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Nuclear Power, including Fission and Fusion Technologies 2021

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "F: Electrical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 11959

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Ontario Tech University, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
Interests: safety engineering; fault diagnosis and amp; amp; real-time simulation; resilient smart energy grids; micro energy grids planning, control, and protection; advanced plasma generation; application on fusion energy; advanced safety and control systems for nuclear power plants; risk-based energy conservation; smart green buildings
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will cover nuclear power plant design and operation, as well as technologies. It will provide forum to discuss and present recent research results, technologies, and best practices on nuclear power plants, including fission and fusion technologies. Papers can include small modular reactors designs, technologies, and operation. Nuclear power plant integration with the grid. Research results of advanced maintenance and operation activities will also be included in this Special Issue. The proposed Special Issue will provide advances in research and engineering design, which will support nuclear power plant operating companies, engineering and research institutes, engineering and contracting companies, as well as researchers and students from academia, including universities and colleges. The proposed Special Issue will also bridge research with educational programs, as well as engineering practices, in all disciplines within nuclear power.

Prof. Dr. Hossam A. Gabbar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nuclear power plant design
  • safety and protection systems
  • nuclear technologies
  • electrical systems in nuclear power plants
  • mechanical systems in nuclear power plants
  • nuclear fusion technologies
  • nuclear fission technologies
  • instrumentation and control
  • small modular reactor (SMR)
  • nuclear power plant operation
  • nuclear reactor designs
  • nuclear reactor physics
  • radiation detection and protection systems
  • thermal systems
  • plasma systems
  • nuclear power plan integration with the grid

