Special Issue "Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Policies and Strategies in Energy"

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 16061

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Dalia Streimikiene
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Lithuanian Energy Instiute, LT-44403 Kaunas, Lithuania
Interests: sustainable energy development; climate change mitigation in the energy sector; behavioral changes; assessment of willingness to pay
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The climate change mitigation and adaptation issues in the energy sector need more attention as the energy sector is playing a crucial role in terms of the climate agenda. It is important to provide decision support with knowledge on how to incentivize appropriate mitigation and adaptation behavior in the energy sector.

This Special Issue aims to both review and contribute to the state-of-art regarding mitigation and mitigation options in the energy sector, including policies and measures, strategies, and actions in both developing and developed countries. It will foster a discussion of the opportunities and challenges in the energy sector from various perspectives.

Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Mitigation options, strategies, and actions in the energy sector of developed and developing nations;
  • Climate change mitigation policies and measures and their interactions in the energy sector;
  • Adaptation options, strategies and actions in the energy sector;
  • Development of climate change mitigation scenarios in the energy secto;
  • The role of energy in climate change mitigation and adaptation;
  • Multicriteria methods to address climate change mitigation problems in the energy sector;
  • DEA for productivity analysis to address climate change mitigation issues in the energy sector;
  • Decomposition analysis of GHG emissions from the energy sector;
  • MCDA of climate policies, strategies and scenarios in the energy sector.

Prof. Dr. Dalia Streimikiene
Prof. Dr. Tomas Baležentis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Climate is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • greenhouse gas emission trends
  • commitments of parties to UNFCCC
  • climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation
  • energy sector
  • strategies
  • actions, policies and measures

