energies-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Microgrids 2020

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 47280

Special Issue Editor


grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: microgrids; renewable energy systems; neuroscience-based artificial intelligence; digital twins; cybersecurity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microgrids are small-scale energy grids that can operate independently or autonomously from the main energy grid. They can contain any form of generated energy, including electricity, heat, etc., for storage and consumption. The concept is supposed to eliminate or reduce the use of energy transmission systems and to produce energy near consumption points, thus, constituting small distribution systems. This new energy paradigm is changing the way we conceive of electrical, thermal, gas, or water grids. This Special Issue includes, but is not limited, to the following topics:

  • AC, DC, and AC–DC hybrid microgrids
  • Power electronics-based microgrids
  • Small-scale renewable energies and storage for microgrids
  • Micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems for microgrids
  • Multiple microgrid clusters
  • Microgrids and nanogrids for rural areas and in developing countries
  • Microgrids for all/hybrid electrical ships and green ports
  • Microgrids for electrical vehicle charging stations
  • Microgrids space applications, including satellites and spacecraft
  • Advanced control techniques for microgrids
  • Smart metering and power quality for microgrids
  • The Internet of Things and energy internet for multiple microgrids
  • Reviews on the state-of-the-art in the area of microgrids

Prof. Dr. Josep M. Guerrero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microgrids
  • renewable energy

