Special Issue "Advanced Approaches, Business Models, and Novel Techniques for Management and Control of Smart Grids"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Siano Website E-Mail
Scientific Director of the Smart Grids and Smart Cities Laboratory (SMARTLab), Department of Management & Innovation Systems, University of Salerno, Italy
Interests: smart grids; energy management; power systems; demand response
Guest Editor
Dr. Miadreza Shafie-khah Website E-Mail
School of technology and innovations, University of Vaasa, Wolffintie 34, 65200 Vaasa, Finland
Interests: smart grid; demand response; electric vehicle; power system; electricity market

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject of advanced approaches, business models, and novel techniques for the management and control of smart grids. The current power system should be renovated to fulfill social and industrial requests and economic advances. Hence, providing economic, green, and sustainable energy are key goals of advanced societies. In order to meet these goals, recent features of smart grid technologies need to have the potential to improve reliability, flexibility, efficiency, and resiliency. This Special Issue aims to encourage researchers to address the mentioned challenges.

Topics of interest for publication include but are not limited to the following:

  • The design, modeling, and management of smart grids;
  • System reliability, sustainability, flexibility, and resiliency;
  • Methodologies and applications of modern methods for the operation and control of smart grids;
  • Intelligent systems, solving methods, optimization, and advanced heuristics;
  • The modeling, planning, and operating of renewable energy resources;
  • Business models for different electricity market players;
  • Demand side management and demand response;
  • The sizing, placement, and operation of energy storage systems and electric vehicles;
  • Smart homes and building energy management;
  • Electricity market, electrical power, and energy systems;
  • The modeling, forecasting, and management of uncertainty in smart grids;
  • Microgrids and islanded networks;
  • Smart cities, smart energy, and IoT.

Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Siano
Prof. Dr. Miadreza Shafie-khah
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrical power and energy systems
  • smart city
  • smart grid
  • control, management

