of this technology, this paper presents the possibilities of using UAVs to identify and visualize (map) pollution. The examples presented in the foreign literature, as well as our own research, in imaging the altitude distribution of air pollutants; gaseous pollutants: C6H6, HCHO, SO2; and particulate matter: PM1, PM2.5, PM10 demonstrate the validity of such measures. This research was carried out in the area of one of Poland’s key A4 highways. The maps obtained allow for an area-wise and altitude-wise presentation of one of the significant air pollutants in the EU. In addition, they can be a valuable source of information for the implementation of future projects and the improvement of road infrastructure, thus contributing to the reduction of air pollution and the creation of so-called “green cities”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Green Cities—Energy Treatment and Management)
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24 pages, 4070 KiB  
Article
Urban Greening in the Process of Climate Change Adaptation of Large Cities
by Alina Pancewicz and Anna Kurianowicz
Energies 2024, 17(2), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020377 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Cities—being places where both growth at large and human activity concentrate to the maximum extent, as well as being places of creation, innovation, and development—have been facing the challenge of adaptation to changing climate conditions. Successive greening of urban spaces is becoming an [...] Read more.
Cities—being places where both growth at large and human activity concentrate to the maximum extent, as well as being places of creation, innovation, and development—have been facing the challenge of adaptation to changing climate conditions. Successive greening of urban spaces is becoming an indicator of civilisational progress and one of the most important aspects of sustainable urban development and quality of life of city dwellers. It also represents a part of the sustainable management of natural resources and energy in the urban environment. This article addresses the subject of urban space greening, perceived as one of the ways of mitigating the effects of climate change. The study focuses on a comparative analysis of various planning and implementing activities related to green areas, as well as on available quantitative data on the greening and climate change adaptation of 44 Polish cities with urban adaptation plans (UAPs) in place. The research, covering the years 2017–2023, identifies the variety of urban greening methods, initiatives, and tools used in the process of urban planning and urban design. The results of the study showed that measures planned by local authorities lacked detailed tools as well as a long-term and systemic approach to greenery, energy, and space management. On the other hand, what was observed in the implementation was an apparent prevalence of urban acupuncture spots and a failure to make the most of all the benefits of the adaptive, social, and ecosystem-forming role of urban greening. The authors imply that their research can be used to formulate conclusions and guidelines for urban development policies which highlight the role and raise the importance of the greening of Polish cities under all urban investments, particularly in the process of adaptation of urban areas to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Green Cities—Energy Treatment and Management)
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12 pages, 1191 KiB  
Article
Bio-Waste from Urban and Rural Areas as a Source of Biogas and Methane—A Case Study from Poland
by Wojciech Dronia, Jakub Kostecki, Jacek Połomka and Andrzej Jędrczak
Energies 2024, 17(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020317 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 906
Abstract
The growing volume of household waste, especially bio-waste, poses a significant challenge to waste management systems. In Poland, bio-waste accounts for almost one third of total waste generation. To address this challenge, in the context of optimising the waste biomass value chain, we [...] Read more.
The growing volume of household waste, especially bio-waste, poses a significant challenge to waste management systems. In Poland, bio-waste accounts for almost one third of total waste generation. To address this challenge, in the context of optimising the waste biomass value chain, we are investigating the potential of methane fermentation to convert bio-waste into valuable end products in the form of digestate (organic recycling) and biogas (a renewable energy source with a wide range of downstream applications). This paper presents the moisture content, loss on ignition and biogas and methane production efficiency for bio-waste and for the seven types of waste that are the main constituents of selectively collected bio-waste (meat, other edible waste (dairy), fruits and vegetables, grass, leaves, branches and the < 10 mm fraction). Data on the technological properties of bio-waste and its constituents may be of interest to a range of stakeholders. The average moisture content ranged from 41.9% (<10 mm fraction and others) to 84.4% (fruits and vegetables), and the average organic matter content of the dry weight of the waste ranged from 37.8% (<10 mm fraction and others) to 88.7% (edible constituents other than meat and fruits and vegetables). The bio-waste had an average moisture content of 71.3 ± 1.7% and loss on ignition of 68.6 ± 1.7%. Biogas production from selectively collected bio-waste ranged from 285 to 404 Ndm3∙kg−1 DM (mean: 347 ± 53 Ndm3∙kg−1 DM), and methane production ranged from 191 to 271 Ndm3∙kg−1 DM (mean: 215 ± 33 Ndm3∙kg−1 DM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Green Cities—Energy Treatment and Management)
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19 pages, 6797 KiB  
Article
Impact of Implementing Circular Waste Management System and Energy Recovery in a City with 100,000 Inhabitants on Nitrogen Emissions by 2035
by Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz and Andrzej Jędrczak
Energies 2024, 17(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17010108 - 24 Dec 2023
Viewed by 725
Abstract
Recent years have observed a reconstruction of the waste management system from a linear resource flow economy to a circular economy. This approach is reflected in the provisions of the Waste Framework Directive (2018), which introduces, among others, new recycling targets for municipal [...] Read more.
