Special Issue "Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Paolo Stefano Crovetti
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Turin, Italy
Interests: electrical engineering; EMC; microelectronics; Internet of Things; ultra-low voltage (ULV) integrated circuits; ultra-low power (ULP) integrated circuits; data converters

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emerging Internet of Things (IoT), smart grid, and transport electrification applications, along with the advances of semiconductor technology, which enables faster switching devices for highly efficient power conversion, are bringing about new EMC challenges that need to be addressed through the whole design flow of electric and electronic systems, starting from the highest levels of abstraction down to the physical level.

The coexistence of ultra-low voltage IoT nodes and safety-critical sensors close to power converters and drives in smart grids and electric vehicles, in particular, are raising new EMC concerns which demand novel concepts and methodologies in EMC modeling, design, simulation, optimization, and measurement, both at the system- and at the integrated circuit-level. Moreover, a strong multidisciplinary approach is currently needed to gain insight into increasingly complex phenomena and interference scenarios.

On the other hand, emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) techniques provide new tools to EMC designers, whose potential is still to be explored.

In this Special Issue, contributions addressing electromagnetic compatibility and interference topics in the broadest sense, including but not limited to IC- and system-level immunity and susceptibility issues of either information and communication technology (ICT) and power electronic systems, either in emerging IoT, smart grid, electric vehicles applications or in more traditional systems, EMC-oriented simulation and measurement techniques, and EMC applications of ML and AI, are welcome and encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Paolo Stefano Crovetti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • EMC in IoT applications
  • Power electronics EMC
  • IC-level EMC
  • System level EMC
  • Electromagnetic interference
  • Electromagnetic compatibility
  • EMC simulations
  • EMC measurements
  • EMI mitigation techniques
  • EMC applications of Artificial Intelligence/machine learning

