Special Issue "Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microelectronics and Optoelectronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Qiliang Li

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: semiconductor; nanowire; graphene; field effect transistor; sensors; device modeling; first-principle calculation; quantum materials and information
Guest Editor
Prof. Hao Zhu

School of Microelectronics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Rd, Shanghai 200433, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: 2D chalcogenide materials; nanowire devices; topological insulator; non-volatile memory; molecular electronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

CMOS scaling is approaching the fundamental physical limits. This Special Issue aims to present scholarly papers that address the need for new nanoelectronic materials and devices to extend and/or replace current electronic devices and circuitry. The focus is on new concepts and knowledge in nanoscience and nanotechnology for applications in logic, memory, sensors, photonics and renewable energy. With the emerging need for various wearable and portable electronics, flexible devices and smart circuits with multiple functions and interdisciplinary aspects are welcome in this issue. In addition, the integration and application of new electronic devices in a stand-alone system will be one of the important topics. This Special Issue aims to solicit original research papers, as well as review articles, with a focus on theoretical approaches, numerical simulations and experimental studies on nanoelectronic materials and devices for various novel applications.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Synthesis of functional materials
  • Design and fabrication of nanoelectronic devices
  • Advanced transistor technologies
  • Photonics, optoelectronic sensors, light emitting devices
  • Chemical sensors, gas sensors, biosensors
  • Renewable energy, energy harvesting, energy storage
  • Two-dimensional materials, such as MoS2, WSe2 and so on.
  • Graphene, double-layer graphene and graphene oxides
  • Nanowires and Nanotubes
  • III-V semiconductors and Ge materials and devices
  • Reliability of advanced nanoelectronic devices
  • Device modeling and numerical simulation
  • First-principle calculation of novel materials and devices
  • Progress in modeling methodology and approaches
  • Application of electronic devices in a system, such as wearable electronics and unmanned aerial/ground vehicles.

Prof. Qiliang Li
Prof. Hao Zhu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Synthesis of functional materials
  • Design and fabrication of nanoelectronic devices
  • Advanced transistor technologies
  • Photonics, optoelectronic sensors, light emitting devices
  • Chemical sensors, gas sensors, biosensors
  • Renewable energy, energy harvesting, energy storage
  • Two-dimensional materials, such as MoS2, WSe2 and so on.
  • Graphene, double-layer graphene and graphene oxides
  • Nanowires and Nanotubes
  • III-V semiconductors and Ge materials and devices
  • Reliability of advanced nanoelectronic devices
  • Device modeling and numerical simulation
  • First-principle calculation of novel materials and devices
  • Progress in modeling methodology and approaches
  • Application of electronic devices in a system, such as wearable electronics and unmanned aerial/ground vehicles

