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Special Issue "Sustainable Energy Development Strategies: Energy Efficiency and Renewables"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 March 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Dalia Štreimikienė

Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos 3, Kaunas, LT-44403, Lithuania
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sustainable energy development policies and strategies; promotion of energy efficiency and renewables; climate change mitigation policies in energy sector; sustainability assessment of energy developmment scenarios; energy policies and energy technologies
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tomas Baležentis

Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vilnius University, LT-10222 Vilnius, Lithuania
Website | E-Mail
Interests: productivity analysis; multi-criteria decision making; agricultural economics; energy economics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable energy development has a direct impact on climate change mitigation and is the top priority of energy policy. Sustainable energy development strategies typically involve three major technological changes: Energy savings on the demand side, energy efficiency improvements in the energy production and replacement of fossil fuels by renewables.

This Special Issue is dedicated to the analysis of sustainable energy development strategies and policies at various levels, the analysis of policies and measures aiming to promote energy efficiency and penetration of renewables at global, national, sectoral, regional, enterprise and households levels, the impacts of sustainable energy policies on climate change mitigation at global, national, sectoral, and regional levels.

Methodologically, analysis for sustainable energy development requires considering multiple factors affecting different aspects of energy supply and consumption. Therefore, frontier techniques for analysis of the underlying environmental production technologies, index decomposition models for isolation of the contributions of different factors in energy use or environmental pressures, and multi-criteria frameworks for policy design are topical, among others.

The Special Issue will include the following topics:

  • Analysis of sustainable energy development policies and strategies;
  • Development and application of indicator systems, tools and techniques for assessment of sustainable energy development;
  • Assessment of climate change mitigation policies;
  • Energy efficiency analysis and assessment of energy efficiency policies;
  • Analysis of renewable energy development and the associated policies;
  • The interlinkages among sustainable energy policies and climate change mitigation policies;
  • The assessment of role of renewables in achieving climate change mitigation targets;
  • The assessment of role of energy efficiency improvements in achieving climate change mitigation targets;
  • The assessment of energy technologies in electricity, heat and transport sectors;
  • The assessment of demand side management measures;
  • The role of environmental and social innovations in achieving sustainable energy development goals;
  • Data Envelopment Analysis;
  • Index Decomposition Analysis;
  • Multi-criteria Decision Making

Prof. Dr. Dalia Štreimikienė
Prof. Dr. Tomas Baležentis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable Energy Development
  • Policies and Strategies
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Renewables
  • Climate change mitigation

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Research on the Comprehensive Performance of Hygroscopic Materials in an Office Building Based on EnergyPlus
Energies 2019, 12(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010191
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents the research status of hygroscopic materials, points out the weak links as targets for major breakthroughs, and introduces humidifying mechanisms and their categories. In this paper, we simulated a single-monomer Shenyang office building with different envelopes of inner-surface hygroscopic materials [...] Read more.
This paper presents the research status of hygroscopic materials, points out the weak links as targets for major breakthroughs, and introduces humidifying mechanisms and their categories. In this paper, we simulated a single-monomer Shenyang office building with different envelopes of inner-surface hygroscopic materials for indoor humidity conditions, energy consumption, and economy, which are three aspects of energy consumption analysis in EnergyPlus software. To obtain the best moisture buffering performance from hygroscopic materials, we also simulated different cases including the laying area, ventilation strategy, thickness, and initial moisture content of different hygroscopic materials. The humidity fluctuation, with changes in the style of hygroscopic materials and usage conditions, of a room in a building can be analyzed by numerical simulation. This allows the determination of the best moisture buffering performance of the building structure. The results show that hygroscopic materials have great advantages in three energy saving aspects of building assessment. Hygroscopic materials can regulate indoor air humidity and reduce energy consumption. In addition, the entire life-cycle cost can be minimized. Lower rates of air exchange and larger usable areas can help enhance the level of performance of hygroscopic materials. The thickness and initial moisture content of hygroscopic materials have little impact on the moisture buffering value. This study strived to provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the production and installation of hygroscopic materials. It also promoted the passive materials market and the building’s energy savings. The best moisture buffering performance, evaluated at room level in this paper, can be obtained through real-world environmental simulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation Research on the Effect of Coupled Heat and Moisture Transfer on the Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment of Public Buildings
Energies 2019, 12(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010141
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
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Abstract
A building envelope is a multi-layer porous structure. It transfers heat and moisture to balance the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and water vapor partial pressure difference. This is a typical coupled heat and moisture migration process. When the space is filled with [...] Read more.