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Performance Study of Split Ferrite Cores Designed for EMI Suppression on Cables
Electronics 2020, 9(12), 1992; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9121992 (registering DOI) - 24 Nov 2020
Abstract
The ideal procedure to start designing an electronic device is to consider the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) from the beginning. Even so, EMC problems can appear afterward, especially when the designed system is interconnected with external devices. Thereby, electromagnetic interferences (EMIs) could be transmitted [...] Read more.
The ideal procedure to start designing an electronic device is to consider the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) from the beginning. Even so, EMC problems can appear afterward, especially when the designed system is interconnected with external devices. Thereby, electromagnetic interferences (EMIs) could be transmitted to our device from power cables that interconnect it with an external power source or are connected to another system to establish wired communication. The application of an EMI suppressor such as a sleeve core that encircles the cables is a widely used technique to attenuate EM disturbances. This contribution is focused on the characterization of a variation of this cable filtering solution based on openable core clamp or snap ferrites. This component is manufactured by two split parts pressed together by a snap-on mechanism which turns this into a quick, easy to install solution for reducing post-cable assembly EMI problems. The performance of three different materials, including two polycrystalline (MnZn and NiZn) materials and nanocrystalline (NC) solution, are analyzed in terms of effectiveness when the solid sleeve cores are split. The possibility of splitting an NC core implies an innovative technique due to the brittleness of this material. Thus, the results obtained from this research make it possible to evaluate this sample’s effectiveness compared to the polycrystalline ones. This characterization is carried out by the introduction of different gaps between the different split-cores and analyzing their behavior in terms of relative permeability and impedance. The results obtained experimentally are corroborated with the results obtained by a finite element method (FEM) simulation model with the aim of determining the performance of each material when it is used as an openable core clamp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
Open AccessArticle
Shielding Properties of Cement Composites Filled with Commercial Biochar
Electronics 2020, 9(5), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050819 - 16 May 2020
Abstract
The partial substitution of non-renewable materials in cementitious composites with eco-friendly materials is promising not only in terms of cost reduction, but also in improving the composites’ shielding properties. The water and carbon content of a commercial lignin-based biochar is analyzed with thermal [...] Read more.
The partial substitution of non-renewable materials in cementitious composites with eco-friendly materials is promising not only in terms of cost reduction, but also in improving the composites’ shielding properties. The water and carbon content of a commercial lignin-based biochar is analyzed with thermal gravimetric analysis. Cementitious composite samples of lignin-based biochar with 14 wt.% and 18 wt.% are realized. Good dispersion of the filler in the composites is observed by SEM analysis. The samples are fabricated in order to fit in a rectangular waveguide for measurements of the shielding effectiveness in the X-band. A shielding effectiveness of 15 dB was obtained at a frequency of 10 GHz in the case of composites with 18 wt.% biochar. Full-wave simulations are performed by fitting the measured shielding effectiveness to the simulated shielding effectiveness by varying material properties in the simulator. Analysis of the dimensional tolerances and thickness of the samples is performed with the help of full/wave simulations. Lignin-based biochar is a good candidate for partial substitution of cement in cementitious composites, as the shielding effectiveness of the composites increases substantially. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of Polyaniline-Based Composites for Electromagnetic Compatibility of Electronic Devices
Electronics 2020, 9(5), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050734 - 29 Apr 2020
Abstract
Polyaniline-based composites designed to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of electronic devices were obtained. The surface morphologies of the obtained films were studied using optical and electron microscopy. The electrical resistivity of polyaniline (PANI) films were measured at various thicknesses. For films of various [...] Read more.
Polyaniline-based composites designed to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of electronic devices were obtained. The surface morphologies of the obtained films were studied using optical and electron microscopy. The electrical resistivity of polyaniline (PANI) films were measured at various thicknesses. For films of various compositions and various thicknesses, the frequency dependencies of the complex dielectric permittivity, in the range of 100–2000 kHz, as well as the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) absorption coefficient in the frequency range 0.05–2 GHz were obtained. It was found that flexible gelatin-PANI composite films with a thickness of 200–400 μm, a bending radius of about 5 cm, and a real part of complex permittivity of not more than 10 provide an EMR absorption coefficient of up to 5 dB without introducing additional EMR absorbing or reflecting fillers. The resulting gelatin-PANI composite films do not possess a through electrical conductivity and can be applied directly to the surface of protected printed circuit boards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Electromagnetic Susceptibility of Battery Management Systems’ ICs for Electric Vehicles: Experimental Study
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030510 - 19 Mar 2020
Abstract
The paper deals with the susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI) of battery management systems (BMSs) for Li-ion and lithium-polymer (LiPo) battery packs employed in emerging electric and hybrid electric vehicles. A specific test board was developed to experimentally assess the EMI susceptibility of [...] Read more.
The paper deals with the susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI) of battery management systems (BMSs) for Li-ion and lithium-polymer (LiPo) battery packs employed in emerging electric and hybrid electric vehicles. A specific test board was developed to experimentally assess the EMI susceptibility of a BMS front-end integrated circuit by direct power injection (DPI) and radiated susceptibility measurements in an anechoic chamber. Experimental results are discussed in reference to the different setup, highlighting the related EMI-induced failure mechanisms observed during the tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Optimization of Impedance Balancing Technique for Common Mode Noise Attenuation in DC-DC Boost Converters
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030480 - 14 Mar 2020
Abstract
As an effective means of suppressing electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise, the impedance balancing technique has been adopted in the literature. By suppressing the noise source, this technique can theoretically reduce the noise to zero. Nevertheless, its effect is limited in practice and also [...] Read more.
As an effective means of suppressing electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise, the impedance balancing technique has been adopted in the literature. By suppressing the noise source, this technique can theoretically reduce the noise to zero. Nevertheless, its effect is limited in practice and also suffers from noise spikes. Therefore, this paper introduces an accurate frequency modeling method to investigate the attenuation degree of noise source and redesign the impedance selection accordingly in order to improve the noise reduction capability. Based on a conventional boost converter, the common mode (CM) noise model was built by identifying the noise source and propagation paths at first. Then the noise source model was extracted through capturing the switching voltage waveform in time domain and then calculating its Fourier series in frequency domain. After that, the conventional boost converter was modified with the known impedance balancing techniques. This balanced circuit was analyzed with the introduced modeling method, and the equivalent noise source was precisely estimated by combining the noise spectra and impedance information. Furthermore, two optimized schemes with redesigned impedances were proposed to deal with the resonance problem. A hardware circuit was designed and built to experimentally validate the proposed concepts. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Simple Setup for Measuring the Response to Differential Mode Noise of Common Mode Chokes
