Special Issue "Design, Modeling and Control of Power Electronic Converters for/in Renewable Energy Systems"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Emilio Gomez-Lazaro
Website
Guest Editor
1. Renewable Energy Research Institute, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13001 Ciudad Real, Spain;
2. Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Control Communications, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales de Albacete, 02071 Albacete, Spain
Interests: power electronics and power systems; renewable energy systems; modeling; dynamic performance of inverter-based generation in power systems; maintenance of renewable energy power installations; transmission and distribution studies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Andres Honrubia-Escribano
Website
Guest Editor
Department Renewable Energy Research Institute, Escuela de Ingenieros Industriales de Albacete. Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Control Communications. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 02071 Albacete, Spain
Interests: electrical engineering; energy storage systems; integration of distributed generation; modeling of renewable power plants; model validation; solar photovoltaics; wind power

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Variable renewable energy (VRE) generation is currently emerging as of key importance due to its substantial impact on power systems. Specifically, wind and solar PV energy should be addressed due to their importance in the energy mix of current and future power systems. This revolution has been possible thanks to advances in power electronic converters. Power converters can be found in the electric grid, distributed generation systems, and as part of renewable energy power plants. This Special Issue deals with these power electronic converters, showcasing their unique properties, which have triggered great interest in researchers. Power converters in this field include multilevel, multi-input, modular, matrix, soft switching, and Z-source converters. Furthermore, current energy storage technologies are able to improve the technical and economic performance of the whole power system when integrated with the power converter.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present solutions to challenges related to VRE modeling, specifically wind and solar PV generation. Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Detailed VRE modeling (wind turbines, wind power plants, and solar PV power plants) to provide accurate response and design, with analysis focused on the power converter;
  • Simplified VRE modeling (wind turbines, wind power plants, and solar PV power plants) with application to power system studies; model assessment in accordance with national and international Standards, such as IEC 61400-27 or WECC, with a focus on the power converter;
  • Modeling of new control strategies for power converters;
  • Model validation;
  • Grid support and ancillary services provided by wind and solar PV generation with power converters;
  • Power quality;
  • Novel approaches to maintenance for power converters;

The combination of power electronics with storage systems of all sizes (from home to utility scale) to manage hybridized power systems.