A building envelope is a multi-layer porous structure. It transfers heat and moisture to balance the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and water vapor partial pressure difference. This is a typical coupled heat and moisture migration process. When the space is filled with moist air, water or ice, it will directly affect the thermal properties of the material. With respect to moisture coming through the wall into the indoor building, it will also affect the indoor environment and the energy consumption due to the formation of latent heat. However, the moisture transfer process in the building envelopes is not taken into account in the current conventional thermal calculation and energy consumption analysis. This paper analyzes the indoor thermal and humidity environment and building energy consumption of typical cities in Harbin, Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. The results show that it is obvious that the coupled heat and moisture transfer in the building envelopes has an impact on the annual cooling and heating energy consumption, the total energy consumption, and the indoor thermal and humidity environment. The geographical location of buildings ranging from north to south influences the effect of coupled heat and moisture transfer on the annual energy consumption of the building, moving from positive to negative. It is suggested that the additional coefficient of the coupled thermal and moisture method can effectively correct the existing energy consumption calculation results, which do not take the consumption from the coupled heat and moisture in the building envelopes into account. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel Design for Thermal Management of PV Cells in Harsh Environmental Conditions
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113231
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
The abundance of solar energy is a blessing in the Arabian Peninsula, where more than 2000 kWh/m2 density has been recorded annually. This has resulted in sincere consideration of PV harvesting in the energy matrix and smart grid. However, artefacts such as [...] Read more.
The abundance of solar energy is a blessing in the Arabian Peninsula, where more than 2000 kWh/m2 density has been recorded annually. This has resulted in sincere consideration of PV harvesting in the energy matrix and smart grid. However, artefacts such as degradation of PV efficiency due to the high temperature effect have to be addressed. This paper presents a novel design of a PV cooling system using water to mitigate the effect of high temperature. Several experiments have been conducted, and the results have been analyzed. It has been found that the collected water from the panel after 40 min of cooling gained a temperature of 10 °C approximately, during December 2016. Eventually, the efficiency was improved by 10.35% (without using MPPT) using water at ambient temperature (24 °C) compared to the non-cooled panel. Moreover, the temperature of the panel during solar peak hours dropped from 64.3 °C to 32 °C and from 59 °C to 27 °C in 3 min for the back and front surface, respectively. These results, which are the first of their kind in Qatar, constitute good incentives and pave the way for further investigation to enhance PV efficiency in harsh environments. This would be of paramount significance, especially for scaling up PV deployment, as is planned in Qatar and GCC countries in their 2030 vision. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Optimal Selection Method with Seasonal Flow and Irrigation Variability for Hydro Turbine Type and Size
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3212; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113212
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
A micro hydropower plant of the run-of-river type is considered to be the most cost-effective investment in developing counties. This paper presents a novel methodology to improve flow estimation, without using the flow direction curve (FDC) method, to determine the turbine type and [...] Read more.
A micro hydropower plant of the run-of-river type is considered to be the most cost-effective investment in developing counties. This paper presents a novel methodology to improve flow estimation, without using the flow direction curve (FDC) method, to determine the turbine type and size to operate consistently. A higher precision is obtained through the use of seasonal flow occurrence data, irrigation variability, and fitting the best probability distribution function (PDF) using flow data. Flow data are grouped in classes based on the flow rate range. This method will need a larger dataset but it is reduced to a tractable amount by using the PDF. In the first part of the algorithm, the average flow of each range is used to select the turbine type. The second part of the algorithm determines the optimal size of the turbine type in a more accurate way, based on minimum and maximum flow rates in each class range instead of the average flow rate. A newly developed micro hydropower plant was installed and used for validation at Baan Khun Pae, Chiang Mai Province. It was found, over four years of observation from 2014–2018, that the plant capacity factor was 82%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Saving Energy in the Transportation Sector: An Analysis of Modified Bitumen Application Based on Marshall Test
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3025; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113025
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
Energy consumption and material production are two major factors associated with the road construction industry. Worldwide, millions of tons of hot mix asphalt production consume a huge amount of fuel as an energy source in terms of quantity and cost to achieve the [...] Read more.
Energy consumption and material production are two major factors associated with the road construction industry. Worldwide, millions of tons of hot mix asphalt production consume a huge amount of fuel as an energy source in terms of quantity and cost to achieve the standard temperature of up to 170 °C during the mixing process. Modification of bitumen can not only reduce its usage but also the consumption of energy (fuel) during the asphalt mix production process at low temperatures. This study provides a method to save energy by proposing the addition of bitumen modifier in the road construction sector. Furthermore, to make it compatible with the field conditions for road construction, stability analysis is executed on the prepared samples by partially replacing the bitumen with polyurethane foam (PUF) and plastic waste (PW) (at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%). Experimental results demonstrate a reasonable saving in the amount of energy (33%) and material (40% bitumen) used and showed that similar strength of developed asphalt mix can be achieved using PUF. An extensive calculation concludes that these savings could make a huge difference in construction economics of mega road infrastructure projects, especially during an energy crisis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of Hybridization of Heuristic Techniques for Residential Load Scheduling
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2861; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102861
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
With the emergence of the smart grid, both consumers and electricity providing companies can benefit from real-time interaction and pricing methods. In this work, a smart power system is considered, where consumers share a common energy source. Each consumer is equipped with a [...] Read more.
With the emergence of the smart grid, both consumers and electricity providing companies can benefit from real-time interaction and pricing methods. In this work, a smart power system is considered, where consumers share a common energy source. Each consumer is equipped with a home energy management controller (HEMC) as scheduler and a smart meter. The HEMC keeps updating the utility with the load profile of the home. The smart meter is connected to a power grid having an advanced metering infrastructure which is responsible for two-way communication. Genetic teaching-learning based optimization, flower pollination teaching learning based optimization, flower pollination BAT and flower pollination genetic algorithm based energy consumption scheduling algorithms are proposed. These algorithms schedule the loads in order to shave the peak formation without compromising user comfort. The proposed algorithms achieve optimal energy consumption profile for the home appliances equipped with sensors to maximize the consumer benefits in a fair and efficient manner by exchanging control messages. Control messages contain energy consumption of consumer and real-time pricing information. Simulation results show that proposed algorithms reduce the peak-to-average ratio by 34.56% and help the users to reduce their energy expenses by 42.41% without compromising the comfort. The daily discomfort is reduced by 28.18%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Co-Optimization of Energy and Reserve Capacity Considering Renewable Energy Unit with Uncertainty
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2833; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102833
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a system model for optimal dispatch of the energy and reserve capacity considering uncertain load demand and unsteady power generation. This implicates uncertainty in managing the power demand along with the consideration of utility, user and environmental objectives. The model [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a system model for optimal dispatch of the energy and reserve capacity considering uncertain load demand and unsteady power generation. This implicates uncertainty in managing the power demand along with the consideration of utility, user and environmental objectives. The model takes into consideration a day-ahead electricity market that involves the varying power demand bids and generates a required amount of energy in addition with reserve capacity. The lost opportunity cost is also considered and incorporated within the context of expected load not served. Then, the effects of combined and separate dispatching the energy and reserve are investigated. The nonlinear cost curves have been addressed by optimizing the objective function using robust optimization technique. Finally, various cases in accordance with underlying parameters have been considered in order to conduct and evaluate numerical results. Simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed scheduling model in terms of reduced cost and system stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Short-Term Electric Power Forecasting Using Dual-Stage Hierarchical Wavelet- Particle Swarm Optimization- Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System PSO-ANFIS Approach Based On Climate Change
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102822
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Analyzing electrical power generation for a wind turbine has associated inaccuracies due to fluctuations in environmental factors, mechanical alterations of wind turbines, and natural disaster. Thus, development of a highly reliable prediction model based on climatic conditions is crucial in forecasting electrical power [...] Read more.
