Special Issue "Energy Harvesting and Storage Applications"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Soobum Lee
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland at Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA
Interests: energy harvesting; design optimization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is proposed to encourage further research and development of energy harvesters as mobile and remote power sources.

Development of energy harvesting devices should be carefully planned considering their target application. Powering wireless sensor nodes is one of the most attractive applications of energy harvesting technology for various monitoring purposes for large-scale structures and machines such as bridges, railroad, wind turbines, and naval platforms, as well as biosystems, such as the human body and/or animals. An energy harvester needs to be designed to meet the power requirements of the application (e.g. sensor), and integrated with a power management circuit for maximum power conversion and seamless sensor operation.

Original contributions including the state-of-the-art, point out the benefits of emerging technologies, experimental studies, or investigate the novel schemes and applications are welcome to submit. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Integration of wireless sensor nodes with energy harvesters
  • Power management circuit and power storage
  • Battery science for minimum leakage
  • Novel energy harvesting concept to meet the power requirements of a specific application(s)
Dr. Soobum Lee

Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • power management circuit
  • integration with wireless sensors
  • energy storage for harvesters
  • vibration energy harvesting
  • thermoelectric energy harvesting
  • system monitoring powered by energy harvesters
  • biosystem applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Energy Harvesting Backpacks for Human Load Carriage: Modelling and Performance Evaluation
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071061 - 28 Jun 2020
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for portable power sources as people are required to carry more equipment for occupational, military, or recreational purposes. The energy harvesting backpack that moves relative to the human body, could capture kinetic energy from [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for portable power sources as people are required to carry more equipment for occupational, military, or recreational purposes. The energy harvesting backpack that moves relative to the human body, could capture kinetic energy from human walking and convert vertical oscillation into the rotational motion of the generators to generate electricity. In our previous work, a light-weight tube-like energy harvester (TL harvester) and a traditional frequency-tuneable backpack-based energy harvester (FT harvester) were proposed. In this paper, we discuss the power generation performance of the two types of energy harvesters and the energy performance of human loaded walking, while carrying energy harvesting backpacks, based on two different spring-mass-damper models. Testing revealed that the electrical power in the experiments showed similar trends to the simulation results, but the calculated electrical power and the net metabolic power were higher than that of the experiments. Moreover, the total cost of harvesting (TCOH), defined as additional metabolic power in watt required to generate 1 W of electrical power, could be negative, which indicated that there is a chance to generate 6.11 W of electricity without increasing the metabolic cost while carrying energy harvesting backpacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Storage Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Transient Modeling of the Thermoelectric Generators for Application in Wireless Sensor Network Nodes
Electronics 2020, 9(6), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9061015 - 18 Jun 2020
Abstract
This paper reports results of the transient modeling of thermoelectric cooling/heating modules as power generators with the aim to select preferable ones for use in thermal energy harvesting wireless sensor network nodes. A study is conducted using the selected commercial thermoelectric generators within [...] Read more.
This paper reports results of the transient modeling of thermoelectric cooling/heating modules as power generators with the aim to select preferable ones for use in thermal energy harvesting wireless sensor network nodes. A study is conducted using the selected commercial thermoelectric generators within the node of a compact design with aluminum PCBs. Their equivalent electro-thermal models suitable for SPICE-like simulators are presented. Model components are extracted from the geometrical, physical and thermo-electrical parameters and/or experimentally. SPICE simulation results mismatch within 7% in comparison with the experimental measurements. The presented model is used for the characterization of different thermoelectric generators within the wireless sensor network node from the aspects of harvesting efficiency, cold boot time, node dimensions and compactness, and maximum applicable temperature. The choice of the preferred generator is determined by its electrical resistance, the number of thermoelectric pairs, external area and thermoelectric legs length, depending on the primary design goal and imposed thermal operating conditions. The node can provide load power of 1.3 m W and the cold boot time of 66 s for generator with 31 thermoelectric pairs at a temperature difference of 15 ° C with respect to the ambient, and 7.6 m W of load power and the cold boot time of 40 s for generator with 71 thermoelectric pairs at a temperature difference of 25 ° C . Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Storage Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement of Naturally Occurring Bi and Chitosan Composite Films Using Energy Efficient Method
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030532 - 23 Mar 2020
Abstract
This work presents an energy efficient technique for fabricating flexible thermoelectric generators while using printable ink. We have fabricated thermoelectric composite thick films using two different mesh sizes of n-type bismuth particles, various binder to thermoelectric material weight ratios, and two different pressures, [...] Read more.
This work presents an energy efficient technique for fabricating flexible thermoelectric generators while using printable ink. We have fabricated thermoelectric composite thick films using two different mesh sizes of n-type bismuth particles, various binder to thermoelectric material weight ratios, and two different pressures, 200 MPa and 300 MPa, in order to optimize the thermoelectric properties of the composite films. The use of chitosan dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide with less than 0.2 wt. % of chitosan, the first time chitosan has been used in this process, was sufficient for fabricating TE inks and composite films. Low temperature curing processes, along with uniaxial pressure, were used to evaporate the solvent from the drop-casted inks. This combination reduced the temperature needed compared to traditional curing processes while simultaneously increasing the packing density of the film by removing the pores and voids in the chitosan-bismuth composite film. Microstructural analysis of the composite films reveals low amounts of voids and pores when pressed at sufficiently high pressures. The highest performing composite film was obtained with the weight ratio of 1:2000 binder to bismuth, 100-mesh particle size, and 300 MPa of pressure. The best performing bismuth chitosan composite film that was pressed at 300 MPa had a power factor of 4009 ± 391 μW/m K2 with high electrical conductivity of 7337 ± 522 S/cm. The measured thermal conductivity of this same sample was 4.4 ± 0.8 W/m K and the corresponding figure of merit was 0.27 at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Storage Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Analytic Power Estimation of the Electromagnetic Resonant Energy Harvester for the High-Speed Train