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030381 - 25 Feb 2020
Abstract
This work presents a technique to measure the attenuation of differential mode noise provided by common mode chokes. The proposed setup is a simpler alternative to the balanced setup commonly employed to that end, and its main advantage is that it avoids the [...] Read more.
This work presents a technique to measure the attenuation of differential mode noise provided by common mode chokes. The proposed setup is a simpler alternative to the balanced setup commonly employed to that end, and its main advantage is that it avoids the use of auxiliary circuits (baluns). We make use of a modal analysis of a high-frequency circuit model of the common mode choke to identify the natural modes actually excited both in the standard balanced setup and in the simpler alternative setup proposed here. This analysis demonstrates that both setups are equivalent at low frequencies and makes it possible to identify the key differences between them at high frequencies. To analyze the scope and interest of the proposed measurement technique we have measured several commercial common mode chokes and we have thoroughly studied the sensitivity of the measurements taken with the proposed setup to electric and magnetic couplings. We have found that the proposed setup can be useful for quick assessment of the attenuation provided by a common mode choke for differential mode noise in a frequency range that encompasses the frequencies where most electromagnetic compatibility regulations impose limits to the conducted emissions of electronic equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
EMI Susceptibility of the Output Pin in CMOS Amplifiers
Electronics 2020, 9(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9020304 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Measurements in commercial devices demonstrate a considerable susceptibility of the operational amplifiers to the electromagnetic interferences coupled to their output pin. This paper investigates some basic architectures starting from single stage amplifiers up to a whole operational amplifier. The result is a correlation [...] Read more.
Measurements in commercial devices demonstrate a considerable susceptibility of the operational amplifiers to the electromagnetic interferences coupled to their output pin. This paper investigates some basic architectures starting from single stage amplifiers up to a whole operational amplifier. The result is a correlation between the different amplifier configurations, the output impedance and the susceptibility to the interferences. The simulations are perfomed by using the standard CMOS UMC 180nm technology and by running the netlist of the schematics extracted from the layout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Interference of Spread-Spectrum EMI and Digital Data Links under Narrowband Resonant Coupling
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010060 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupled to a radio-frequency (RF) communication channel by resonant mechanisms are investigated and described in the framework of Shannon information theory in terms of an equivalent channel capacity loss so that to analyze and [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupled to a radio-frequency (RF) communication channel by resonant mechanisms are investigated and described in the framework of Shannon information theory in terms of an equivalent channel capacity loss so that to analyze and compare the effects of non-modulated and random Spread Spectrum (SS) modulated EMI. The analysis reveals a higher EMI-induced capacity loss for SS-modulated compared to non modulated EMI under practical values of the quality factor Q, while a modest improvement in the worst case capacity loss is observed only for impractical values of Q. Simulations on a 4-quadrature amplitude modulation (4-QAM) digital link featuring Turbo coding under EMI resonant coupling reveal that SS-modulated EMI gives rise to higher bit error rate (BER) at lower EMI power compared non-modulated EMI in the presence of resonant coupling for practical values of Q, thus suggesting a worse interfering potential of SS-modulated EMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hall-Effect Current Sensors Susceptibility to EMI: Experimental Study
Electronics 2019, 8(11), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111310 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The paper deals with the susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) of Hall-effect current sensors. They are usually employed in power systems because of their galvanic isolation. The EMI robustness of such contactless device was compared with that of resistive current sensing (wired method). [...] Read more.
The paper deals with the susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) of Hall-effect current sensors. They are usually employed in power systems because of their galvanic isolation. The EMI robustness of such contactless device was compared with that of resistive current sensing (wired method). To this purpose, a printed circuit board (PCB) was fabricated. EMI tests methods such as Bulk Current Injection (BCI), Transverse-Electromagnetic (TEM) cell and Direct Power injection (DPI) were performed to evaluate the robustness of the Hall-Effect current sensor. EMI-induced failures are highlighted by comparing the different measurements tests and setups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Meander Split Power/Ground Plane Reducing Crosstalk of Traces Crossing Over
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8091041 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, a novel meander split power/ground plane is proposed for reducing crosstalk between parallel lines crossing over it. The working mechanism of the meander split scheme is investigated by simulations and measurements. The LC equivalent circuit and transmission line model are [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel meander split power/ground plane is proposed for reducing crosstalk between parallel lines crossing over it. The working mechanism of the meander split scheme is investigated by simulations and measurements. The LC equivalent circuit and transmission line model are developed for modeling interactions between the meander split and the signal lines. The proposed meander structure enhances electromagnetic coupling between split planes. The capacitive coupling across the split ensures signal integrity and magnetic coupling between adjacent finger shaped structures suppresses lateral wave propagation along the split gap, which in turn helps suppress the crosstalk. The effectiveness of the meander split remains valid over very wide frequency ranges (up to 9 GHz). Experimental results show that the proposed structure improves the signal quality and reduces the near/far end crosstalk over 30 dB and 50% in the frequency domain and time domain, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
A Dual-Perforation Electromagnetic Bandgap Structure for Parallel-Plate Noise Suppression in Thin and Low-Cost Printed Circuit Boards
Electronics 2019, 8(6), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8060719 - 25 Jun 2019
Abstract
In this study, we propose and analyze a dual-perforation (DP) technique to improve an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure in thin and low-cost printed circuit boards (PCBs). The proposed DP–EBG structure includes a power plane with a square aperture and a patch with an [...] Read more.
In this study, we propose and analyze a dual-perforation (DP) technique to improve an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure in thin and low-cost printed circuit boards (PCBs). The proposed DP–EBG structure includes a power plane with a square aperture and a patch with an L-shape slot that overcomes efficiently the problems resulting from the low-inductance and the characteristic impedance of the EBG structure developed for parallel-plate noise suppression in thin PCBs. The effects of the proposed dual-perforation technique on the stopband characteristics and unit cell size are analyzed using an analytical dispersion method and full-wave simulations. The closed-form expressions for the main design parameters of the proposed DP–EBG structure are extracted as a design guide. It is verified based on full-wave simulations and measurements that the DP technique is a cost-effective method that can be used to achieve a size reduction and a stopband extension of the EBG structure in thin PCBs. For the same unit cell size and low cut-off frequency, the DP–EBG structure increases the stopband bandwidth by up to 473% compared to an inductance-enhanced EBG structure. In addition, the unit cell size is substantially reduced by up to 94.2% compared to the metallo–dielectric EBG structure. The proposed DP–EBG technique achieves the wideband suppression of parallel plate noise and miniaturization of the EBG structure in thin and low-cost PCBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility)
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