Analyzing electrical power generation for a wind turbine has associated inaccuracies due to fluctuations in environmental factors, mechanical alterations of wind turbines, and natural disaster. Thus, development of a highly reliable prediction model based on climatic conditions is crucial in forecasting electrical power for proper management of energy demand and supply. This is essential because early forecasting systems will enable an energy supplier to schedule and manage resources efficiently. In this research, we have put forward a novel electrical power prediction model using wavelet and particle swarm optimization based dual-stage adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (dual-stage Wavelet-PSO-ANFIS) for precise estimation of electrical power generation based on climatic factors. The first stage is used to project wind speed based on meteorological data available, while the second stage took the output wind speed prediction to predict electrical power based on actual supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). Furthermore, influence of data dependence on the forecasting accuracy for both stages is analyzed using a subset of data as input to predict the wind power which was also compared with other existing electrical power forecasting techniques. This paper defines the basic framework and the performance evaluation of a dual-stage Wavelet-PSO-ANFIS based electrical power forecasting system using a practical implementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Consumer Attitudes towards Industrial CO2 Capture and Storage Products and Technologies
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102787
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper discusses and elicits consumer attitudes towards industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (ICCS) products and technologies. It presents a comprehensive review of the relevant research literature on consumer attitudes towards ICCS represented by the willingness-to-pay (WTP) and willingness-to-accept [...] Read more.
This paper discusses and elicits consumer attitudes towards industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (ICCS) products and technologies. It presents a comprehensive review of the relevant research literature on consumer attitudes towards ICCS represented by the willingness-to-pay (WTP) and willingness-to-accept (WTA) negative externalities and outcomes of the carbon capture and storage (the so-called “not-in-my-backyard” (NIMBY) approach). In addition, it employs a concise empirical model that uses the data from the online questionnaire survey conducted in 7 European Union (EU) countries with and without ICSS sites. Our results demonstrate that having at least one ICCS site significantly reduces the WTA for the ICCS products and technologies. It is shown that further increase of ICCS sites, including those in the neighboring regions and countries, leads to the increase of negative consumer attitudes to the ICCS technologies and renewable energy policies. It becomes apparent that the majority of consumers are willing to support industrial CO2 capture and storage only if it happens far away from their dwellings. The outcomes of this paper might be informative for the EU local industries and policy-makers who are planning the location of ICCS sites and optimizing the public support for their endeavors. Moreover, they might be relevant for the stakeholders dealing with the threat of climate change and the necessity for the decarbonization of the economy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, and CO2 Emissions in G20 Countries: Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2771; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102771
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Understanding the relationships among CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth helps nations to develop energy sources and formulate energy policies in order to enhance sustainable development. The present research is aimed at developing a novel efficient model for analyzing the relationships [...] Read more.
Understanding the relationships among CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth helps nations to develop energy sources and formulate energy policies in order to enhance sustainable development. The present research is aimed at developing a novel efficient model for analyzing the relationships amongst the three aforementioned indicators in G20 countries using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model in the period from 1962 to 2016. In this regard, the ANFIS model has been used with prediction models using real data to predict CO2 emissions based on two important input indicators, energy consumption and economic growth. This study made use of the fuzzy rules through ANFIS to generalize the relationships of the input and output indicators in order to make a prediction of CO2 emissions. The experimental findings on a real-world dataset of World Development Indicators (WDI) revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the CO2 emissions based on energy consumption and economic growth. The direction of the interrelationship is highly important from the economic and energy policy-making perspectives for this international forum, as G20 countries are primarily focused on the governance of the global economy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Methodology and Thermal Loss Tests on Small Size Absorber Tubes for Solar Applications
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2552; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102552
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
Since thermal energy for residential applications is a relevant part of the entire energy demand, solar technologies could play an important role in decreasing fossil fuel consumption. A novel small parabolic trough collector matched with a storage system is developed to satisfy heating [...] Read more.
Since thermal energy for residential applications is a relevant part of the entire energy demand, solar technologies could play an important role in decreasing fossil fuel consumption. A novel small parabolic trough collector matched with a storage system is developed to satisfy heating and required hot water demand for a single house. A new receiver concept is designed and a prototype is realized using two coaxial tubes (three spattered layers). A covering glass with vacuum inside completes the high tech design. Because of numerous innovations including the small size, a specific off-Sun measurement procedure is set up with the aim of evaluating the real thermal loss and direct heating of the absorber by Joule effect. A novel test procedure is proposed for the one-end absorber. The receiver performance results are reported under vacuum conditions and with air at ambient pressure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Towards Zero Energy Stadiums: The Case Study of the Dacia Arena in Udine, Italy
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2396; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092396
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
The environmental impacts of sport events have been growing during the last decades, which has led to the organizing associations developing adequate countermeasures to both reduce carbon emissions due to construction and operational stages compensate for the emissions. This work aims at proposing [...] Read more.
The environmental impacts of sport events have been growing during the last decades, which has led to the organizing associations developing adequate countermeasures to both reduce carbon emissions due to construction and operational stages compensate for the emissions. This work aims at proposing an approach to stadiums energy enhancement that includes strategies largely recognized as effective and applicable to several building typologies (residential, commercial, academic, etc.). The selected case study is the Dacia Arena in northern Italy that has been recently refurbished and renovated. The proposed workflow has as a goal minimizing the increment of the operational emissions, caused by new heated areas in the stadium. Firstly, the energy consumption was estimated in dynamic state for Scenario 0 (current state) and Scenario 1 (refurbished state) to quantify the new plant’s energy demand. Secondly, two hypothetical system layouts were proposed and evaluated. In the first, the power for lighting, cooling and heating is supplied by a system that couples photovoltaic panels with heat pump. In the second, the same photovoltaic plant is integrated with a biomass plant and an absorption chiller. The comparison highlights the suitability of those interventions and the environmental advantages deriving from their exploitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Critical Approach on Sustainable Renewable Energy Sources in Rural Area: Evidence from North-West Region of Romania
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092225
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
In the favorable context of a potential increase in the use of renewable energy sources in Romania, a research was conducted among the rural population in the North-West region of development in order to analyze public perception regarding this alternative energy production. A [...] Read more.
In the favorable context of a potential increase in the use of renewable energy sources in Romania, a research was conducted among the rural population in the North-West region of development in order to analyze public perception regarding this alternative energy production. A survey was conducted on a sample of 322 respondents and data was analyzed using different statistical methods (Principal Component Analysis, Cluster analysis, etc.). Results indicated a positive attitude towards renewable energy and support mainly from young and highly educated people. The percentage of users is relatively low and there is little intention in the future to switch to a renewable energy source even if it is perceived as a sustainable way of living. Lack of knowledge regarding renewable energy sources is the most important aspect and authorities should assume a mission in the public education of citizens in order to implement the measures and achieve the goals established in the national strategy plans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle SOLIS—A Novel Decision Support Tool for the Assessment of Solar Radiation in ArcGIS
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082105
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3058 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The global Sustainable Development Goals influence the implementation of energy development strategies worldwide. However, in order to support local stakeholders in sustainable energy development strategies and climate change adaptation plans and the implementation of policies, there is a need to equip local decision [...] Read more.
The global Sustainable Development Goals influence the implementation of energy development strategies worldwide. However, in order to support local stakeholders in sustainable energy development strategies and climate change adaptation plans and the implementation of policies, there is a need to equip local decision makers with tools enabling the assessment of sustainable energy investments. In order to do so, the aim of this study is to create a novel tool for the assessment of solar radiation (SOLIS) in ArcGIS. The SOLIS tool builds on the existing ArcGIS algorithm by including input data conversion and post-processing of the results. This should expand the group of potential users of solar radiation analyses. The self-filtering tool excludes surfaces that are not suitable for solar energy investments due to geometrical reasons. The reduction of the size of the output data is positive for technical reasons (speed of the calculation and occupied storage place) and for cognitive reasons (reduction of the number of objects necessary to analyse by the user). The SOLIS tool limits the requirement for users to insert three-dimensional (3D) models of roofs (with any geometry) and select solar radiation calculation periods. The highlight of this research is to develop the decision support tool for the assessment of solar radiation, which would reduce the requirements for potential users, in order to promote indicator-based assessments among non-Geographical Information Systems (GIS) specialists. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Power Dispatch of Small-Scale Standalone Microgrid Located in Colombian Territory
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071877
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
An optimal power dispatch of a small-scale standalone microgrid for remote area power supply in Colombian territory is proposed in this paper. The power dispatch is generated by an energy management system based on a mixed-integer linear programming, which minimizes the cost of [...] Read more.
An optimal power dispatch of a small-scale standalone microgrid for remote area power supply in Colombian territory is proposed in this paper. The power dispatch is generated by an energy management system based on a mixed-integer linear programming, which minimizes the cost of operating the microgrid while fulfilling the technical constraints of its elements. The energy management system solves an optimization problem using the algebraic representation of the generators and its constraints. Basic steady-state models of the generators are selected to solve the optimization problem. The small-scale microgrid is considered for a remote area power supply in Taroa, a small settlement in La Guajira, Colombia. The microgrid is composed of photovoltaic modules, a wind generator, a diesel generator, a battery bank, and residential loads. To validate the solution, the elements of the microgrids are parameterized with information from commercial equipment. Moreover, the power dispatch obtained with the proposed solution is compared with a power dispatch generated by a heuristic algorithm, which has been previously used to dispatch power in a small-scale standalone microgrid. Results show that the cost of operating the microgrid is minimized using the proposed optimization approach: a reduction of the operating cost equal to 25.5% of the cost imposed by the heuristic algorithm is obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fluid Structure Interaction Modelling of Tidal Turbine Performance and Structural Loads in a Velocity Shear Environment
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071837
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Tidal Current Turbine (TCT) blades are highly flexible and undergo considerable deflection due to fluid interactions. Unlike Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) models are able to model this hydroelastic behavior. In this work a coupled modular FSI approach was [...] Read more.
Tidal Current Turbine (TCT) blades are highly flexible and undergo considerable deflection due to fluid interactions. Unlike Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) models are able to model this hydroelastic behavior. In this work a coupled modular FSI approach was adopted to develop an FSI model for the performance evaluation and structural load characterization of a TCT under uniform and profiled flow. Results indicate that for a uniform flow case the FSI model predicted the turbine power coefficient CP with an error of 4.8% when compared with experimental data. For the rigid blade Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) CFD model this error was 9.8%. The turbine blades were subjected to uniform stress and deformation during the rotation of the turbine in a uniform flow. However, for a profiled flow the stress and deformation at the turbine blades varied with the angular position of turbine blade, resulting in a 22.1% variation in stress during a rotation cycle. This variation in stress is quite significant and can have serious implications for the fatigue life of turbine blades. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Comparative Assessment of Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Fuel Combustion Sector of Lithuania and Bulgaria
Energies 2019, 12(3), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030529
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
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Abstract
The paper performed comparative assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends and climate change mitigation policies in the fuel combustion sector of selected EU member states with similar economic development levels and historical pasts, and implementing main EU energy and climate change mitigation [...] Read more.
The paper performed comparative assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends and climate change mitigation policies in the fuel combustion sector of selected EU member states with similar economic development levels and historical pasts, and implementing main EU energy and climate change mitigation policies, having achieved different success in GHG emission reduction. The impact of climate change mitigation policies on GHG emission reduction was assessed based on analysis of countries’ reports to UNFCCC by identifying the key areas of GHG emission reduction, their GHG emission reduction potential, and the driving forces behind them. The study revealed that climate change mitigation policies that have been implemented so far in Bulgaria are less efficient than in Lithuania, as Bulgaria places priorities not on energy efficiency improvement and penetration of renewable energy sources, but on switching from coal to natural gas. The policy implications for strengthening GHG emissions reduction efforts are provided based on analysis conducted. Full article
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Open AccessReview An Overview of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods in Dealing with Sustainable Energy Development Issues
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102754
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The measurement of sustainability is actively used today as one of the main preventative instruments in order to reduce the decline of the environment. Sustainable decision-making in solving energy issues can be supported and contradictory effects can be evaluated by scientific achievements of [...] Read more.
The measurement of sustainability is actively used today as one of the main preventative instruments in order to reduce the decline of the environment. Sustainable decision-making in solving energy issues can be supported and contradictory effects can be evaluated by scientific achievements of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. The main goal of this paper is to overview the application of decision-making methods in dealing with sustainable energy development issues. In this study, 105 published papers from the Web of Science Core Collection (WSCC) database are selected and reviewed, from 2004 to 2017, related to energy sustainability issues and MCDM methods. All the selected papers were categorized into 9 fields by the application area and into 10 fields by the used method. After the categorization of the scientific articles and detailed analysis, SWOT analysis of MCDM approaches in dealing with sustainable energy development issues is provided. The widespread application and use of MCDM methods confirm that MCDM methods can help decision-makers in solving energy sustainability problems and are highly popular and used in practice. Full article
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Open AccessReview Data Envelopment Analysis in Energy and Environmental Economics: An Overview of the State-of-the-Art and Recent Development Trends
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082002
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Measurement of environmental and energy economics presents an analytical foundation for environmental decision making and policy analysis. Applications of data envelopment analysis (DEA) models in the assessment of environmental and energy economics are increasing notably. The main objective of this review paper is [...] Read more.