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Optimization of Line-Tunneling Type L-Shaped Tunnel Field-Effect-Transistor for Steep Subthreshold Slope
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110275
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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Abstract
The L-shaped tunneling field-effect-transistor (LTFET) has been recently introduced to overcome the thermal subthreshold limit of conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFET). In this work, the shortcomings of the LTFET was investigated. It was found that the corner effect present in the LTFET effectively degrades
[...] Read more.
The L-shaped tunneling field-effect-transistor (LTFET) has been recently introduced to overcome the thermal subthreshold limit of conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFET). In this work, the shortcomings of the LTFET was investigated. It was found that the corner effect present in the LTFET effectively degrades its subthreshold slope. To avoid the corner effect, a new type of device with dual material gates is presented. The new device, termed the dual-gate (DG) LTEFT (DG-LTFET), avoids the corner effect and results in a significantly improved subthreshold slope of less than 10 mV/dec, and an improved ON/OFF current ratio over the LTFET. The DG-LTFET was evaluated for different device parameters and bench-marked against the LTFET. This work presents the optimum configuration of the DG-LTFET in terms of device dimensions and doping levels to determine the best subthreshold, ON current, and ambipolar performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle A New Method of the Pattern Storage and Recognition in Oscillatory Neural Networks Based on Resistive Switches
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100266
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
Development of neuromorphic systems based on new nanoelectronics materials and devices is of immediate interest for solving the problems of cognitive technology and cybernetics. Computational modeling of two- and three-oscillator schemes with thermally coupled VO2-switches is used to demonstrate a novel
[...] Read more.
Development of neuromorphic systems based on new nanoelectronics materials and devices is of immediate interest for solving the problems of cognitive technology and cybernetics. Computational modeling of two- and three-oscillator schemes with thermally coupled VO2-switches is used to demonstrate a novel method of pattern storage and recognition in an impulse oscillator neural network (ONN), based on the high-order synchronization effect. The method allows storage of many patterns, and their number depends on the number of synchronous states Ns. The modeling demonstrates attainment of Ns of several orders both for a three-oscillator scheme Ns ~ 650 and for a two-oscillator scheme Ns ~ 260. A number of regularities are obtained, in particular, an optimal strength of oscillator coupling is revealed when Ns has a maximum. Algorithms of vector storage, network training, and test vector recognition are suggested, where the parameter of synchronization effectiveness is used as a degree of match. It is shown that, to reduce the ambiguity of recognition, the number coordinated in each vector should be at least one unit less than the number of oscillators. The demonstrated results are of a general character, and they may be applied in ONNs with various mechanisms and oscillator coupling topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Ultraviolet Irradiation Effects on luminescent Centres in Bismuth-Doped and Bismuth-Erbium Co-Doped Optical Fibers via Atomic Layer Deposition
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100259
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The effects of ultraviolet irradiation on luminescent centres in bismuth-doped (BDF) and bismuth/erbium co-doped (BEDF) optical fibers were examined in this study. The fibers were fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition combining with atomic layer deposition method. The fibers were exposed to irradiation
[...] Read more.
The effects of ultraviolet irradiation on luminescent centres in bismuth-doped (BDF) and bismuth/erbium co-doped (BEDF) optical fibers were examined in this study. The fibers were fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition combining with atomic layer deposition method. The fibers were exposed to irradiation from a 193 nm pulsed wave argon fluoride laser, and an 830 nm wavelength laser diode pump source was employed for excitation. The experimental results showed that, for the BDF, the transmission loss was slightly reduced and the luminescence intensity was increased at the bismuth-related active aluminum centre (BAC-Al). Then, for the BEDF, the transmission loss was increased a little and the luminescence intensity was also increased at the BAC-Al centre. However, the luminescence intensity was decreased at approximately 1420 nm of the bismuth-related active silica centre (BAC-Si) for all fiber samples. One possible formation mechanism for luminescence intensity changes was probably associated with the valence state transfer of bismuth ions. The other possible mechanism was that the ArF-driven two-photon process caused luminescence changes in BAC-Al and BAC-Si. It was very important to reveal nature of luminescence properties of Bi-doped and Bi/Er co-doped optical fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle High Performance Graphene-Based Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors Using 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris (pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate Ionic Liquid as an Electrolyte
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100229
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
There are several advantages to developing electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLC) or supercapacitors with high specific energy densities, for example, these can be used in applications related to quality power generation, voltage stabilization, and frequency regulation. In this regard, ionic liquids capable of providing
[...] Read more.
There are several advantages to developing electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLC) or supercapacitors with high specific energy densities, for example, these can be used in applications related to quality power generation, voltage stabilization, and frequency regulation. In this regard, ionic liquids capable of providing a higher voltage window of operations compared to an aqueous and/or polymer electrolyte can significantly enhance the specific energy densities of EDLCs. Here we demonstrate that EDLCs fabricated using ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris (pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate (BMP-FAP) as an electrolyte and few layer liquid-phase exfoliated graphene as electrodes show remarkable performance compared to EDLC devices fabricated with aqueous potassium hydroxide (6M) as well as widely used ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). We found that graphene EDLC’s with BMP-FAP as an electrolyte possess a high specific energy density of ≈25 Wh/kg along with specific capacitance values as high as 200 F/g and having an operating voltage windows of >5 volts with a rapid charge transfer response. These findings strongly indicate the suitability of BMP-FAP as a good choice of electrolyte for high energy density EDLC devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Simulation Analysis in Sub-0.1 μm for Partial Isolation Field-Effect Transistors
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100227
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we extensively analyzed the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and leakage current characteristics of the proposed partial isolation field-effect transistor (PiFET) structure. We then compared the PiFET with the conventional planar metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and silicon on insulator (SOI)
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we extensively analyzed the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and leakage current characteristics of the proposed partial isolation field-effect transistor (PiFET) structure. We then compared the PiFET with the conventional planar metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and silicon on insulator (SOI) structures, even though they have the same doping profile. Two major features of the PiFET are potential condensation and potential modulation by a buried insulator. The potential modulation near the drain region can control the electric field in the overlapped region of the drain and gate, because it causes a high gate-fringing field. Therefore, we suggest guidelines with respect to the optimal PiFET structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Multichannel and Multistate All-Optical Switch Using Quantum-Dot and Sample-Grating Semiconductor Optical Amplifier
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090166
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
A novel type of multichannel and multistate all-optical switch using a single sample-grating quantum-dot-distributed feedback semiconductor optical amplifier has been proposed and theoretically demonstrated. The multichannel device, which operates below threshold, utilizes cross-gain modulation and the sample-grating technique. The multichannel outputs are strongly
[...] Read more.
A novel type of multichannel and multistate all-optical switch using a single sample-grating quantum-dot-distributed feedback semiconductor optical amplifier has been proposed and theoretically demonstrated. The multichannel device, which operates below threshold, utilizes cross-gain modulation and the sample-grating technique. The multichannel outputs are strongly coupled and are utilized to get multistability at several wavelength channels. Three logic states can be obtained when the inputs are properly detuned to the sample-grating comb modes. The three logic states, which exhibit reasonable gain, are separated by wide hysteresis width and can be tuned to a different wavelength channels. The device characteristics are very useful for building all-optical logic gates, flip-flops, and decision circuits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Analog Memristive Characteristics and Conditioned Reflex Study Based on Au/ZnO/ITO Devices
Electronics 2018, 7(8), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7080141
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
As the fourth basic electronic component, the application fields of the memristive devices are diverse. The digital resistive switching with sudden resistance change is suitable for the applications of information storage, while the analog memristive devices with gradual resistance change are required in
[...] Read more.
As the fourth basic electronic component, the application fields of the memristive devices are diverse. The digital resistive switching with sudden resistance change is suitable for the applications of information storage, while the analog memristive devices with gradual resistance change are required in the neural system simulation. In this paper, a transparent device of ZnO films deposited by the magnetron sputtering on indium tin oxides (ITO) glass was firstly prepared and found to show typical analog memristive switching behaviors, including an I–V curve that exhibits a ‘pinched hysteresis loops’ fingerprint. The conductive mechanism of the device was discussed, and the LTspice model was built to emulate the pinched hysteresis loops of the I–V curve. Based on the LTspice model and the Pavlov training circuit, a conditioned reflex experiment has been successfully completed both in the computer simulation and the physical analog circuits. The prepared device also displayed synapses-like characteristics, in which resistance decreased and gradually stabilized with time under the excitation of a series of voltage pulse signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle CMOS Compatible Bio-Realistic Implementation with Ag/HfO2-Based Synaptic Nanoelectronics for Artificial Neuromorphic System
Electronics 2018, 7(6), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7060080
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The emerging resistive switching devices have attracted broad interest as promising candidates for future memory and computing applications. Particularly, it is believed that memristor-based neuromorphic engineering promises to enable efficient artificial neuromorphic systems. In this work, the synaptic abilities are demonstrated in HfO
[...] Read more.
The emerging resistive switching devices have attracted broad interest as promising candidates for future memory and computing applications. Particularly, it is believed that memristor-based neuromorphic engineering promises to enable efficient artificial neuromorphic systems. In this work, the synaptic abilities are demonstrated in HfO2-based resistive memories for their multi-level storage capability as well as being compatible with advanced CMOS technology. Both inert metal (TaN) and active metal (Ag) are selected as top electrodes (TE) to mimic the abilities of a biological synapse. HfO2-based resistive memories with active TE exhibit great advantages in bio-realistic implementation such as suitable switching speed, low power and multilevel switching. Moreover, key features of a biological synapse such as short-term/long-term memory, “learning and forgetting”, long-term potentiation/depression, and the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) rule are implemented in a single Ag/HfO2/Pt synaptic device without the poorly scalable software and tedious process in transistors-based artificial neuromorphic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle A Hierarchical Vision-Based UAV Localization for an Open Landing
Electronics 2018, 7(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7050068
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
The localization of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for autonomous landing is challenging because the relative positions of the landing objects are almost inaccessible and the objects have nearly no transmission with UAVs. In this paper, a hierarchical vision-based localization framework for rotor UAVs
[...] Read more.
The localization of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for autonomous landing is challenging because the relative positions of the landing objects are almost inaccessible and the objects have nearly no transmission with UAVs. In this paper, a hierarchical vision-based localization framework for rotor UAVs is proposed for an open landing. In such a hierarchical framework, the landing is defined into three phases: “Approaching”, “Adjustment”, and “Touchdown”. Object features at different scales can be extracted from a designed Robust and Quick Response Landing Pattern (RQRLP) and the corresponding detection and localization methods are introduced for the three phases. Then a federated Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) structure is costumed and utilizes the solutions of the three phases as independent measurements to estimate the pose of the vehicle. The framework can be used to integrate the vision solutions and enables the estimation to be smooth and robust. In the end, several typical field experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed hierarchical vision framework. It can be seen that a wider localization range can be extended by the proposed framework while the precision is ensured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Device Applications of Synthetic Topological Insulator Nanostructures
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100225
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
This review briefly describes the development of synthetic topological insulator materials in the application of advanced electronic devices. As a new class of quantum matter, topological insulators with insulating bulk and conducting surface states have attracted attention in more and more research fields
[...] Read more.
This review briefly describes the development of synthetic topological insulator materials in the application of advanced electronic devices. As a new class of quantum matter, topological insulators with insulating bulk and conducting surface states have attracted attention in more and more research fields other than condensed matter physics due to their intrinsic physical properties, which provides an excellent basis for novel nanoelectronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic device applications. In comparison to the mechanically exfoliated samples, the newly emerging topological insulator nanostructures prepared with various synthetical approaches are more intriguing because the conduction contribution of the surface states can be significantly enhanced due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio, better manifesting the unique properties of the gapless surface states. So far, these synthetic topological insulator nanostructures have been implemented in different electrically accessible device platforms via electrical, magnetic and optical characterizations for material investigations and device applications, which will be introduced in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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