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

23 pages, 11194 KiB  
Article
Characteristic Analysis and Indexing of Multimachine Transient Stabilization Using Virtual Synchronous Generator Control
by Yuko Hirase, Kazusa Uezaki, Dai Orihara, Hiroshi Kikusato and Jun Hashimoto
Energies 2021, 14(2), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020366 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2391
Abstract
As distributed power sources via grid-connected inverters equipped with functions to support system stabilization are being rapidly introduced, individual systems are becoming more complex, making the quantification and evaluation of the stabilizing functions difficult. Therefore, to introduce distributed power sources and achieve stable [...] Read more.
As distributed power sources via grid-connected inverters equipped with functions to support system stabilization are being rapidly introduced, individual systems are becoming more complex, making the quantification and evaluation of the stabilizing functions difficult. Therefore, to introduce distributed power sources and achieve stable system operation, a system should be reduced to a necessary but sufficient size in order to enable the quantification of its behavior supported by transient theory. In this study, a system in which multiple distributed power supplies equipped with virtual synchronous generator control are connected is contracted to a two-machine system: a main power supply and all other power supplies. The mechanical torque of each power supply is mathematically decomposed into inertia, damping, synchronization torques, and the governor effect. The system frequency deviations determined by these elements are quantitatively indexed using MATLAB/Simulink. The quantification index displayed in three-dimensioned graphs illustrates the relationships between the various equipment constants of the main power supply, the control variables of the grid-connected inverter control, and the transient time series. Moreover, a stability analysis is performed in both the time and frequency domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 3409 KiB  
Article
IoVT: Internet of Vulnerable Things? Threat Architecture, Attack Surfaces, and Vulnerabilities in Internet of Things and Its Applications towards Smart Grids
by Pooja Anand, Yashwant Singh, Arvind Selwal, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Raluca Andreea Felseghi and Maria Simona Raboaca
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4813; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184813 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 6995
Abstract
In recent years, people have witnessed numerous Internet of Things (IoT)-based attacks with the exponential increase in the number of IoT devices. Alongside this, the means to secure IoT-based applications are maturing slower than our budding dependence on them. Moreover, the vulnerabilities in [...] Read more.
In recent years, people have witnessed numerous Internet of Things (IoT)-based attacks with the exponential increase in the number of IoT devices. Alongside this, the means to secure IoT-based applications are maturing slower than our budding dependence on them. Moreover, the vulnerabilities in an IoT system are exploited in chains to penetrate deep into the network and yield more adverse aftereffects. To mitigate these issues, this paper gives unique insights for handling the growing vulnerabilities in common IoT devices and proposes a threat architecture for IoT, addressing threats in the context of a three-layer IoT reference architecture. Furthermore, the vulnerabilities exploited at the several IoT attack surfaces and the challenges they exert are explored. Thereafter, the challenges in quantifying the IoT vulnerabilities with the existing framework are also analyzed. The study also covers a case study on the Intelligent Transportation System, covering road transport and traffic control specifically in terms of threats and vulnerabilities. Another case study on secure energy management in the Smart Grid is also presented. This case study covers the applications of Internet of Vulnerable Things (IoVT) in Smart energy Grid solutions, as there will be tremendous use of IoT in future Smart Grids to save energy and improve overall distribution. The analysis shows that the integration of the proposed architecture in existing applications alarms the developers about the embedded threats in the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 8767 KiB  
Article
Research on Synchronverter-Based Regenerative Braking Energy Feedback System of Urban Rail Transit
by Shuting Li, Songrong Wu, Shiqiang Xiang, Yabo Zhang, Josep M. Guerrero and Juan C. Vasquez
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4418; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174418 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
Generally running with frequent braking over short distances, the urban rail transit train generates great quantities of regenerative braking energy (RBE). The RBE feedback system can effectively recycle RBE and give it back to the AC grid. However, the lack of damp and [...] Read more.
Generally running with frequent braking over short distances, the urban rail transit train generates great quantities of regenerative braking energy (RBE). The RBE feedback system can effectively recycle RBE and give it back to the AC grid. However, the lack of damp and inertia of generators makes conventional PWM RBE feedback system more sensitive to power fluctuations. To address this issue, a synchronverter-based RBE feedback system of urban rail transit is designed in this paper. First, the structure of the feedback system is presented. Then, the synchronverter-based control strategy with greater flexibility and higher stability is fully discussed. Furthermore, the parameter design of the system is analyzed in detail. Finally, simulation results and experimental results are provided to show the good dynamic performance of the system. Using this synchronverter-based approach, the system supplies traction power to the traction network when the train accelerates and gives the RBE back to the AC grid when the train brakes, in light of the variation of the DC bus voltage. Moreover, the system can be self-synchronized with the AC grid and make corresponding power management on the basis of changes in the voltage amplitude as well as the frequency of the grid. In this sense, the RBE feedback system becomes more flexible, effective and robust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 9899 KiB  
Article
Design and Implementation of a Dual-Input Single-Output Photovoltaic Converter
by Ersan Kabalci, Yasin Kabalci and Josep M. Guerrero
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143679 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3923
Abstract
In many solar inverters, a dc/dc converter is mainly located between the solar arrays and the inverter. This study presents an enhanced maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for photovoltaic (PV) systems that drives solar array voltages to track a reference value and [...] Read more.
In many solar inverters, a dc/dc converter is mainly located between the solar arrays and the inverter. This study presents an enhanced maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for photovoltaic (PV) systems that drives solar array voltages to track a reference value and decreases fluctuations and oscillations in PV voltage. Different from the previously presented methods, a novel MPPT method is proposed that ensures tracking accuracy by considering output voltage in addition to input voltage and currents. The proposed method detects d I / d V variations, compares the output voltage with the desired reference to shift operation mode and refreshes step size. The digital filtering, enhanced PI, and perturb-and-observe (P&O) tracking features of the proposed MPPT method make it robust to mitigate source fluctuations and sensitivity to partial shading based oscillations. In order to validate the success of the proposed method, a test rig has been installed with dual boost converters. The performance improvements have been verified by both simulation and experimental results that are compared to InCon and P&O MPPT methods. It is also confirmed by experimental results that the proposed MPPT method provides robust control capability in terms of tracking the reference voltage and rejecting the effects of various shading situations on solar arrays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 13503 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Intelligent Energy Management System for a Renewable Energy-Based AC Microgrid
by Mehdi Dhifli, Abderezak Lashab, Josep M. Guerrero, Abdullah Abusorrah, Yusuf A. Al-Turki and Adnane Cherif
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3268; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123268 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3159
Abstract
This paper proposes an enhanced energy management system (EEMS) for a residential AC microgrid. The renewable energy-based AC microgrid with hybrid energy storage is broken down into three distinct parts: a photovoltaic (PV) array as a green energy source, a battery (BT) and [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an enhanced energy management system (EEMS) for a residential AC microgrid. The renewable energy-based AC microgrid with hybrid energy storage is broken down into three distinct parts: a photovoltaic (PV) array as a green energy source, a battery (BT) and a supercapacitor (SC) as a hybrid energy storage system (HESS), and apartments and electric vehicles, given that the system is for residential areas. The developed EEMS ensures the optimal use of the PV arrays’ production, aiming to decrease electricity bills while reducing fast power changes in the battery, which increases the reliability of the system, since the battery undergoes fewer charging/discharging cycles. The proposed EEMS is a hybrid control strategy, which is composed of two stages: a state machine (SM) control to ensure the optimal operation of the battery, and an operating mode (OM) for the best operation of the SC. The obtained results show that the EEMS successfully involves SC during fast load and PV generation changes by decreasing the number of BT charging/discharging cycles, which significantly increases the system’s life span. Moreover, power loss is decreased during passing clouds phases by decreasing the power error between the extracted power by the sources and the required equivalent; the improvement in efficiency reaches 9.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

