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Microgrids and Its Application to Integrated Energy Systems and Islanded Active Distribution Networks

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 27402

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, ESTIA Institute of Technology, 64210 Bidart, France
Interests: power systems reliability; network resiliency; distribution system planning; risk and uncertainty modelling; quality of supply performance; network reduction; low-carbon technologies; DG hosting capacity; network ancillary services; microgrid energy management systems; optimal microgrid planning; islanded microgrids
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Guest Editor
ESTIA Institute of Technology, University of Bordeaux, 64210 Bidart, France
Interests: energy and power conversion; model predictive control; digital twins; low-carbon technologies; dg hosting capacity; microgrid energy management systems; optimal microgrid planning; ancillary services in islanded microgrids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Future active distribution networks will incorporate a combination of distributed generators (DGs), microgrids (MGs) and different types of renewable-based distributed energy resources (DERs), allowing them to provide ancillary services in grid-connected mode and, if necessary, operate in an islanded mode to increase network proactivity, continuity of supply, reliability, and resilience.

This Special Issue aims to publish high-quality research papers on the inter-disciplinary field of microgrid optimisation under uncertainty, and targets new probabilistic methods (i.e., scalable computational solutions) for managing microgrid energy management systems (EMS), from long-term planning to real-time operation, with the introduction of a wide range of renewable energy technologies. Research sought includes innovative approaches to the analytical and simulation techniques for assessing the optimal operation and control of microgrids and DERs, while committing, holding, dispatching, and maintaining different ancillary services for the grid in a reliable and economical manner. Research can be extended to self-optimizing control solutions for building microgrids (BMGs) for the integration in net-zero energy buildings, as well as electric mobility (vehicle-to-grid, V2G, or boat-to-grid, B2G) within maritime, island microgrids, or integrated port energy systems.

The scope includes the predictive maintenance and fault detection capabilities in hybrid (grid-connected and islanded) microgrids to ensure a smooth operation and maximize self-consumption of renewable energy intermittency through predictive control, artificial intelligence, machine learning and/or novel forecasting techniques.

This Special Issue aims to examine original research papers as well as review articles on the most recent developments and research efforts on this subject.

Dr. Ignacio Hernando-Gil
Prof. Dr. Ionel Vechiu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • optimisation under uncertainty
  • risk modelling
  • quality of supply assessment
  • grid resiliency performance
  • probabilistic network analysis
  • integration of RES
  • behind-the-meter energy storage systems
  • utility-scale storage systems
  • hydrogen-based energy storage systems
  • AC/DC microgrids
  • building microgrids
  • net-zero energy buildings (NZEB)
  • integrated port energy systems
  • island microgrids
  • maritime microgrids
  • microgrid clusters/communities
  • ancillary services under high variable RES penetration
  • ancillary services in islanded and grid-connected mode
  • vehicle-to-grid (V2G) or boat-to-grid (B2G)

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 3897 KiB  
Article
PV Hosting Capacity in LV Networks by Combining Customer Voltage Sensitivity and Reliability Analysis
by Mikka Kisuule, Mike Brian Ndawula, Chenghong Gu and Ignacio Hernando-Gil
Energies 2023, 16(16), 5893; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16165893 - 9 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
This paper investigates voltage regulation in low voltage (LV) networks under different loading conditions of a supply network, with increased levels of distributed generation, and in particular with a diverse range of locational solar photovoltaic (PV) penetration. This topic has been researched extensively, [...] Read more.