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
An Effective Passive Islanding Detection Algorithm for Distributed Generations
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3160; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163160 - 16 Aug 2019
Abstract
Different issues will be raised and highlighted by emerging distributed generations (DGs) into modern power systems in which the islanding detection is the most important. In the islanding situation, a part of the system which consists of at least one DG, passive grid, [...] Read more.
Different issues will be raised and highlighted by emerging distributed generations (DGs) into modern power systems in which the islanding detection is the most important. In the islanding situation, a part of the system which consists of at least one DG, passive grid, and local load, becomes fully separated from the main grid. Several detection methods of islanding have been proposed in recent researches based on measured electrical parameters of the system. However, islanding detection based on local measurements suffers from the non-detection zone (NDZ) and undesirable detection during grid-connected events. This paper proposes a passive islanding detection algorithm for all types of DGs by appropriate combining the measured frequency, voltage, current, and phase angle and their rate of changes at the point of common coupling (PCC). The proposed algorithm detects the islanding situation, even with the exact zero power mismatches. Proposed algorithm discriminates between the islanding situation and non-islanding disturbances, such as short circuit faults, capacitor faults, and load switching in a proper time and without mal-operation. In addition, the performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated under different scenarios by performing the algorithm on the IEEE 13-bus distribution system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Greedy Algorithm for Minimizing the Cost of Routing Power on a Digital Microgrid
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3076; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163076 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we propose the greedy smallest-cost-rate path first (GRASP) algorithm to route power from sources to loads in a digital microgrid (DMG). Routing of power from distributed energy resources (DERs) to loads of a DMG comprises matching loads to DERs and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose the greedy smallest-cost-rate path first (GRASP) algorithm to route power from sources to loads in a digital microgrid (DMG). Routing of power from distributed energy resources (DERs) to loads of a DMG comprises matching loads to DERs and the selection of the smallest-cost-rate path from a load to its supplying DERs. In such a microgrid, one DER may supply power to one or many loads, and one or many DERs may supply the power requested by a load. Because the optimal method is NP-hard, GRASP addresses this high complexity by using heuristics to match sources and loads and to select the smallest-cost-rate paths in the DMG. We compare the cost achieved by GRASP and an optimal method based on integer linear programming on different IEEE test feeders and other test networks. The comparison shows the trade-offs between lowering complexity and achieving optimal-cost paths. The results show that the cost incurred by GRASP approaches that of the optimal solution by small margins. In the adopted networks, GRASP trades its lower complexity for up to 18% higher costs than those achieved by the optimal solution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensor-Based Early Activity Recognition Inside Buildings to Support Energy and Comfort Management Systems
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2631; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132631 - 09 Jul 2019
Abstract
Building Energy and Comfort Management (BECM) systems have the potential to considerably reduce costs related to energy consumption and improve the efficiency of resource exploitation, by implementing strategies for resource management and control and policies for Demand-Side Management (DSM). One of the main [...] Read more.
Building Energy and Comfort Management (BECM) systems have the potential to considerably reduce costs related to energy consumption and improve the efficiency of resource exploitation, by implementing strategies for resource management and control and policies for Demand-Side Management (DSM). One of the main requirements for such systems is to be able to adapt their management decisions to the users’ specific habits and preferences, even when they change over time. This feature is fundamental to prevent users’ disaffection and the gradual abandonment of the system. In this paper, a sensor-based system for analysis of user habits and early detection and prediction of user activities is presented. To improve the resulting accuracy, the system incorporates statistics related to other relevant external conditions that have been observed to be correlated (e.g., time of the day). Performance evaluation on a real use case proves that the proposed system enables early recognition of activities after only 10 sensor events with an accuracy of 81 % . Furthermore, the correlation between activities can be used to predict the next activity with an accuracy of about 60 % . Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Black-Box Behavioral Modeling of Voltage and Frequency Response Characteristic for Islanded Microgrid
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112049 - 29 May 2019
Abstract
The voltage and frequency response model of microgrid is significant for its application in the design of secondary voltage frequency controller and system stability analysis. However, most models developed for this aspect are complex in structure due to the difficult mechanism modeling process [...] Read more.
The voltage and frequency response model of microgrid is significant for its application in the design of secondary voltage frequency controller and system stability analysis. However, most models developed for this aspect are complex in structure due to the difficult mechanism modeling process and are only suitable for offline identification. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a black-box modeling method to identify the voltage and frequency response model of microgrid online. Firstly, the microgrid system is set as a two-input, two-output black-box system and can be modeled only by data sampled at the input and output ports. Therefore, the simplicity of modeling steps can be guaranteed. Meanwhile, the recursive damped least squares method is used to realize the online model identification of the microgrid system, so that the model parameters can be adjusted with the change of the microgrid operating structure, which makes the model more adaptable. The paper analyzes the black-box modeling process of the microgrid system in detail, and the microgrid platform, including 100 kW rated power inverters, is employed to validate the analysis and experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Microgrid Frequency Regulation Based on the Virtual Inertia Concept while Considering Communication System Delay
Energies 2019, 12(10), 2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12102016 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Frequency stability is an important issue for the operation of islanded microgrids. Since the upstream grid does not support the islanded microgrids, the power control and frequency regulation encounter serious problems. By increasing the penetration of the renewable energy sources in microgrids, optimizing [...] Read more.
Frequency stability is an important issue for the operation of islanded microgrids. Since the upstream grid does not support the islanded microgrids, the power control and frequency regulation encounter serious problems. By increasing the penetration of the renewable energy sources in microgrids, optimizing the parameters of the load frequency controller plays a great role in frequency stability, which is currently being investigated by researchers. The status of loads and generation sources are received by the control center of a microgrid via a communication system and the control center can regulate the output power of renewable energy sources and/or power storage devices. An inherent delay in the communication system or other parts like sensors sampling rates may lead microgrids to have unstable operation states. Reducing the delay in the communication system, as one of the main delay origins, can play an important role in improving fluctuation mitigation, which on the other hand increases the cost of communication system operation. In addition, application of ultra-capacitor banks, as a virtual inertial tool, can be considered as an effective solution to damp frequency oscillations. However, when the ultra-capacitor size is increased, the virtual inertia also increases, which in turn increases the costs. Therefore, it is essential to use a suitable optimization algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. In this paper, the communication system delay and ultra-capacitor size along with the parameters of the secondary controller are obtained by using a Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) algorithm as well as by considering the costs. To cover frequency oscillations and the cost of microgrid operation, two fitness functions are defined. The frequency oscillations of the case study are investigated considering the stochastic behavior of the load and the output of the renewable energy sources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Augmented Prony Method for Power System Oscillation Analysis Using Synchrophasor Data
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071267 - 02 Apr 2019
Abstract
Intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) provide an intuitive representation of the oscillatory modes and are mainly calculated using Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) methods. Those methods, however, suffer from the end effects, mode-mixing and Gibbs phenomena since they use an iterative procedure. This paper proposes an [...] Read more.
Intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) provide an intuitive representation of the oscillatory modes and are mainly calculated using Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) methods. Those methods, however, suffer from the end effects, mode-mixing and Gibbs phenomena since they use an iterative procedure. This paper proposes an augmented Prony method for power system oscillation analysis using synchrophasor data obtained from a wide-area measurement system (WAMS). In the proposed method, in addition to the estimation of the modal information, IMFs are extracted using a new explicit mathematical formulation. Further, an indicator based on an energy and phase relationship of IMFs is proposed, which allows system operators to recognize the most effective generators/actuators on specific modes. The method is employed as an online oscillation-monitoring framework providing inputs for the so-called wide-area damping control (WADC) module. The efficacy of the proposed method is validated using three test cases, in which the IMFs calculation is simpler and more accurate if compared with other methods. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Survey on Microgrid Energy Management Considering Flexible Energy Sources
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112156 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Aggregation of distributed generations (DGs) along with energy storage systems (ESSs) and controllable loads near power consumers has led to the concept of microgrids. However, the uncertain nature of renewable energy sources such as wind and photovoltaic generations, market prices and loads has [...] Read more.
Aggregation of distributed generations (DGs) along with energy storage systems (ESSs) and controllable loads near power consumers has led to the concept of microgrids. However, the uncertain nature of renewable energy sources such as wind and photovoltaic generations, market prices and loads has led to difficulties in ensuring power quality and in balancing generation and consumption. To tackle these problems, microgrids should be managed by an energy management system (EMS) that facilitates the minimization of operational costs, emissions and peak loads while satisfying the microgrid technical constraints. Over the past years, microgrids’ EMS have been studied from different perspectives and have recently attracted considerable attention of researchers. To this end, in this paper a classification and a survey of EMSs has been carried out from a new point of view. EMSs have been classified into four categories based on the kind of the reserve system being used, including non-renewable, ESS, demand-side management (DSM) and hybrid systems. Moreover, using recent literature, EMSs have been reviewed in terms of uncertainty modeling techniques, objective functions (OFs) and constraints, optimization techniques, and simulation and experimental results presented in the literature. Full article
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