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 24475 KiB  
Article
Electrical and Thermomechanical Co-Simulation Platform for NPP
by Poria Astero, Pasi Laakso, Seppo Hänninen, Robert John Millar and Matti Lehtonen
Energies 2021, 14(4), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040939 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
In order to analyze the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP), interactions between thermomechanical and automation processes, the on-site electrical grid, and the off-site transmission system should be studied in detail. However, an initial survey of simulation tools used for the modelling and [...] Read more.
In order to analyze the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP), interactions between thermomechanical and automation processes, the on-site electrical grid, and the off-site transmission system should be studied in detail. However, an initial survey of simulation tools used for the modelling and simulation of NPP shows that existing simulation tools have some drawbacks in properly simulating the aforementioned interactions. In fact, they simulate detailed electrical power systems and thermomechanical systems but neglect the detailed interactions of the electrical system with thermomechanical and automation processes. To address this challenge, this paper develops an open-source co-simulation platform which connects Apros, a proprietary simulator of the thermomechanical and automation processes in NPP, to power system simulators. The proposed platform provides an opportunity to simulate both the electrical and thermomechanical systems of an NPP simultaneously, and study the interactions between them without neglecting any details. This detailed analysis can identify critical faults more accurately, and provides better support for probabilistic risk analyses (PRA) of NPP. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed platform, detailed thermomechanical and electrical models of an NPP, located in Finland, are cosimulated. The preliminary results emphasize that neglecting the detailed interactions between domains of NPP may lead to inaccurate simulation results and may affect NPP safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Power, including Fission and Fusion Technologies 2021)
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21 pages, 7040 KiB  
Article
SPARK-NC: A Lead-Bismuth-Cooled Small Modular Fast Reactor with Natural Circulation and Load Following Capabilities
by Muhammad Hashim, Liangzhi Cao, Shengcheng Zhou, Rubing Ma, Yiqiong Shao and Renzong Chen
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5410; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205410 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3429
Abstract
In this study, a conceptual design was developed for a lead-bismuth-cooled small modular fast reactor SPARK-NC with natural circulation and load following capabilities. The nominal rated power was set to 10 MWe, and the power can be manipulated from 5 MWe to 10 [...] Read more.
In this study, a conceptual design was developed for a lead-bismuth-cooled small modular fast reactor SPARK-NC with natural circulation and load following capabilities. The nominal rated power was set to 10 MWe, and the power can be manipulated from 5 MWe to 10 MWe during the whole core lifetime. The core of the SPARK-NC can be operated for eight effective full power years (EFPYs) without refueling. The core neutronics and thermal-hydraulics design calculations were performed using the SARAX code and the natural circulation capability of the SPARK-NC was investigated by employing the energy conservation equation, pressure drop equation and quasi-static reactivity balance equation. In order to flatten the radial power distribution, three radial zones were constructed by employing different fuel enrichments and fuel pin diameters. To provide an adequate shutdown margin, two independent systems, i.e., a control system and a scram system, were introduced in the core. The control assemblies were further classified into two types: primary control assemblies used for reactivity control and power flattening and secondary control assemblies (with relatively smaller reactivity worth) used for power regulation. The load following capability of SPARK-NC was assessed using the quasi-static reactivity balance method. By comparing three possible approaches for adjusting the reactor power output, it was shown that the method of adjusting the coolant inlet temperature was viable, practically easy to implement and favored for the load following operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Power, including Fission and Fusion Technologies 2021)
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38 pages, 4240 KiB  
Article
Micro Nuclear Reactors: Potential Replacements for Diesel Gensets within Micro Energy Grids
by Hossam A. Gabbar, Muhammad R. Abdussami and Md. Ibrahim Adham
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5172; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195172 - 5 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3448
Abstract
Resilient operation of medium/large scale off-grid energy systems, which is a key challenge for energy crisis solutions, requires continuous and sustainable energy resources. Conventionally, micro energy grids (MEGs) are adopted to supply electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. Fossil-fired gensets, such as diesel generators, [...] Read more.
Resilient operation of medium/large scale off-grid energy systems, which is a key challenge for energy crisis solutions, requires continuous and sustainable energy resources. Conventionally, micro energy grids (MEGs) are adopted to supply electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. Fossil-fired gensets, such as diesel generators, are indispensable components for off-grid MEGs due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources (RESs). However, fossil-fired gensets emit a significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, this study investigates an alternative source as an economical and environmental replacement for diesel gensets that can reduce GHG emissions and ensure system reliability. A MEG is developed in this paper to support a considerably large-scale electric and thermal demand at Ontario Tech University (UOIT). Different sizes of diesel gensets and RESs, such as solar, wind, hydro, and biomass, are combined in the MEG for off-grid applications. To evaluate diesel gensets’ competency, the diesel genset is substituted by an emission-free generation source named microreactor (MR). The fossil-fired MEG and MR-based MEG are optimized by an intelligent optimization technique, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO). The objective of the PSO is to minimize the net present cost (NPC). The simulation results show that MR-based MEG could be an excellent replacement for a diesel genset in terms of NPC and selected key performance indicators (KPIs). A comprehensive sensitivity analysis is also carried out to validate the simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Power, including Fission and Fusion Technologies 2021)
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20 pages, 11054 KiB  
Article
A Two-Way Neutronics/Thermal-Hydraulics Coupling Analysis Method for Fusion Blankets and Its Application to CFETR
by Tao Dai, Liangzhi Cao, Qingming He, Hongchun Wu and Wei Shen
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4070; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164070 - 6 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a tokamak device to validate and demonstrate fusion engineering technology. In CFETR, the breeding blanket is a vital important component that is closely related to the performance and safety of the fusion reactor. Neutronics/thermal-hydraulics (N/TH) [...] Read more.
The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a tokamak device to validate and demonstrate fusion engineering technology. In CFETR, the breeding blanket is a vital important component that is closely related to the performance and safety of the fusion reactor. Neutronics/thermal-hydraulics (N/TH) coupling effect is significant in the numerical analysis of the fission reactor. However, in the numerical analysis of the fusion reactor, the existing coupling code system mostly adopts the one-way coupling method. The ignorance of the two-way N/TH coupling effect would lead to inaccurate results. In this paper, the MCNP/FLUENT code system is developed based on the 3D-1D-2D hybrid coupling method. The one-way and two-way N/TH coupling calculations for two typical blanket concepts, the helium-cooled solid breeder (HCSB) blanket and the water-cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket, are carried out to study the two-way N/TH coupling effect in CFETR. The numerical results show that, compared with the results from the one-way N/TH coupling calculation, the tritium breeding ration (TBR) calculated with the two-way N/TH calculation decreases by −0.11% and increases by 4.45% for the HCSB and WCCB blankets, respectively. The maximum temperature increases by 1 °C and 29 °C for the HCSB and WCCB blankets, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Power, including Fission and Fusion Technologies 2021)
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