29 pages, 6902 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Control Strategies for Stabilization and Performance Improvement of DC Microgrids with a CPL Connected
by Isaías V. de Bessa, Renan L. P. de Medeiros, Iury Bessa, Florindo A. C. Ayres Junior, Alessandra R. de Menezes, Gustavo M. Torres and João Edgar Chaves Filho
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2663; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102663 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
The DC microgrid system is composed by converters that operate like feeders and loads. Among these loads, we highlight the constant power loads (CPLs) that may cause instability in the microgrid, observed in the form of undesired oscillations due to its negative impedance [...] Read more.
The DC microgrid system is composed by converters that operate like feeders and loads. Among these loads, we highlight the constant power loads (CPLs) that may cause instability in the microgrid, observed in the form of undesired oscillations due to its negative impedance behavior. Therefore, this work proposes to use performance indices and stability margins to evaluate state and output feedback control strategies for stabilization of DC microgrids. In particular, it is proposed to evaluate the stability margin of the proposed methodologies by means of the impedance relations in the microgrid based on the Middlebrook criterion. Our simulations and tests showed the relation between the performance and stability degradation and the microgrid impedances variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

37 pages, 1180 KiB  
Review
The Spectrum of Proactive, Resilient Multi-Microgrid Scheduling: A Systematic Literature Review
by Michael H. Spiegel, Eric M. S. P. Veith and Thomas I. Strasser
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4543; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174543 - 2 Sep 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3413
Abstract
Multi-microgrids address the need for a resilient, sustainable, and cost-effective electricity supply by providing a coordinated operation of individual networks. Due to local generation, dynamic network topologies, and islanding capabilities of hosted microgrids or groups thereof, various new fault mitigation and optimization options [...] Read more.
Multi-microgrids address the need for a resilient, sustainable, and cost-effective electricity supply by providing a coordinated operation of individual networks. Due to local generation, dynamic network topologies, and islanding capabilities of hosted microgrids or groups thereof, various new fault mitigation and optimization options emerge. However, with the great flexibility, new challenges such as complex failure modes that need to be considered for a resilient operation, appear. This work systematically reviews scheduling approaches which significantly influence the feasibility of mitigation options before a failure is encountered. An in-depth analysis of identified key contributions covers aspects such as the mathematical apparatus, failure models and validation to highlight the current methodical spectrum and to identify future perspectives. Despite the common optimization-based framework, a broad variety of scheduling approaches is revealed. However, none of the key contributions provides practical insights beyond lab validation and considerable effort is required until the approaches can show their full potential in practical implementations. It is expected that the great level of detail guides further research in improving and validating existing scheduling concepts as well as it, in the long run, aids engineers to choose the most suitable options regarding increasingly resilient power systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

22 pages, 6241 KiB  
Review
Review of Dynamic Positioning Control in Maritime Microgrid Systems
by Mojtaba Mehrzadi, Yacine Terriche, Chun-Lien Su, Muzaidi Bin Othman, Juan C. Vasquez and Josep M. Guerrero
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3188; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123188 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 13096
Abstract
For many offshore activities, including offshore oil and gas exploration and offshore wind farm construction, it is essential to keep the position and heading of the vessel stable. The dynamic positioning system is a progressive technology, which is extensively used in shipping and [...] Read more.
For many offshore activities, including offshore oil and gas exploration and offshore wind farm construction, it is essential to keep the position and heading of the vessel stable. The dynamic positioning system is a progressive technology, which is extensively used in shipping and other maritime structures. To maintain the vessels or platforms from displacement, its thrusters are used automatically to control and stabilize the position and heading of vessels in sea state disturbances. The theory of dynamic positioning has been studied and developed in terms of control techniques to achieve greater accuracy and reduce ship movement caused by environmental disturbance for more than 30 years. This paper reviews the control strategies and architecture of the DPS in marine vessels. In addition, it suggests possible control principles and makes a comparison between the advantages and disadvantages of existing literature. Some details for future research on DP control challenges are discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

31 pages, 2468 KiB  
Review
Recent Developments and Challenges on AC Microgrids Fault Detection and Protection Systems–A Review
by Noor Hussain, Mashood Nasir, Juan Carlos Vasquez and Josep M. Guerrero
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092149 - 1 May 2020
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 5692
Abstract
The protection of AC microgrids (MGs) is an issue of paramount importance to ensure their reliable and safe operation. Designing reliable protection mechanism, however, is not a trivial task, as many practical issues need to be considered. The operation mode of MGs, which [...] Read more.
The protection of AC microgrids (MGs) is an issue of paramount importance to ensure their reliable and safe operation. Designing reliable protection mechanism, however, is not a trivial task, as many practical issues need to be considered. The operation mode of MGs, which can be grid-connected or islanded, employed control strategy and practical limitations of the power electronic converters that are utilized to interface renewable energy sources and the grid, are some of the practical constraints that make fault detection, classification, and coordination in MGs different from legacy grid protection. This article aims to present the state-of-the-art of the latest research and developments, including the challenges and issues in the field of AC MG protection. A broad overview of the available fault detection, fault classification, and fault location techniques for AC MG protection and coordination are presented. Moreover, the available methods are classified, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop