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Advances in Direct Current (DC) Power Use in Buildings and Community Microgrids

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 March 2023) | Viewed by 7955

Special Issue Editors

1. Research Scientist, Institute of Carbon Neutrality Technology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China
2. Guest Scientist, Building Technologies Urban Systems Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Interests: DC power systems in buildings; microgrids; demand response
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Shenzhen Institute of Building Research Co. Ltd, Shenzhen, China
Interests: DC power systems in buildings, renewable energy, and storage in buildings and communities

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Guest Editor
Center for Research on Microgrids, AAU Energy, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
Interests: microgrids; space power systems; psychobiology; brain networks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the growth of distributed PV and battery storage in buildings and communities, low voltage direct current (DC) power distribution and microgrids have become popular. The DC power system can effectively integrate native DC electrical end-use technologies, such as LED lighting, IoT, as well as PV and battery storage. This Special Issue is to share recent development of low voltage DC power systems in buildings and communities on system design, power electronics, control, protection, grid integration, and standards. Detailed research areas can be found below:

Research Areas:

  • DC power microgrids design and operation in buildings and communities;
  • Power electronics to integrate distributed PV and battery storage;
  • Control strategies of DC microgrid for grid-connected mode and island modes;
  • Using communication networks such as USB, Ethernet to achieve low voltage DC power distribution and control;
  • DC power system protection and earthing;
  • Demand response and flexible loads with grid integration;
  • Vehicle to grid (V-2-G) integration using DC power;
  • Hybrid microgrids with DC and AC power system integration;
  • Multi-microgrids (MMG) using DC power systems;
  • Microgrid designs and operations focusing on resilience and disruptive events;
  • The advances of low voltage DC power standards;
  • Policy analysis of low voltage DC system at power distribution system level and carbon mitigation potentials.

Prof. Dr. Wei Feng
Dr. Bin HAO
Prof. Dr. Josep M. Guerrero
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Direct Current (DC)
  • buildings
  • microgrids
  • power electronics
  • demand response