Recent years have observed a reconstruction of the waste management system from a linear resource flow economy to a circular economy. This approach is reflected in the provisions of the Waste Framework Directive (2018), which introduces, among others, new recycling targets for municipal waste which require, by 2025, 55% of the municipal waste to be recycled, in 2030—60%, and in 2035—65%. The ambitious targets adopted for preparing for the reuse and recycling of municipal waste will not be achieved without a high level of the recycling of bio-waste. This paper studies the quantification of municipal waste and nitrogen in a circular municipal waste management system (MWM) implemented for a city of 100,000. It was assumed that MWM would meet the requirements in terms of EU and Polish circular waste management goal legislation for the years 2025, 2030 and 2035. The research results showed that the development of a separate waste collection will reduce the waste delivered to MBT. The required MBT capacity will decrease by almost 2.4 times. Moreover, it has been shown that the introduction of a closed-loop MWM will result in an almost two-fold reduction in the amount of nitrogen going to the landfill and an increase in the mass of nitrogen that can be used to fertilize the soil (by approximately 22%). Furthermore, it has been shown that the most favorable option for an organic waste treatment is the anaerobic–aerobic process. This solution provides the highest biogas production and the lowest nitrogen gas emissions to air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Green Cities—Energy Treatment and Management)
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22 pages, 8372 KiB  
Article
Impact of Uninsulated Slab-on-Grade and Masonry Walls on Residential Building Overheating
by Tadeusz Kuczyński and Anna Staszczuk
Energies 2023, 16(22), 7558; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16227558 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 678
Abstract
Studies of the effects of removing underfloor insulation and increasing the thermal capacity of building walls are currently found almost exclusively in existing vernacular architecture and rammed-earth buildings, mostly in countries with warm climates. This paper proposes the combined use of these two [...] Read more.
Studies of the effects of removing underfloor insulation and increasing the thermal capacity of building walls are currently found almost exclusively in existing vernacular architecture and rammed-earth buildings, mostly in countries with warm climates. This paper proposes the combined use of these two measures to reduce the risk of overheating in a detached single-family house in a temperate climate during the summer. Experimental studies conducted during the largest heat wave on record in the summer of 2019 showed that peak daytime temperatures decreased by 5.2 °C to 7.1 °C, and peak nighttime temperatures decreased by 4.7 °C to 6.8 °C. Simulation studies taking into account occupant heat showed that the proposed passive methods could, under the IPCC 8.5 scenario, eliminate the need for mechanical cooling in a detached single-family house in the temperate climate of Central and Eastern Europe by 2100. The actual heating energy consumption for the building with an uninsulated floor and increased wall heat capacity was 5.5 kWh/m2 higher than for the reference building, indicating that it can be a near-zero energy building. The proposed concept is in line with the new approach to the energy design of buildings, which should not be limited to reducing thermal energy demand, but should also respond to the needs arising from global warming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Green Cities—Energy Treatment and Management)
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15 pages, 2600 KiB  
Article
Cumulative Multi-Day Effect of Ambient Temperature on Thermal Behaviour of Buildings with Different Thermal Masses
by Anna Staszczuk and Tadeusz Kuczyński
Energies 2023, 16(21), 7361; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16217361 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 639
Abstract
In most studies, the effect of the thermal capacity of the building envelope on changes in internal temperatures is reduced to a 24 h period. During this period, daytime heat gains are balanced by nighttime heat losses. The maximum indoor temperature, the diurnal [...] Read more.
In most studies, the effect of the thermal capacity of the building envelope on changes in internal temperatures is reduced to a 24 h period. During this period, daytime heat gains are balanced by nighttime heat losses. The maximum indoor temperature, the diurnal variation of the indoor temperature and the time lag between the occurrence of the maximum daily temperature determine the effect achieved. The aim of the article was to show that the effect of the thermal capacity of a building on the indoor temperature is not limited to 24 h but accumulates over a period of several days, mainly depending on the temperature and solar radiation history of the previous days. As a result, contrary to what some studies have suggested, the bedrooms of heavier buildings remained significantly colder at night during periods of prolonged high outdoor temperatures. The results obtained may fundamentally influence the perception of the effect of using the high thermal capacity of the building envelope to reduce high indoor temperatures in hot weather. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Green Cities—Energy Treatment and Management)
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