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Climate Change Mitigation Potential of Wind Energy
Climate 2021, 9(9), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9090136 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3156
Abstract
Global wind resources greatly exceed current electricity demand and the levelized cost of energy from wind turbines has shown precipitous declines. Accordingly, the installed capacity of wind turbines grew at an annualized rate of about 14% during the last two decades and wind [...] Read more.
Global wind resources greatly exceed current electricity demand and the levelized cost of energy from wind turbines has shown precipitous declines. Accordingly, the installed capacity of wind turbines grew at an annualized rate of about 14% during the last two decades and wind turbines now provide ~6–7% of the global electricity supply. This renewable electricity generation source is thus already playing a role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. Here we document trends within the industry, examine projections of future installed capacity increases and compute the associated climate change mitigation potential at the global and regional levels. Key countries (the USA, UK and China) and regions (e.g., EU27) have developed ambitious plans to expand wind energy penetration as core aspects of their net-zero emissions strategies. The projected climate change mitigation from wind energy by 2100 ranges from 0.3–0.8 °C depending on the precise socio-economic pathway and wind energy expansion scenario followed. The rapid expansion of annual increments to wind energy installed capacity by approximately two times current rates can greatly delay the passing of the 2 °C warming threshold relative to pre-industrial levels. To achieve the required expansion of this cost-effective, low-carbon energy source, there is a need for electrification of the energy system and for expansion of manufacturing and installation capacity. Full article
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Article
Challenges and Opportunities of Coal Phase-Out in Western Macedonia
Climate 2021, 9(7), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9070115 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
As part of the European Green Deal, the EU aims to become climate-neutral and reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Ιn this context, EU member states are required to develop a national strategy to achieve the required emissions reductions under the Paris [...] Read more.
As part of the European Green Deal, the EU aims to become climate-neutral and reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Ιn this context, EU member states are required to develop a national strategy to achieve the required emissions reductions under the Paris Agreement and EU climate goals. Western Macedonia is a region in North-western Greece with its economy largely dominated by lignite mining, lignite-fired power plants and district heating systems. In 2019, the Greek Government set the goal of withdrawing all lignite plants by 2028, with most units being withdrawn already by 2023. This decision has had an immense socio-economic impact on the region of Western Macedonia. This research work reflects the current situation at the socio-economic and socio-political level in Western Macedonia and discusses the policies implemented in the context of the lignite phase-out process to ensure a just transition for households and businesses of the region. Although there is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ blueprint for successful low-carbon transitions of high-carbon intensive regional economies, the main target of our paper is understanding the impacts, challenges and opportunities of decarbonizing Western Macedonia. Full article
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Article
An Institutional-Based Governance Framework for Energy Efficiency Promotion in Small Island Developing States
Climate 2021, 9(6), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9060095 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
Energy efficiency and conservation policy continues to take the proverbial “backseat” to energy access and renewable energy policy discourses in small island developing states (SIDS). In this study, we intend to motivate the energy efficiency policy agenda to encourage more action. To do [...] Read more.
Energy efficiency and conservation policy continues to take the proverbial “backseat” to energy access and renewable energy policy discourses in small island developing states (SIDS). In this study, we intend to motivate the energy efficiency policy agenda to encourage more action. To do so, we review the current energy challenges in SIDS and the role of energy efficiency in addressing those challenges, discuss the trends in the rate of improvement in energy efficiency in SIDS, exhibit an updated list of energy efficiency programs and initiatives being implemented in SIDS, consider barriers to energy efficiency implementation and set forth a policy-focused plan to accelerate action. Barriers for the adoption of energy efficiency policies continue to be institutional and policy- and governance-oriented; economic and financial; informational; and technical. A four-pronged policy advancement approach tackling initiation, incentivization, information and investment is recommended to tap the potential gains from energy efficiency. We attempt here, based on our findings, to offer a more practically executable plan of action, focusing squarely on combining institutional arrangements, policy requirements and current energy efficiency affairs in SIDS. Full article
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Article
Climate Services for Renewable Energy in the Nordic Electricity Market
Climate 2021, 9(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9030046 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
To limit global warming to less than 2 °C requires a low-carbon transition with very large shares of renewables. Options such as wind, solar and hydro are influenced by both short and longer-term weather and climate variability. While still subject to natural and [...] Read more.
To limit global warming to less than 2 °C requires a low-carbon transition with very large shares of renewables. Options such as wind, solar and hydro are influenced by both short and longer-term weather and climate variability. While still subject to natural and anthropogenic climate forcing and fluctuating energy prices, water reservoirs can dually operate as storage and production facilities and serve to balance the more volatile production capacity from solar and wind. This paper assesses the dynamics and demands of the hydro-dominated Nordic electricity system and market and identifies untapped potential for climate services based on a combination of literature-based research, documented stakeholder needs and data sources on historical and future conditions. A critical need for both improving the appropriateness and reliability of existing climate services and for developing new tailored solutions for a broader group of stakeholders from the renewable energy sector in the Nordics is observed. The quantification of uncertainties related to short-term weather forecasts and longer-term climate predictions is also found to be important for minimizing the financial risk in relation to systems management and to overall investments in renewable energy. Full article
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Communication
Who Is Responsible for Embodied CO2?
Climate 2021, 9(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9030041 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
With the Paris Agreement, countries are obliged to report greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, which will ensure that the global temperature increase is maintained well below 2 °C. The parties will report their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) in terms of plans and progress [...] Read more.
With the Paris Agreement, countries are obliged to report greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, which will ensure that the global temperature increase is maintained well below 2 °C. The parties will report their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) in terms of plans and progress towards these targets during the postponed COP26 (Conference of the Parties under the UNFCCC) in Glasgow in November 2021. These commitments, however, do not take significant portions of the consumption-related emissions related to countries imports into account. Similarly, the majority of companies that report their emissions to CDP (Formerly Carbon Disclosure Project) also do not account for their embodied value-chain-related emissions. Municipalities, on the path towards carbon neutrality in accordance with the methods outlined by C40, also do not include imported and embodied CO2 in their total emission tallies. So, who is responsible for these emissions—the producer or the consumer? How can we ensure that the NDCs, municipalities’ and companies’ reduction targets share the responsibility of the emissions in the value chain, thus ensuring that targets and plans become sustainable, climate fair, and just in global value chains? Today the responsibility lays with the producer, which is not sustainable. We have the outline for the tools needed to quantify and transparently share the responsibility between producers and consumers at corporate, municipal and national levels based on an improved understanding of the attendant sources, causes, flows and risks of GHG emissions globally. Hybrid life cycle analysis/environmentally extended input–output (LCA/EEIO) models can for example be further developed. This will, in the end, enable everyday consumption to support a more sustainable, green and low carbon transition of our economy. Full article
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Article
Sharing Lisboa: A Digital Social Market to Promote Sustainable and Energy Efficient Behaviours
Climate 2021, 9(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020034 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
Several solutions and city planning policies have emerged to promote climate change and sustainable cities. The Sharing Cities program has the ambition of contributing to climate change mitigation by improving urban mobility, energy efficiency in buildings and reducing carbon emissions by successfully engaging [...] Read more.
Several solutions and city planning policies have emerged to promote climate change and sustainable cities. The Sharing Cities program has the ambition of contributing to climate change mitigation by improving urban mobility, energy efficiency in buildings and reducing carbon emissions by successfully engaging citizens and fostering local-level innovation. A Digital Social Market (DSM), named Sharing Lisboa, was developed in Lisbon, Portugal, supported by an application (APP), enabling the exchange of goods and services bringing citizens together to support a common cause: three schools competing during one academic year (2018/2019) to win a final prize with the engagement of school community and surrounding community. Sharing Lisboa aimed to promote behaviour change and the adoption of energy-saving behaviours such as cycling and walking with the support of local businesses. Participants earned points that reverted to the cause (school) they supported. A total of 1260 users was registered in the APP, collecting more than 850,000 points through approximately 17,000 transactions. This paper explores how the DSM has the potential to become a new city service promoting its sustainable development. Furthermore, it is crucial for this concept to reach economic viability through a business model that is both profitable and useful for the city, businesses and citizens, since investment will be required for infrastructure and management of such a market. Full article
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Article
Different Countries, Common Support for Climate Change Mitigation: The Case of Germany and Poland
Climate 2021, 9(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020027 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
There are numerous studies assessing the influence of individual sociological, political, and demographic factors on attitudes towards climate change. However, there is still a need for a deeper understanding of the reasons behind these attitudes and for research based on results from more [...] Read more.
There are numerous studies assessing the influence of individual sociological, political, and demographic factors on attitudes towards climate change. However, there is still a need for a deeper understanding of the reasons behind these attitudes and for research based on results from more than one country. This study empirically examines a range of psychosocial and demographic determinants of support for climate policy (renewable energy, energy efficiency and carbon tax) in Germany and Poland (n = 1969). The results show that the societies of both countries, despite significant differences in income, culture and political stance on climate change, similarly support implementation of climate policies. For both countries valid predictors of support are: awareness, emotional response to climate crisis, sense of control, and belief in effectiveness of solutions; the study also shows predictors relevant in only one country. Factor analysis identified similar dimensions of attitudes toward climate change in both countries. The main findings show that support for climate policy is high in both countries and that the public is ready to accept more ambitious climate goals. Despite the differences between the countries, a coherent climate policy seems justified. The study also shows differences between the countries and provides recommendations for policymakers. Full article
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Article
Effect of Surface Temperature on Energy Consumption in a Calibrated Building: A Case Study of Delhi
Climate 2020, 8(6), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8060071 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Rapid urbanization and associated land-use changes in cities cause an increase in the demand for electricity by altering the local climate. The present study aims to examine the variations in total energy and cooling energy demand in a calibrated building energy model, caused [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization and associated land-use changes in cities cause an increase in the demand for electricity by altering the local climate. The present study aims to examine the variations in total energy and cooling energy demand in a calibrated building energy model, caused by urban heat island formation over Delhi. The study used Sentinel-2A multispectral imagery for land use and land cover (LULC) of mapping of Delhi, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for land surface temperature (LST) mapping during March 2018. It was observed that regions with dense built-up areas (i.e., with built-up area greater than 90%) had a higher annual land surface temperature (LST), i.e., 293.5 K and urban heat island intensity (UHII) ranging from 0.9 K–5.9 K. In contrast, lower annual values of LST (290K) and UHII (0.0–0.4 K) were observed in regions with high vegetation cover (53%). Statistical analysis reveals that a negative correlation exists between vegetation and nighttime LST, which is further confirmed by linear regression analysis. Energy simulations were performed on a calibrated building model placed at three different sites, identified on the basis of land use and land cover percentage and annual LST. Simulation results showed that the site located in the central part of Delhi displayed higher annual energy consumption (255.21 MWh/y) compared to the site located in the rural periphery (235.69 MWh/y). For all the three sites, the maximum electricity consumption was observed in the summer season, while the minimum was seen in the winter season. The study indicates that UHI formation leads to increased energy consumption in buildings, and thus UHI mitigation measures hold great potential for energy saving in a large city like Delhi. Full article
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Review

