Special Issue "Analysis and Design of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Power and Energy System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jorge Garcia Website E-Mail
Electrical Engineering Department, Oviedo University, Asturias, Spain
Interests: power electronic converter topologies; control schemes and modeling; integration of power stages; design of magnetic components; gate drivers; energy storage applications; industrial applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The most important environmental challenge today's society is facing is to reduce the effects of CO2 emissions and global warming. Such an ambitious challenge can only be achieved through a holistic approach, capable of tackling the problem from a multidisciplinary point of view.

One of the core technologies called to play a critical role in this approach is the use of energy storage systems. These systems enable, among other things, the balancing of the stochastic behavior of Renewable Sources and Distributed Generation in modern Energy Systems; the efficient supply of industrial and consumer loads; the development of efficient and clean transport; and the development of Nearly-Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) and intelligent cities.

Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS) consist of two (or more) storage devices with complementary key characteristics, that are able to behave jointly with better performance than any of the technologies considered individually. Recent developments in storage device technologies, interface systems, control and monitoring techniques, or visualization and information technologies have driven the implementation of HESS in many industrial, commercial and domestic applications.

This Special Issue focuses on the analysis, design and implementation of hybrid energy storage systems across a broad spectrum, encompassing different storage technologies (including electrochemical, capacitive, mechanical or mechanical storage devices), engineering branches (power electronics and control strategies; energy engineering; energy engineering; chemistry; modelling, simulation and emulation techniques; data analysis and algorithms; social and economic analysis; intelligent and Internet-of-Things (IoT) systems; and so on.), applications (energy systems, renewable energy generation, industrial applications, transportation, Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) and critical load supply, etc.) and evaluation and performance (size and weight benefits, efficiency and power loss, economic analysis, environmental costs, etc.).

Prof. Dr. Jorge Garcia
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hybrid energy storage
  • storage technologies
  • power management
  • renewable energy integration
  • electric transportation
  • power quality
  • smart energy management