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 6129 KiB  
Article
A Battery Capacity Configuration Method of a Photovoltaic and Battery System Applied in a Building Complex for Increased Self-Sufficiency and Self-Consumption
by Shaojie Li, Tao Zhang, Xiaochen Liu and Xiaohua Liu
Energies 2023, 16(5), 2190; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16052190 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing in popularity as an energy conservation and carbon reduction approach. Generally, battery storage is integrated with a PV system to solve the intermittent and fluctuant problems of solar resources, enhancing the relative independence of the PV–battery (PVB) [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing in popularity as an energy conservation and carbon reduction approach. Generally, battery storage is integrated with a PV system to solve the intermittent and fluctuant problems of solar resources, enhancing the relative independence of the PV–battery (PVB) system. In consideration of the economic benefits and system efficiency, it is necessary to investigate battery capacity allocation methods. A battery capacity configuration method was established in this study to increase the self-sufficiency rate (SSR) and self-consumption rate (SCR) of the system for a building complex by exploiting the battery resources. The PVB system designed for the building complex is divided into two categories: distributed and centralized storage. The SSR and SCR significantly increase with the increasing battery capacity for both schemes. The SCR of centralized storage is always higher than that of distributed storage, considering different battery and PV capacities. However, the SSR of distributed storage scheme was found to be slightly higher than that of the centralized storage scheme when the energy generated by PV is half of the energy consumed by the building load. For instance, when the battery capacity is four, SSR values for optimal distributed and centralized storage schemes are 47.62% and 47.19%, respectively. For the distributed storage scheme, there is a slight difference between the optimal allocation ratios achieved by SSR and SCR, considering that they have the same total battery capacity. In addition, the effects of converter loss, complementarity in load curves, and centralized batteries were analyzed to achieve greater SSR and SCR. The comparison results of this study can be used as a guide for battery capacity design in the PVB systems of building complexes. Full article
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14 pages, 7700 KiB  
Article
The Application and Development of LVDC Buildings in China
by Jing Kang, Bin Hao, Yutong Li, Hui Lin and Zhifeng Xue
Energies 2022, 15(19), 7045; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197045 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
LVDC buildings use a low-voltage direct current (LVDC) distribution system for energy transmission and integrate photovoltaic (PV), battery energy storage (BES) and the utility grid as building energy resources. This technology can reduce energy loss in conversion to a certain extent and increase [...] Read more.
LVDC buildings use a low-voltage direct current (LVDC) distribution system for energy transmission and integrate photovoltaic (PV), battery energy storage (BES) and the utility grid as building energy resources. This technology can reduce energy loss in conversion to a certain extent and increase renewable energy compared with traditional AC distribution systems. Under the national goal of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality, LVDC buildings have been proven to be a new approach to energy conservation and emission reductions, and have been applied in engineering in China. However, the construction methods and integrated technologies of those projects are not clear, and technical barriers and policy constraints for the engineering application of LVDC buildings are not systematically discussed yet. This paper presents the latest study of LVDC building engineering applications the advantages and drawbacks of LVDC development in China. First, relevant policies and standards which support the development of LVDC building industries are summarized. More than 60 practical LVDC projects are investigated, and the application characteristics and the technology status of building types, and their capacity and design methods, etc., are analyzed. The attitudes of stakeholders toward LVDC buildings are surveyed to determine the policy direction according to the demands of this technology, with reference to building practitioners who intend to engage in LVDC projects. Full article
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17 pages, 2900 KiB  
Article
Day-Ahead Optimal Scheduling of Integrated Energy System Based on Type-II Fuzzy Interval Chance-Constrained Programming
by Xinyu Sun, Hao Wu, Siqi Guo and Lingwei Zheng
Energies 2022, 15(18), 6763; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15186763 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Renewable energy sources (RES) generation has huge environmental and social benefits, as a clean energy source with great potential. However, the difference in the uncertainty characteristics of RES and electric–thermal loads poses a significant challenge to the optimal schedule of an integrated energy [...] Read more.
Renewable energy sources (RES) generation has huge environmental and social benefits, as a clean energy source with great potential. However, the difference in the uncertainty characteristics of RES and electric–thermal loads poses a significant challenge to the optimal schedule of an integrated energy system (IES). Therefore, for the different characteristics of the multiple uncertainties of IES, this paper proposes a type-II fuzzy interval chance-constrained programming (T2FICCP)-based optimization model to solve the above problem. In this model, type-II fuzzy sets are used to describe the uncertainty of RES in an IES, and interval numbers are used to describe the load uncertainty, thus constructing a T2FICCP-based IES day-ahead economic scheduling model. The model was resolved with a hybrid algorithm based on interval linear programming and T2FICCP. The simulations are conducted for a total of 20 randomly selected days to obtain the advance operation plan of each unit and the operation cost of the system. The research results show that the T2FICCP optimization model has less dependence on RES output power and load forecasting error, so can effectively improve the economy of IES, while ensuring the safe and stable operation of the system. Full article
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15 pages, 3631 KiB  
Article
Backward Step-Up Control Strategy for Bidirectional LLC Resonant Converter
by Jingkai Niu, Xuezhi Wu, Yue Wang, Long Jing, Weige Zhang and Yibin Tong
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4471; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124471 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
An LLC resonant converter has the advantages of simple structure and soft switching. It can enable bidirectional power transmission, but it is difficult to realize a normalized gain greater than one under backward mode (backward step-up mode). Cascaded dc/dc converters or topological changes [...] Read more.
An LLC resonant converter has the advantages of simple structure and soft switching. It can enable bidirectional power transmission, but it is difficult to realize a normalized gain greater than one under backward mode (backward step-up mode). Cascaded dc/dc converters or topological changes can solve this problem, but additional switches and components are required and losses are added. Without changing the LLC resonant converter’s basic topology, this paper proposes a variable duty-cycle control strategy of primary side switches for backward step-up mode. Using variable duty-cycle control, the LC resonant tank can be charged, and then the backward step-up mode can be realized. Soft switching characteristics of some primary side switches and all secondary side switches are guaranteed. In this study, the working principle of an LLC resonant converter under bidirectional control strategy was analyzed, and the backward step-up control was analyzed in detail. The voltage gain and the boundary of continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) were derived. A synchronous rectification method related to the backward step-up control is proposed. The control strategy was verified by experiments. Full article
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