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Review
Towards Indicators for a Negative Emissions Climate Stabilisation Index: Problems and Prospects
Climate 2020, 8(6), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8060075 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
The incongruence between the United Nations objective to hold global warming well below 2 °C and the rate of global emission reductions has intensified interest in negative emissions. Previous research has explored several pros and cons of individual negative emissions technologies. Systematised approaches [...] Read more.
The incongruence between the United Nations objective to hold global warming well below 2 °C and the rate of global emission reductions has intensified interest in negative emissions. Previous research has explored several pros and cons of individual negative emissions technologies. Systematised approaches to comparing and prioritising among them are, however, largely lacking. In response to this gap in the literature, this article reviews the scientific literature on indicators for designing negative emissions climate stabilisation value indexes. An index typically provides summary measures of several components, often denoted indicators. Utilizing a narrative review methodology, the article derives five categories of indicators underpinned by overlapping and often mutually reinforcing environmental and socio-economic values. A list of 21 indicators are proposed to capture both positive and negative values associated with effectiveness, efficiency, scale, risk, and synergies. While discussing indicators capable of providing guidance on negative emissions is timely, given the emerging shift away from pure emission reduction targets towards net-zero targets, numerous complexities are involved in determining their relative values. The results herein serve to inform policy making on the prioritisation and incentivisation of negative emissions technologies capable of delivering on the new objectives, and the results highlight the many risks and uncertainties involved in such exercises. The article concludes that systematic research on the comparison of NETs is incomplete. An iterative, interdisciplinary research programme exploring such questions has the potential to be extremely rewarding. Full article
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