Measurement of environmental and energy economics presents an analytical foundation for environmental decision making and policy analysis. Applications of data envelopment analysis (DEA) models in the assessment of environmental and energy economics are increasing notably. The main objective of this review paper is to provide the comprehensive overview of the application of DEA models in the fields of environmental and energy economics. In this regard, a total 145 articles published in the high-quality international journals extracted from two important databases (Web of Science and Scopus) were selected for review. The 145 selected articles are reviewed and classified based on different criteria including author(s), application scheme, different DEA models, application fields, the name of journals and year of publication. This review article provided insights into the methodological and conceptualization study in the application of DEA models in the environmental and energy economics fields. This study should enable scholars and practitioners to understand the state of art of input and output indicators of DEA in the fields of environmental and energy economics. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessFeature PaperConcept Paper Fuel-Optimal Thrust-Allocation Algorithm Using Penalty Optimization Programing for Dynamic-Positioning-Controlled Offshore Platforms
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082128
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
This research, a new thrust-allocation algorithm based on penalty programming is developed to minimize the fuel consumption of offshore vessels/platforms with dynamic positioning system. The role of thrust allocation is to produce thruster commands satisfying required forces and moments for position-keeping, while fulfilling [...] Read more.
This research, a new thrust-allocation algorithm based on penalty programming is developed to minimize the fuel consumption of offshore vessels/platforms with dynamic positioning system. The role of thrust allocation is to produce thruster commands satisfying required forces and moments for position-keeping, while fulfilling mechanical constraints of the control system. The developed thrust-allocation algorithm is mathematically formulated as an optimization problem for the given objects and constraints of a dynamic positioning system. Penalty programming can solve the optimization problems that have nonlinear object functions and constraints. The developed penalty-programming thrust-allocation method is implemented in the fully-coupled vessel–riser–mooring time-domain simulation code with dynamic positioning control. Its position-keeping and fuel-saving performance is evaluated by comparing with other conventional methods, such as pseudo-inverse, quadratic-programming, and genetic-algorithm methods. In this regard, the fully-coupled time-domain simulation method is applied to a turret-moored dynamic positioning assisted FPSO (floating production storage offloading). The optimal performance of the penalty programming in minimizing fuel consumption in both 100-year and 1-year storm conditions is demonstrated compared to pseudo-inverse and quadratic-programming methods. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Innovative policies and measures to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewables in households
Author: Wadim Strielkowski et al.
Abstract: Energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources (RES) has become one of the major objectives of many governments worldwide. The transition to carbon-free economy imposes many commitments on all actors. However, residential households are the ones that have to accept the responsibility for the energy-efficient future. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the innovative policies and measures aimed at promoting energy efficiency and the use of RES in households.

Title: Internal combustion engine analysis of energy-ecological parameters by SWARA and MULTIMOORA methods
Author: Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas et al.
Abstract: The research object is the internal combustion engine VW-Audi 1Z 1.9 TDI. To study the energy-ecological parameters of this engine by exchanging various parameters. The engine performance was studied at different engine torques (30, 60, 90 Nm) and using different fuels (Diesel, Biodiesel, B5, B10, B15) and changing the angle of rotation of the nozzles (0, 4, 8, 12 °). The problem was modelled within multi-criteria decision making framework and SWARA and neutrosophic MULTIMOORA are applied for solution.

Title: Comparative assessment of Climate change mitigation policies in fuel combustion sector of Lithuania and Bulgaria
Author: Asta Mikalauskiene et al.
Abstract: The paper aims to review and compare progress achieved by Lithuania and Bulgaria in GHG emission reduction for fuel combustion sector. The paper presents comparative assessment of climate change mitigation policies and measures in energy sector of new EU member states by identifying strengths and weak points of implemented climate change mitigation efforts. The policy implications for strengthening GHG emissions reduction efforts are provided based on analysis conducted.

Title: Review of studies on Willingness to pay for climate change mitigation in energy sector
Author: Zaneta Simanaviciene et al.
Abstract: The paper provides comprehensive review of literature on WTP for climate change mitigation in energy sector. The studies on willingness to pay (WTP) for climate policy will be carried based on elicitation techniques and obtained WTP values for specific climate change mitigation options in energy sector: promotion of renewable energy sources, energy efficiency improvements on demand and supply side. The variation of WTP will be compared trying to explain differences and the main drivers of these.  The studies of WTP for climate change mitigation in energy sector were conducted in many countries and for specific measures therefore it is important to define the main strengths and weaknesses of conducted studies and provide policy implications based on conducted review.

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