This paper investigates voltage regulation in low voltage (LV) networks under different loading conditions of a supply network, with increased levels of distributed generation, and in particular with a diverse range of locational solar photovoltaic (PV) penetration. This topic has been researched extensively, with beneficial impacts expected up to a certain point when reverse power flows begin to negatively impact customers connected to the distribution system. In this paper, a voltage-based approach that utilizes novel voltage-based reliability indices is proposed to analyse the risk and reliability of the LV supply feeder, as well as its PV hosting capacity. The proposed indices are directly comparable to results from a probabilistic reliability assessment. The operation of the network is simulated for different PV scenarios to investigate the impacts of increased PV penetration, the location of PV on the feeder, and loading conditions of the MV supply network on the reliability results. It can be seen that all reliability indices improve with increased PV penetration levels when the supply network is heavily loaded and conversely deteriorate when the supply network is lightly loaded. Moreover, bus voltages improve when an on-load tap changer is fitted at the secondary trans-former which leads to better reliability performance as the occurrence and duration of low voltage violations are reduced in all PV scenarios. The approach in this paper is opposed to the conventional reliability assessment, which considers sustained interruptions to customers caused by failure of network components, and thus contributes to a comprehensive analysis of quality of service by considering transient events (i.e., voltage related) in the LV distribution network. Full article
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21 pages, 3437 KiB  
Article
Optimal Capacity of a Battery Energy Storage System Based on Solar Variability Index to Smooth out Power Fluctuations in PV-Diesel Microgrids
by Julius Susanto and Farhad Shahnia
Energies 2023, 16(15), 5658; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16155658 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Battery energy storage systems can be integrated with photovoltaic (PV)-diesel microgrids as an enabling technology to increase the penetration of PV systems and aid microgrid stability by smoothing out the power fluctuations of the PV systems. This paper focuses on this topic and [...] Read more.
Battery energy storage systems can be integrated with photovoltaic (PV)-diesel microgrids as an enabling technology to increase the penetration of PV systems and aid microgrid stability by smoothing out the power fluctuations of the PV systems. This paper focuses on this topic and aims to derive correlations between the optimal capacity of the smoothing batteries and variabilities in the daily solar irradiance. To this end, the two most commonly used moving average and ramp rate control techniques are employed on a real solar irradiance dataset with a 1-min resolution for a full calendar year across 11 sites in Australia. The paper then presents the developed empirical model, based on linear regressions, to estimate the batteries’ optimal capacity without requiring detailed simulation studies, which are useful for practitioners at the early stages of a project’s feasibility evaluation. The performance of the developed technique is validated through numerical simulation studies in MATLAB®. The study demonstrates that the empirical model provided reasonably accurate estimates when using the moving average smoothing technique but had limited accuracy under the ramp rate control technique. Full article
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35 pages, 13527 KiB  
Article
Modelling and Validation of Typical PV Mini-Grids in Kenya: Experience from RESILIENT Project
by Khalid Hanbashi, Zafar Iqbal, Dimitri Mignard, Colin Pritchard and Sasa Z. Djokic
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3203; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073203 - 2 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2001
Abstract
PV-based mini-grids are identified as a feasible and, often, only economically viable option for the electrification of Kenyan remote and scattered rural areas, where connection to the national grid is challenging, and the related costs are high, if not prohibitive. This paper presents [...] Read more.
PV-based mini-grids are identified as a feasible and, often, only economically viable option for the electrification of Kenyan remote and scattered rural areas, where connection to the national grid is challenging, and the related costs are high, if not prohibitive. This paper presents the analysis of typical Kenyan PV mini-grids by using some results of the work in the project “Reliable, Efficient and Sustainable Mini-Grids for Rural Infrastructure Development in Kenya (RESILIENT)”. After presenting average annual and seasonal daily load profiles of residential and small commercial mini-grid customers identified from the measured demands, the paper introduces the main mini-grid components and their models, including a simplified, but reasonably accurate, model of a mini-grid battery storage system based on the manufacturer’s charge–discharge curves. All mini-grid components are assembled in a scalable and easily reconfigurable simulation model of an actual Kenyan PV mini-grid, and they are implemented for the evaluation of PV mini-grid performance and the potential for expansion and connection of additional residential and small commercial customers. During the validation of the developed simulation model using available measurement data, an empirical approach for adjusting the PV system output power is specified for a more accurate match with the measurements. The presented results indicate the importance of the information on the actual control algorithms and control settings of the mini-grid energy management systems, on the thermal dependencies and characteristics of both PV generation system and battery storage system, and on the availability of on-site measurements of temperature and input solar irradiance. The developed PV mini-grid model can be used for further analyses, such as to study the techno-economic performance of different mini-grid configurations, to identify the optimal sizing of mini-grid components, and to specify efficient control and operation schemes based on the locally available resources. Full article
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15 pages, 10108 KiB  
Article
Influence of Environmental Factors on the Intelligent Management of Photovoltaic and Wind Sections in a Hybrid Power Plant
by Jacek Kusznier
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041716 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
The high-efficiency operation of photovoltaic and wind systems is affected by many factors and parameters that should be continuously monitored. Since most of the variable factors are related to weather conditions, they are difficult to predict. Therefore, in order to optimize the operating [...] Read more.
The high-efficiency operation of photovoltaic and wind systems is affected by many factors and parameters that should be continuously monitored. Since most of the variable factors are related to weather conditions, they are difficult to predict. Therefore, in order to optimize the operating point of a photovoltaic or wind power plant, it is necessary to observe changes in the subject area. The operation of photovoltaic and wind power plants can complement each other. The results recorded at the hybrid power plant of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of Bialystok University of Technology are useful for a comprehensive analysis of the power plant operation and the ways to optimize it. This paper presents the influence of environmental factors on the operation of a hybrid photo-voltaic–wind power plant located in the city of Bialystok, Poland. The aim of the study was to present the variable factors on the optimal adjustment of the location of the power plant elements at the stage of its design and selection of the energy management system. The presented measurement data from 2015–2021 allow conclusions to be drawn on the significant impact on the power plant’s operation, taking into account both the average conditions corresponding to the analysed location and the full range of changes in the listed factors. Full article
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28 pages, 4872 KiB  
Article
Multiple Input-Single Output DC-DC Converters Assessment for Low Power Renewable Sources Integration
by Joaquin Soldado-Guamán, Victor Herrera-Perez, Mayra Pacheco-Cunduri, Alejandro Paredes-Camacho, Miguel Delgado-Prieto and Jorge Hernandez-Ambato
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041652 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3519
Abstract
This paper presents a comparison of Isolated (Flyback) and non-Isolated (Buck) multiple input-single output (MISO) DC-DC converters. The analysis of DC-DC converters is based on pulsed voltage source cells (PVSC). The modeling of both converter types is detailed through their mathematical models and [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparison of Isolated (Flyback) and non-Isolated (Buck) multiple input-single output (MISO) DC-DC converters. The analysis of DC-DC converters is based on pulsed voltage source cells (PVSC). The modeling of both converter types is detailed through their mathematical models and electrical simulations using Matlab/Simulink and PSIM. The comparison focuses on the sizing parameters, non-ideal output characteristics and efficiency. Results show that the output voltage of the MISO Buck converter exhibits a linear dependence on the duty cycles control signal and has slightly higher efficiency than the Flyback converter. To validate the operation of both converters, a scenario with two inputs (low-power hydroelectric and photovoltaic voltage sources) is considered. The modeling and control of both source systems are detailed and the MISO converter performance response is evaluated under sources changes and efficiency point of view. Full article
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18 pages, 2379 KiB  
Article
Steps towards Decarbonization of an Offshore Microgrid: Including Renewable, Enhancing Storage and Eliminating Need of Dump Load
by Norma Anglani, Salvatore R. Di Salvo, Giovanna Oriti and Alexander L. Julian
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031411 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
A novel control strategy to manage the integration of a wind turbine (WT) and an energy storage unit to an existing stand-alone microgrid servicing an oil and gas (O&G) rig is the topic of this paper. The control strategy includes a primary and [...] Read more.
A novel control strategy to manage the integration of a wind turbine (WT) and an energy storage unit to an existing stand-alone microgrid servicing an oil and gas (O&G) rig is the topic of this paper. The control strategy includes a primary and a secondary controller that, using the battery in tandem with the WT, does not require any dump load (A). The secondary controller includes an energy management system (EMS) which uses the estimated wind production and other specific local information to size the battery to avoid the curtailment of the WT (B) and simultaneously provide the framework for the economic analysis (C). Points A, B and C are the main novelties introduced with this work. Additionally, a primary controller operates the original microgrid source, a gas turbine (GT), at its maximum efficiency through an active power control strategy to lower fuel consumption, by prioritizing the exploitation of the renewable energy source through the combination EMS and battery sizing. The microgrid is simulated and the combined controller of the battery and GT bench-tested. Full article
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22 pages, 6221 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Control Scheme for Grid-Following Converter under Asymmetrical Faults
by Muhammad Abubakar, Herwig Renner and Robert Schürhuber
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031276 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
With the increasing penetration of converter-based power sources into the power system, the performance of the converter has become a key factor for enhancing grid reliability, especially during asymmetrical faults. To meet the low voltage ride-through requirements, the converter should feed the reactive [...] Read more.
