Special Issue "Active Regional Energy Systems and Microgrids"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam
Website
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. João P. S. Catalão
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
Interests: power system operations and planning; hydrothermal scheduling and wind/price forecasting; power system economics and electricity markets; risk analysis, uncertainty, and stochastic programming; renewable energies and demand-side management
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The shift towards an active energy grid (AEG) dominated by prosumers will inevitably affect the way that energy is locally produced, distributed, and consumed. In this transition, regional energy systems and microgrids can play a major role by hosting the needed drivers, such as the increasing uptake of new and emerging technologies for decentralized energy systems, the boosting digitalization and associated business models, as well as future societal trends. These active energy networks can also provide optimized solutions for better integration of distributed energy sources and higher system flexibility through involving different energy carriers as well as utilizing local energy storage options and responsive loads. Technological service systems, as inseparable parts of AEGs, could also support/facilitate dynamic business processes and provide suitable business models for serving different market participants, such as individual consumers and prosumers, system operators, facility managers, energy suppliers, service providers, and aggregators.

This Special Issue aims to cover the most recent technical advances and dynamic areas of research and development in all AEG aspects, including design, operation, control, and optimization. Both theoretical derivations or practical development of active regional energy systems and microgrids are welcomed. Reviews and surveys of the state-of-the-art in AEGs are also welcomed.

Topics of interest to this Special Issue include but are not limited to:

  • Planning and operation of active energy networks and microgrids
  • Control and protection of AEGs
  • Energy hubs and multicarrier energy systems
  • Integrated energy systems and microgrids clusters
  • Regional energy system regulatory frameworks, markets, and ancillary services
  • Risk modeling and management in AEGs
  • Micro- and nano-energy systems and technologies
  • Energy conversion, storage, and management
  • Modelling and optimization of AEGs
  • Distributed generation resources
  • Transactive energy
  • Energy forecasting
  • Energy resource management
  • Renewable technology assessment and management
  • Flexible demand and energy storages
  • Cyberphysical systems, information and communication infrastructure, and data analytics
  • Real-world practical applications of regional energy system and microgrids.

 

Dr. Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam
Prof. Dr. João P. S. Catalão
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Simulation and Characteristics Analysis of Multiple Wind Generators in Large-Scale Wind Farms Based on Simplified Model
Electronics 2020, 9(12), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9121994 - 25 Nov 2020
Abstract
In the view of the high complexity and a large amount of data of the electromagnetic transient model for the single wind generator, it is difficult to realize the multi-unit simulation modeling of large-scale wind farms by power system simulation software. In this [...] Read more.
In the view of the high complexity and a large amount of data of the electromagnetic transient model for the single wind generator, it is difficult to realize the multi-unit simulation modeling of large-scale wind farms by power system simulation software. In this paper, the simplified models of single direct drive and doubly-fed wind generator system are proposed, respectively. In order to study the output characteristics of the wind generator system, the components with small inertia constant in the electromagnetic transient model are neglected, and the shafting model, the converter model, and the control loops are simplified and reduced, respectively. Based on the study of the single electromagnetic transient model of wind generators, the simplified simulation models are built by the PSCAD (Power Systems Computer Aided Design) simulation platform, which are carried out under the conditions of constant wind speed, step wind speed, and fault. The output characteristics of the simplified models under different working conditions are compared in detail models. The simulation results show that, within the allowable calculation accuracy range, the dynamic response curves of the single simplified model and the electromagnetic transient model are consistent. The simulation speed can be significantly improved, the time consumption can be reduced, and the simulation speed can be increased more obviously when the number of simulation models increases. Therefore, it can be applied to the simulation research of multi-wind generators in large-scale wind farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Regional Energy Systems and Microgrids)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Dynamic Modelling of PV-Battery Hybrid Systems for Custom Electromagnetic Transient Simulation
Electronics 2020, 9(10), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9101651 - 11 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Battery energy storage systems (BESS) can alleviate the unstable effects of intermittent renewable energy systems, such as solar and wind power systems. In addition, a BESS can level the load of the existing utility grid. The penetration rate of this type of system [...] Read more.
Battery energy storage systems (BESS) can alleviate the unstable effects of intermittent renewable energy systems, such as solar and wind power systems. In addition, a BESS can level the load of the existing utility grid. The penetration rate of this type of system is expected to increase in the future power grid, i.e., the microgrid. In this paper, a modeling technique is proposed that allows users to customize the photovoltaic (PV) battery hybrid systems. A dynamic power system computer-aided design/electromagnetic transients including DC system (PSCAD/EMTDC) model of a PV battery hybrid system is presented in this paper. Dynamic modeling of PV arrays, BESS, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, and bidirectional converters are provided as well. The PV model, battery model, and MPPT control model are designed using a user-defined model (UDM) for custom electromagnetic transient simulation. A control method for stabilizing the output of the PV battery hybrid system is proposed. Finally, a PSCAD/EMTDC simulation is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the operating algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Regional Energy Systems and Microgrids)
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Open AccessArticle
Bi-Level Operation Scheduling of Distribution Systems with Multi-Microgrids Considering Uncertainties
Electronics 2020, 9(9), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9091441 - 03 Sep 2020
Abstract
A bi-level operation scheduling of distribution system operator (DSO) and multi-microgrids (MMGs) considering both the wholesale market and retail market is presented in this paper. To this end, the upper-level optimization problem minimizes the total costs from DSO’s point of view, while the [...] Read more.
A bi-level operation scheduling of distribution system operator (DSO) and multi-microgrids (MMGs) considering both the wholesale market and retail market is presented in this paper. To this end, the upper-level optimization problem minimizes the total costs from DSO’s point of view, while the profits of microgrids (MGs) are maximized in the lower-level optimization problem. Besides, a scenario-based stochastic programming framework using the heuristic moment matching (HMM) method is developed to tackle the uncertain nature of the problem. In this regard, the HMM technique is employed to model the scenario matrix with a reduced number of scenarios, which is effectively suitable to achieve the correlations among uncertainties. In order to solve the proposed non-linear bi-level model, Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions and linearization techniques are employed to transform the bi-level problem into a single-level mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated on a real-test MMG system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Regional Energy Systems and Microgrids)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Energy Community Implementation: The Unical Energy Cloud
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121517 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, limiting the effects of climate change and decreasing the environmental, social and economic costs of energy production are some of the main issues related to the sustainable development of modern society. Energy communities, envisioned to enable local energy exchange [...] Read more.
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, limiting the effects of climate change and decreasing the environmental, social and economic costs of energy production are some of the main issues related to the sustainable development of modern society. Energy communities, envisioned to enable local energy exchange between consumers and producers of renewable energy, represent a possible scenario towards a cleaner and sustainable energy system. In this paper, an energy community management model called Power Cloud and presented in previous papers is proposed for a real-world practical application at the University of Calabria. In particular, the implementation of the information and communication technology (ICT) architecture and other enabling technologies, such as the nanogrid and the smart energy box, are discussed in detail. The experiment results show that by adopting the Power Cloud management model it is possible to obtain significant savings in terms of energy cost, which provide benefit for a community, such as a university campus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Regional Energy Systems and Microgrids)
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Open AccessArticle
Sub-Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Regional Energy Systems: A Bi-Level Approach
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121416 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In order to facilitate the transformation of the existing generation and transmission networks’ structure into a scalable and competitive grid structure, this paper introduced regional energy systems (RGESs) that have the role of aggregating distributed energy resources (DERs) and flexible loads. The economic [...] Read more.
In order to facilitate the transformation of the existing generation and transmission networks’ structure into a scalable and competitive grid structure, this paper introduced regional energy systems (RGESs) that have the role of aggregating distributed energy resources (DERs) and flexible loads. The economic justification for the expansion of sub-transmission networks in the presence of regional energy systems was also investigated. To achieve this goal, multi-criteria optimization solutions were employed to find techno-economic solutions. While solving the proposed multi-criteria optimization problem, a Pareto front was determined to show the tradeoff between the criteria examined. In addition, fuzzy satisfying and the max-min method were used for finding equilibrium point. In order to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed model, a realistic sub-transmission system in Guilan Province, Iran, was used as a test system and the results were compared to those from a traditional sub-transmission expansion planning model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Regional Energy Systems and Microgrids)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Optimal Design of a Wide Area Measurement System Using Hybrid Wireless Sensors and Phasor Measurement Units
Electronics 2019, 8(10), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8101085 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Real-time monitoring of the power system by phasor measurement units (PMUs) leads to the development of such devices in a wide area measurement system (WAMS). However, the power system observability cannot be obtained by employing only PMUs. The communication infrastructure (CI) is a [...] Read more.
Real-time monitoring of the power system by phasor measurement units (PMUs) leads to the development of such devices in a wide area measurement system (WAMS). However, the power system observability cannot be obtained by employing only PMUs. The communication infrastructure (CI) is a significant part of the WAMS that has to be optimally designed and implemented to collect data from PMUs and deliver them to control centers. In this paper, a novel hybrid wireless sensor network is proposed for the connection of PMUs throughout the system to enable convenient and low-cost communication media. The problem of observability in the communication system is checked along with the optimal placement of PMUs in the power system to reach full observability. A hybrid wireless sensor network including plug-in powered sensor nodes (PPSNs) and energy harvesting sensor nodes (EHSNs) is utilized for increasing the reliability of the communication system. In the proposed co-optimal PMU-sensor placement problem, the main objective is to minimize the total cost of PMU placement and the related communication system, considering full observability of the power system and CI. To achieve better results, the zero-injection bus (ZIB) effect and system observability redundancy index (SORI) are considered as a constraint in the objective function. A binary-coded genetic algorithm is used for solving the proposed mixed-objective optimization problem subject to different technical operating constraints. The proposed method is examined on IEEE 13-bus and IEEE 37-bus test feeder systems. The results show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method compared with the conventional methods in this subject area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Regional Energy Systems and Microgrids)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Risk-Constrained Stochastic Scheduling of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Microgrid with Variable Wind Power Generation
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050577 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper presents a risk-constrained scheduling optimization model for a grid-connected hybrid microgrid including demand response (DR), electric vehicles (EVs), variable wind power generation and dispatchable generation units. The proposed model determines optimal scheduling of dispatchable units, interactions with the main grid as [...] Read more.
This paper presents a risk-constrained scheduling optimization model for a grid-connected hybrid microgrid including demand response (DR), electric vehicles (EVs), variable wind power generation and dispatchable generation units. The proposed model determines optimal scheduling of dispatchable units, interactions with the main grid as well as adjustable responsive loads and EVs demand to maximize the expected microgrid operator’s profit under different scenarios. The uncertainties of day-ahead (DA) market prices, wind power production and demands of customers and EVs are considered in this study. To address these uncertainties, conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) as a risk measurement tool is added to the optimization model to evaluate the risk of profit loss and to indicate decision attitudes in different conditions. The proposed method is finally applied to a typical hybrid microgrid with flexible demand-side resources and its applicability and effectives are verified over different working conditions with uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Regional Energy Systems and Microgrids)
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