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Application Assessment of Pumped Storage and Lithium-Ion Batteries on Electricity Supply Grid
Energies 2019, 12(15), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12152855 - 24 Jul 2019
Abstract
National electricity supply utility in South Africa (Eskom) has been facing challenges to meet load demands in the country. The lack of generation equipment maintenance, increasing load demand and lack of new generation stations has left the country with a shortage of electricity [...] Read more.
National electricity supply utility in South Africa (Eskom) has been facing challenges to meet load demands in the country. The lack of generation equipment maintenance, increasing load demand and lack of new generation stations has left the country with a shortage of electricity supply that leads to load shedding. As a result, alternative renewable energy is required to supplement the national grid. Photovoltaic (PV) solar generation and wind farms are leading in this regard. Sunlight fluctuates throughout the day, thereby causing irradiation which in turn causes the output of the PV plant to become unstable and unreliable. As a result, storage facilities are required to mitigate challenges that come with the integration of PV into the grid or the use of PV independently, off the grid. The same storage system can also be used to supplement the power supply at night time when there is no sunlight and/or during peak hours when the demand is high. Although storage facilities are already in existence, it is important to research their range, applications, highlight new technologies and identify the best economical solution based on present and future plans. The study investigated an improved economic and technical storage system for generation of clean energy systems using solar/PV plants as the base to supplement the grid. In addition, the research aims to provide utilities with the information required for making storage facilities available with an emphasis on capital cost, implementation, operation and maintenance costs. The study solution is expected to be economical and technically proficient in terms of PV output stabilization and provision of extra capacity during peak times. The research technology’s focus includes different storage batteries, pumped storage and other forms of storage such as supercapacitors. The analysis or simulations were carried out using current analytic methods and software, such as HOMER Pro®. The end results provide the power utility in South Africa and abroad with options for energy storage facilities that could stabilise output demand, increase generation capacity and provide backup power. Consumers would have access to power most of the time, thereby reducing generation constraints and eventually the monthly cost of electricity due to renewable energies’ accessibility. Increased access to electricity will contribute to socio-economic development in the country. The proposed solution is environmentally friendly and would alleviate the present crisis of load shedding due to the imbalance of high demand to lower generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling, Simulationand Analysis of On-Board Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Railway Applications
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2199; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112199 - 10 Jun 2019
Abstract
In this paper, a decoupled model of a train including an on-board hybrid accumulation system is presented to be used in DC traction networks. The train and the accumulation system behavior are modeled separately, and the results are then combined in order to [...] Read more.
In this paper, a decoupled model of a train including an on-board hybrid accumulation system is presented to be used in DC traction networks. The train and the accumulation system behavior are modeled separately, and the results are then combined in order to study the effect of the whole system on the traction electrical network. The model is designed specifically to be used with power flow solvers for planning purposes. The validation has been carried out comparing the results with other methods previously developed and also with experimental measurements. A detailed description of the power flow solver is beyond the scope of this work, but it must be remarked that the model must by used with a solver able to cope with the non-linear and non-smooth characteristics of the model. In this specific case, a modified current injection-based power flow solver has been used. The solver is able to incorporate also non-reversible substations, which are the most common devices used currently for feeding DC systems. The effect of the on-board accumulation systems on the network efficiency will be analyzed using different real scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Distributed Control Strategy for Islanded Single-Phase Microgrids with Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Based on Power Line Signaling
Energies 2019, 12(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010085 - 28 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Energy management control is essential to microgrids (MGs), especially to single-phase ones. To handle the variety of distributed generators (DGs) that can be found in a MG, e.g., renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage systems (ESSs), a coordinated power regulation is required. [...] Read more.
Energy management control is essential to microgrids (MGs), especially to single-phase ones. To handle the variety of distributed generators (DGs) that can be found in a MG, e.g., renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage systems (ESSs), a coordinated power regulation is required. The latter are generally battery-based systems whose lifetime is directly related to charge/discharge processes, whereas the most common RESs in a MG are photovoltaic (PV) units. Hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) extend batteries life expectancy, thanks to the effect of supercapacitors, but they also require more complex control strategies. Conventional droop methodologies are usually applied to provide autonomous and coordinated power control. This paper proposes a method for coordination of a single-phase MG composed by a number of sources (HESS, RES, etc.) using power line signaling (PLS). In this distributed control strategy, a signal whose frequency is higher than the grid is broadcasted to communicate with all DGs when the state of charge (SoC) of the batteries reaches a maximum value. This technique prevents batteries from overcharging and maximizes the power contribution of the RESs to the MG. Moreover, different commands apart from the SoC can be broadcasted, just by changing to other frequency bands. The HESS master unit operates as a grid-forming unit, whereas RESs act as grid followers. Supercapacitors in the HESS compensate for energy peaks, while batteries respond smoothly to changes in the load, also expanding its lifetime due to less aggressive power references. In this paper, a control structure that allows the implementation of this strategy in single-phase MGs is presented, with the analysis of the optimal range of PLS frequencies and the required self-adaptive proportional-resonant controllers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Storage Systems for Shipboard Microgrids—A Review
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3492; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123492 - 14 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
In recent years, concerns about severe environmental pollution and fossil fuel consumption has grabbed attention in the transportation industry, particularly in marine vessels. Another key challenge in ships is the fluctuations caused by high dynamic loads. In order to have a higher reliability [...] Read more.
In recent years, concerns about severe environmental pollution and fossil fuel consumption has grabbed attention in the transportation industry, particularly in marine vessels. Another key challenge in ships is the fluctuations caused by high dynamic loads. In order to have a higher reliability in shipboard power systems, presently more generators are kept online operating much below their efficient point. Hence, to improve the fuel efficiency of shipboard power systems, the minimum generator operation with N-1 safety can be considered as a simple solution, a tradeoff between fuel economy and reliability. It is based on the fact that the fewer the number of generators that are brought online, the more load is on each generator such that allowing the generators to run on better fuel efficiency region. In all-electric ships, the propulsion and service loads are integrated to a common network in order to attain improved fuel consumption with lesser emissions in contrast to traditional approaches where propulsion and service loads are fed by separate generators. In order to make the shipboard power system more reliable, integration of energy storage system (ESS) is found out to be an effective solution. Energy storage devices, which are currently being used in several applications consist of batteries, ultra-capacitor, flywheel, and fuel cell. Among the batteries, lithium-ion is one of the most used type battery in fully electric zero-emission ferries with the shorter route (around 5 to 10 km). Hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) are one of the solutions, which can be implemented in high power/energy density applications. In this case, two or more energy storage devices can be hybridized to achieve the benefits from both of them, although it is still a challenge to apply presently such application by a single energy storage device. The aim of this paper is to review several types of energy storage devices that have been extensively used to improve the reliability, fuel consumption, dynamic behavior, and other shortcomings for shipboard power systems. Besides, a summary is conducted to address most of the applied technologies mentioned in the literature with the aim of highlighting the challenges of integrating the ESS in the shipboard microgrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Scheduling of Hybrid Energy Resources for a Smart Home
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3201; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113201 - 18 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The present environmental and economic conditions call for the increased use of hybrid energy resources and, concurrently, recent developments in combined heat and power (CHP) systems enable their use at a domestic level. In this work, the optimal scheduling of electric and gas [...] Read more.
The present environmental and economic conditions call for the increased use of hybrid energy resources and, concurrently, recent developments in combined heat and power (CHP) systems enable their use at a domestic level. In this work, the optimal scheduling of electric and gas energy resources is achieved for a smart home (SH) which is equipped with a fuel cell-based micro-CHP system. The SH energy system has thermal and electrical loops that contain an auxiliary boiler, a battery energy storage system, and an electrical vehicle besides other typical loads. The optimal operational cost of the SH is achieved using the real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) under various scenarios of utility tariff and availability of hybrid energy resources. The results compare different scenarios and point-out the conditions for economic operation of micro-CHP and hybrid energy systems for an SH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Non-Isolated High-Gain Three-Port Converters for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems
Energies 2018, 11(3), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030658 - 15 Mar 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This work carries out a comparison of non-isolated topologies for power electronic converters applied to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems. At the considered application, several options for three-port circuits are evaluated when interfacing a DC link with two distinct electrical energy storage units. This [...] Read more.
This work carries out a comparison of non-isolated topologies for power electronic converters applied to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems. At the considered application, several options for three-port circuits are evaluated when interfacing a DC link with two distinct electrical energy storage units. This work demonstrates how the proposed structure, referred to as Series-Parallel Connection, performs as a simple, compact and reliable approach, based on a modification of the H-bridge configuration. The main advantage of this solution is that an effective large voltage gain at one of the ports is attained by means of a simple topology, preventing the use of multilevel or galvanic-isolated power stages. The resulting structure is thoroughly compared against the most significant direct alternatives. The analysis carried out on the switching and conduction losses in the power switches of the target solution states the design constraints at which this solution shows a performance improvement. The experimental validations carried out on a 10 kW prototype demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme, stating its benefits as well as its main limitations. As a conclusion, the Series-Parallel Connection shows a better performance in terms of efficiency, reliability and controllability in the target application of compensating grid or load variations in Non-Isolated Hybrid Storage Systems, with large mismatch in the storage device voltage ratings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems)
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