With the increasing penetration of converter-based power sources into the power system, the performance of the converter has become a key factor for enhancing grid reliability, especially during asymmetrical faults. To meet the low voltage ride-through requirements, the converter should feed the reactive power to the grid for voltage support while ensuring the maximum current limitation for the converter’s safety. For such injections, the grid codes are defined. This paper presents a novel and simplified reference current generation scheme to fulfill the requirement of recent grid codes, ensure the current limit of the converter and confirm better utilization of the converter’s current capacity during asymmetrical faults. Moreover, it also discusses the new sequence extraction scheme based on the delay sample method in the stationary reference frame and the control modifications for the negative sequence current injection. The proposed scheme was tested for different priority injection schemes. Its performance was also compared with other control schemes. Detailed simulation studies, in MATLAB/Simulink, were presented to confirm the performance of the proposed scheme under different faulty conditions. The results confirmed the supremacy of the proposed scheme over the available schemes for better utilization of the converter’s current capacity during asymmetrical faults. It also ensured the peak current limitation of the converter while fulfilling the recent grid code requirements. Moreover, the results showed that the new scheme has 10% more current capacity compared to the other schemes due to better incorporation of the angle between the positive and negative phase sequences of the voltage. Full article
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23 pages, 1073 KiB  
Article
A Novel Distributed Consensus-Based Approach to Solve the Economic Dispatch Problem Incorporating the Valve-Point Effect and Solar Energy Sources
by Muhammad Moin, Waqas Ahmed, Muhammad Rehan, Muhammad Iqbal, Nasim Ullah, Kamran Zeb and Waqar Uddin
Energies 2023, 16(1), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010447 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
This research focused on the design of a distributed approach using consensus theory to find an optimal solution of the economic dispatch problem (EDP) by considering the quadratic cost function along with the valve-point effect of generators and renewable energy systems (RESs). A [...] Read more.
This research focused on the design of a distributed approach using consensus theory to find an optimal solution of the economic dispatch problem (EDP) by considering the quadratic cost function along with the valve-point effect of generators and renewable energy systems (RESs). A distributed consensus approach is presented for the optimal economic dispatch under a complex valve-point effect by accounting for solar energy in addition to conventional power plants. By employing the beta distribution function and communication topology between generators, a new optimality condition for the dispatch problem was formulated. A novel distributed updation law for generation by considering the communication between generators was provided to deal with the valve-point effect. The convergence of the proposed updation law was proved analytically using Lyapunov stability and graph theory. An algorithm for ensuring a distributed economic dispatch via conventional power plants, integrated with solar energy, was addressed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, a distributed nonlinear EDP approach for dealing with the valve-point loading issue via nonlinear incremental costs has been addressed for the first time. The designed approach was simulated for benchmark systems with and without a generation capacity constraint, and the results were compared with the existing centralized and distributed strategies. Full article
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28 pages, 10682 KiB  
Article
A Bidirectional Modular Cuk-Based Power Converter for Shore Power Renewable Energy Systems
by Ahmed Darwish
Energies 2023, 16(1), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010274 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
Supplying shipping vessels with electricity at the ports can improve the air quality of the ports, reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from the shipping industry, contribute to the economic growth, and increase the political dependency of the countries by reducing the dependence on [...] Read more.
Supplying shipping vessels with electricity at the ports can improve the air quality of the ports, reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from the shipping industry, contribute to the economic growth, and increase the political dependency of the countries by reducing the dependence on conventional fossil fuels. Several countries promote supplying the vessels when they are docking at ports from renewable energy systems by establishing dedicated funding mechanisms to remove the obstacles facing the shore power systems. In this context, this paper presents a new modular power electronic converter for shore power systems at shipping ports, which can perform three functions. Firstly, it will harvest the energy from a renewable energy source, such as hydroelectric and solar photovoltaic (PV) sources and ensure maximum energy extraction. Secondly, it will control the power flow from these sources to the battery storage. Finally, it will control the power flow from the battery to the vessels and/or the utility grid when necessary. A current-source converter based on isolated Cuk converter is used as the submodule (SM) of the proposed modular converter due to several features. The Cuk SM can provide high efficiency, minimised dc capacitance, and flexible output voltage higher or lower than the input voltage from the PV modules. To verify the mathematical analyses and computer simulations, experimental results are obtained from a small-scale modular prototype controlled by a TMSF28335 DSP. Full article
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16 pages, 3259 KiB  
Article
Improved Operation and Stability of a Wind-Hydro Microgrid by Means of a Li-Ion Battery Energy Storage
by Rafael Sebastián
Energies 2022, 15(23), 9230; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15239230 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
This article presents an isolated microgrid which combines two renewable power generators: a Hydraulic-Turbine-Generator (HTG) and a Wind-Turbine-Generator (WTG) with a Li-ion battery-energy-storage (BES). Depending on the generator(s) which supply active power, the microgrid can operate in three modes: Hydro-Only (HO), Wind-Hydro (WH) [...] Read more.
This article presents an isolated microgrid which combines two renewable power generators: a Hydraulic-Turbine-Generator (HTG) and a Wind-Turbine-Generator (WTG) with a Li-ion battery-energy-storage (BES). Depending on the generator(s) which supply active power, the microgrid can operate in three modes: Hydro-Only (HO), Wind-Hydro (WH) and Wind-Only (WO). In WH mode, the HTG supplies the difference between the power demanded by the consumers and the power supplied by the WTG. This net demanded power can be negative when the WTG power is greater than the load and this situation can lead to a microgrid collapse. This article shows by means of simulations how the BES is controlled to consume the WTG power excess guaranteeing the microgrid stability. Additionally, when the negative net demanded load is persistent the microgrid must transition from WH mode to WO mode, where only the WTG supplies active power, and this WH-WO transition is also simulated. In the simulations in WO mode, the BES is controlled to regulate the microgrid frequency. The needed controls to command the BES in WH and WO modes and in the WH-WO transition are also explained. The simulations show the effectiveness of using the BES since the microgrid stability and reliability is improved. Full article
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25 pages, 10865 KiB  
Article
Economic Feasibility of a Renewable Integrated Hybrid Power Generation System for a Rural Village of Ladakh
by Shilpa Sambhi, Himanshu Sharma, Vikas Bhadoria, Pankaj Kumar, Ravi Chaurasia, Giraja Shankar Chaurasia, Georgios Fotis, Vasiliki Vita, Lambros Ekonomou and Christos Pavlatos
Energies 2022, 15(23), 9126; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15239126 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
This paper mainly dealt with the technical and economic feasibility of an off-grid hybrid power generation system for a remote rural Turtuk village of Ladakh, located in the northern part of India. The study showed that the proposed configured renewable integrated hybrid system, [...] Read more.
This paper mainly dealt with the technical and economic feasibility of an off-grid hybrid power generation system for a remote rural Turtuk village of Ladakh, located in the northern part of India. The study showed that the proposed configured renewable integrated hybrid system, using Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software, efficiently met the energy demand, exhibiting optimum performance with low investment. The proposed PV(115 kW)/Wind(1 kW)/Battery(164 strings of 6 V each)/DG(50 kW) hybrid system was a highly commendable, feasible solution preferred from a total of 133,156 available solutions resulting from HOMER simulations. The net present cost and energy cost of the proposed configuration were $278,176 and $0.29/kWh, respectively. The proposed hybrid configuration fulfilled local load, with 95.97% reduced dominant harmful carbon dioxide emission, as compared to the sole us of a diesel generator power supply system. The technical performance of the hybrid system was ensured, with advantages including the highest renewable penetration and least unmet load. Furthermore, the analysis exclusively evaluated the impact of the system’s economic parameters (namely, its expected inflation rate, nominal discount rate, and project lifetime) on the net present cost and cost of energy of the system using a noble single fix duo vary approach. Full article
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24 pages, 8965 KiB  
Article
Techno-Economic Optimization of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Generation for SRM IST, Delhi-NCR Campus
by Shilpa Sambhi, Himanshu Sharma, Pankaj Kumar, Georgios Fotis, Vasiliki Vita and Lambros Ekonomou
Energies 2022, 15(21), 7880; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15217880 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
The limited availability of fossil fuels such as coal and increasing air pollution levels due to the burning of coal have pushed the trend of generating electricity from fossil fuels to generating it from locally available renewable resources. It is expected that the [...] Read more.
The limited availability of fossil fuels such as coal and increasing air pollution levels due to the burning of coal have pushed the trend of generating electricity from fossil fuels to generating it from locally available renewable resources. It is expected that the cost of electricity will decrease when locally available renewable resources are used. In this paper, it was proposed to commission a solar PV system in a part of an academic building of SRM IST University. The present study is an effort in-line with many initiatives taken up by the Indian Government. The performance index of solar PV system was analyzed. Supporting data were obtained from the NASA PDAV tool and then techno-economical analysis was carried out on HOMER. The average performance ratio and capacity factor of the solar PV system were obtained as 64.49% and 14.90%, respectively. For the optimal configuration, the net present cost and the levelized cost of electricity are $639,981 and $0.34 per kWh, respectively. As per the estimation, there will be no air pollution due to the proposed configuration, whereas if only a diesel generator is commissioned, then 200,417 kg of carbon dioxide will be emitted annually. Full article
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26 pages, 5457 KiB  
Article
Optimal Operation of Microgrids Comprising Large Building Prosumers and Plug-in Electric Vehicles Integrated into Active Distribution Networks
by Dimitra G. Kyriakou and Fotios D. Kanellos
Energies 2022, 15(17), 6182; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176182 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Active distribution networks and microgrids will be powerful tools for future power systems in their endeavor to integrate more renewable energy sources, increase distributed generation and optimize their operation. In this paper, a method for the coordinated optimal operation scheduling of active distribution [...] Read more.
Active distribution networks and microgrids will be powerful tools for future power systems in their endeavor to integrate more renewable energy sources, increase distributed generation and optimize their operation. In this paper, a method for the coordinated optimal operation scheduling of active distribution networks that are hosting complex microgrids comprising large building prosumers and plug-in electric vehicle aggregators is proposed. The electrical and thermal power systems of the microgrid are modelled in detail while the examined active distribution network is assumed to be able to optimally shift part of its loads in time and comprises renewable energy sources as part of its local generation. Moreover, the microgrid is assumed to be able to shift part of its load in order to assist the active distribution network in order to satisfy all of the network constraints when this is required. The proposed method was developed in such a way that allows both the microgrid and the active distribution network to optimize their operations without exchanging the internal information comprising their technical characteristics and parameters. To this end, the method is organized into five levels wherein only the absolutely necessary information is exchanged, i.e., the power that is exchanged by the microgrid and the active distribution network and the time periods in which the network constraints are violated. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

30 pages, 2413 KiB  
Review
Major Challenges towards Energy Management and Power Sharing in a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid: A Review
by Sohail Sarwar, Desen Kirli, Michael M. C. Merlin and Aristides E. Kiprakis
Energies 2022, 15(23), 8851; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15238851 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2543
Abstract
A fundamental strategy for utilizing green energy from renewable sources to tackle global warming is the microgrid (MG). Due to the predominance of AC microgrids in the existing power system and the substantial increase in DC power generation and DC load demand, the [...] Read more.
A fundamental strategy for utilizing green energy from renewable sources to tackle global warming is the microgrid (MG). Due to the predominance of AC microgrids in the existing power system and the substantial increase in DC power generation and DC load demand, the development of AC/DC hybrid microgrids (HMG) is inevitable. Despite increased theoretical efficiency and minimized AC/DC/AC conversion losses, uncertain loading, grid outages, and intermittent complexion of renewables have increased the complexity, which poses a significant threat toward system stability in an HMG. As a result, the amount of research on the stability, management, and control of HMG is growing exponentially, which makes it imperative to recognize existing problems and emerging trends. In this survey, several strategies from the most recent literature developed to address the challenges of HMG are reviewed. Power flow analysis, power sharing (energy management), local and global control of DGs, and a brief examination of the complexity of HMG’s protection plans make up the four elements of the review technique in this article. During critical analysis, the test system employed for validation is also taken into consideration. A comprehensive review of the literature demonstrates that MILP is a frequently employed technique for the supervisory control of HMG, whereas tweaking bidirectional converter control is the most common approach in the literature to achieve efficient power sharing. Finally, this review identified the limitations, undiscovered challenges, and major hurdles that need to be addressed in order to develop a sustainable control and management scheme for stable multimode HMG operation. Full article
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