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030403 - 28 Feb 2020
Abstract
This study is intended to identify the applicability of energy harvesting technologies that are regarded as new electrical power sources for the sensors on high-speed trains. The analytic estimation research is conducted on the amount of electric energy harvested from the high-speed trains, [...] Read more.
This study is intended to identify the applicability of energy harvesting technologies that are regarded as new electrical power sources for the sensors on high-speed trains. The analytic estimation research is conducted on the amount of electric energy harvested from the high-speed trains, operating at a maximum speed of over 400km/h to verify the applicability of the energy harvesting technology converting the vibration energy of axle and bogie into electric power. Based on the data of the vibration acceleration on the axles and bogies, which were measured by using a 500 Hz analog filter, an analytic estimation on the amount of power harvested by an electromagnetic resonant harvester is conducted through the analysis of the main frequency. The power of the electromagnetic resonant harvester is based on a theoretical model of the mass-spring-damper system, and the harvested power from the axles and bogies in the vertical direction is analytically estimated in this study. The analytic calculations typically give the target value for the final performance of the electromagnetic resonant energy harvester. The targets of the analytic estimations are given to provide the basis for the detailed design and to give a basis for defining the basic design parameters of the electromagnetic resonant energy harvester. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Storage Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Structural Performance and Integrity for Vibration-based Energy Harvester in Frequency Domain
Electronics 2020, 9(2), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9020357 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
A vibration-based energy harvester (VEH) utilizes vibrations originated from various structures and specifically maximizes the displacement of its moving parts, using the resonance between the frequency of external vibration loads from the structure and the natural frequency of VEH to improve power production [...] Read more.
A vibration-based energy harvester (VEH) utilizes vibrations originated from various structures and specifically maximizes the displacement of its moving parts, using the resonance between the frequency of external vibration loads from the structure and the natural frequency of VEH to improve power production efficiency. This study presents the procedure to evaluate the structural performance and structural integrity of VEH utilized in a railway vehicle under frequency domain. First of all, a structural performance test was performed to identify the natural frequency and assess the structural response in frequency domain. Then, the static structural analysis was carried out using FE analysis to investigate the failure critical locations (FCLs) and effect of resonance. Finally, we conducted a frequency response analysis to identify the structural response and investigate the structural integrity in frequency domain. Based on these results, the authors assessed the structural performance and integrity of VEHs in two versions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Storage Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Powered Operational Amplifying System with a Bipolar Voltage Generator Using a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010041 - 27 Dec 2019
Abstract
Piezoelectric devices previously studied usually generated a single voltage to power an electronic device. However, depending on the user’s purpose, the electronic device may need dual power supply. Here, we report a self-powered bipolar voltage generator using a piezoelectric energy harvester with two [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric devices previously studied usually generated a single voltage to power an electronic device. However, depending on the user’s purpose, the electronic device may need dual power supply. Here, we report a self-powered bipolar voltage generator using a piezoelectric energy harvester with two piezoelectric devices. When a force is applied to the piezoelectric energy harvester, the two piezoelectric devices separately supply positive and negative voltages to the operational amplifier that requires dual power supply to amplify an AC signal that have positive and negative polarity. At the same time, the harvester supplies additional power to an electronic device through a DC-to-DC converter with an output voltage of 3.3 V. This technique proves the feasibility of applying the piezoelectric energy harvester to operational amplifying systems in the field of sound, earthquake, and sonar that require both bipolar and single voltages without external power sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Storage Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Power Supply Switch Circuit for Intermittent Energy Harvesting
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121446 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Energy harvesters generate power only when ambient energy is available, and power loss is significant when the harvester does not produce energy and its power management circuit is still turned on. This paper proposes a new high-efficiency power management circuit for intermittent vibration [...] Read more.
Energy harvesters generate power only when ambient energy is available, and power loss is significant when the harvester does not produce energy and its power management circuit is still turned on. This paper proposes a new high-efficiency power management circuit for intermittent vibration energy harvesting. The proposed circuit is unique in terms of autonomous power supply switch between harvester and storage device (battery), as well as self-start and control of the operation mode (between active and sleep modes). The self-start controller saves power during an inactive period and the impedance matching concept enables maximum power transfer to the storage device. The proposed circuit is prototyped and tested with an intermittent vibration energy harvester. Test results found that the daily energy consumption of the proposed circuit is smaller than that of the resistive matching circuit: 0.75 J less in sleep mode and 0.04 J less in active mode with self-start. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Storage Applications)
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