Prof. Dr. Emilio Gomez-Lazaro
Assoc. Prof. Andres Honrubia-Escribano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • power converters
  • wind power plants
  • solar PV power plants
  • variable renewable energy integration
  • storage technologies
  • model validation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid DC–DC Quadrupler Boost Converter for Photovoltaic Panels Integration into a DC Distribution System
Electronics 2020, 9(11), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9111965 - 20 Nov 2020
Abstract
This paper presents a non-isolated DC–DC boost topology with a high-voltage-gain ratio for renewable energy applications. The presented converter is suitable for converting the voltage from low-voltage sources, such as photovoltaic panels, to higher voltage levels. The proposed converter consists of a multiphase [...] Read more.
This paper presents a non-isolated DC–DC boost topology with a high-voltage-gain ratio for renewable energy applications. The presented converter is suitable for converting the voltage from low-voltage sources, such as photovoltaic panels, to higher voltage levels. The proposed converter consists of a multiphase boost stage with an interleaving switching technique and a voltage multiplier cell to provide a voltage level at a reduced duty cycle. The interleaved boost stage consists of two legs and can be either fed from single or multiple voltage sources with the ability to control each source separately. The voltage multiplier cell can increase the voltage level by charging and discharging the capacitors. Several advantages are associated with the converter, such as reduced voltage stress on semiconductor elements and a scalable structure, where the number of voltage multiplier cells can be increased. The inductors in the interleaved boost stage share the input current equally, which reduces the conduction loss in the inductors. The input and the output of the converter share the same ground, and all active switches are low-side, which means no feedback or signal isolation is required. The theory of operation and steady-state analysis of the converter operating in the continuous conduction mode is presented. Components selections and efficiency analysis are presented and validated by comparative analysis and simulation results. A 0.195 kW experimental prototype was designed and implemented to convert the voltage from 20 V input source to 400 V output load, at 50 kHz. The test results show a high-performance of the converter as the maximum efficiency point is above 97%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling, Analysis and Experimental Validation of the Fuel Cell Association with DC-DC Power Converters with Robust and Anti-Windup PID Controller Design
Electronics 2020, 9(11), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9111889 - 11 Nov 2020
Abstract
Based on full and rigorous study, this paper addresses the issue of ensuring a feasible association in practice between a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and DC-DC power converters including a buck and boost converter. This association is mathematically modeled, analyzed, and [...] Read more.
Based on full and rigorous study, this paper addresses the issue of ensuring a feasible association in practice between a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and DC-DC power converters including a buck and boost converter. This association is mathematically modeled, analyzed, and controlled by an optimal PID controller. Using absolute stability tools with a rigorous analytical approach that takes into consideration windup effects, in addition to the nonlinear behavior of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, sufficient conditions are provided to ensure that the closed-loop system is L2-stable. These conditions allow the optimal PID controller parameters to be chosen and ensure the closed-loop system stability, by tracking reference outputs, and an optimal performance against perturbations. Formal analysis, numerical simulations, and experimental validation were carried out to verify that the PID controller designed with an anti-windup action is robust and meets all of the pre-defined objectives. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the association between the PEMFC and the DC-DC converters is achieved if only certain conditions are met. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Requirements for Validation of Dynamic Wind Turbine Models: An International Grid Code Review
Electronics 2020, 9(10), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9101707 - 17 Oct 2020
Abstract
Wind power is positioned as one of the fastest-growing energy sources today, while also being a mature technology with a strong capacity for creating employment and guaranteeing environmental sustainability. However, the stochastic nature of wind may affect the integration of power plants into [...] Read more.
Wind power is positioned as one of the fastest-growing energy sources today, while also being a mature technology with a strong capacity for creating employment and guaranteeing environmental sustainability. However, the stochastic nature of wind may affect the integration of power plants into power systems and the availability of generation capacity. In this sense, as in the case of conventional power plants, wind power installations should be able to help maintain power system stability and reliability. To help achieve this objective, a significant number of countries have developed so-called grid interconnection agreements. These are designed to define the technical and behavioral requirements that wind power installations, as well as other power plants, must comply with when seeking connection to the national network. These documents also detail the tasks that should be conducted to certify such installations, so these can be commercially exploited. These certification processes allow countries to assess wind turbine and wind power plant simulation models. These models can then be used to estimate and simulate wind power performance under a variety of scenarios. Within this framework, and with a particular focus on the new Spanish grid code, the present paper addresses the validation process of dynamic wind turbine models followed in three countries—Spain, Germany and South Africa. In these three countries, and as a novel option, it has been proposed that these models form part of the commissioning and certification processes of wind power plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A DC-DC Center-Tapped Resonant Dual-Active Bridge with Two Modulation Techniques
Electronics 2020, 9(10), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9101699 - 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
Power converters with higher efficiency in a wide load range are important for reducing the overall energy consumption of renewable energy generation systems. A center-tapped LC series resonant dual-active bridge (LC-DAB) converter for DC-DC conversion is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter [...] Read more.
Power converters with higher efficiency in a wide load range are important for reducing the overall energy consumption of renewable energy generation systems. A center-tapped LC series resonant dual-active bridge (LC-DAB) converter for DC-DC conversion is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter utilizes a center-tapped bridge to block reverse current and eliminate back flow power to reduce conduction losses. Two modulation methods for the proposed topology (i.e., fixed frequency modulation (FFM), and variable frequency modulation (VFM)) are proposed and analyzed. Both modulation methods can realize soft switch over the entire load range to reduce switching losses. In addition, the proposed modulation techniques guarantee soft switching for all devices and synchronous rectifier is realized by the center-tapped bridge to further reduce the conduction losses. Furthermore, a comprehensive comparison in terms of conduction losses and switching losses has been carried out to highlight the superiority of the proposed converter over the existing LC resonant converters. Finally, simulated and experimental results for a 1.5 kW prototype are presented to validate the theoretical analysis and performance of the proposed converter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Implementation of the Primary and/or Inertial Frequency Control in Variable Speed Wind Turbines in an Isolated Power System with High Renewable Penetration. Case Study: El Hierro Power System
Electronics 2020, 9(6), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9060901 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
With high levels of wind energy penetration, the frequency response of isolated power systems is more likely to be affected in the event of a sudden frequency disturbance or fluctuating wind conditions. In order to minimize excessive frequency deviations, several techniques and control [...] Read more.
With high levels of wind energy penetration, the frequency response of isolated power systems is more likely to be affected in the event of a sudden frequency disturbance or fluctuating wind conditions. In order to minimize excessive frequency deviations, several techniques and control strategies involving Variable Speed Wind Turbines (VSWTs) have been investigated in isolated power systems. In this paper, the main benefits and disadvantages of introducing VSWTs—both their inertial contribution and primary frequency regulation—in an exclusively renewable isolated power system have been analyzed. Special attention has been paid to the influence of the delays of control signals in the wind farm when VSWTs provide primary regulation as well as to the wind power reserve value which is needed. To achieve this objective, a methodology has been proposed and applied to a case study: El Hierro power system. A mathematical dynamic model of the isolated power system, including exclusively renewable technologies, has been described. Representative generation schedules and wind speed signals have been fixed according to the observed system. Finally, in order to obtain conclusions, realistic system events such as fluctuations in wind speed and the outage of the generation unit with the higher assigned power in the power system have been simulated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Stability Analysis of Parallel Inverters in Island Microgrid
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030463 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The island microgrid is composed of a large number of inverters and various types of power equipment, and the interaction between inverters with different control methods may cause system instability, which will cause the power equipment to malfunction. Therefore, effective methods for analyzing [...] Read more.
The island microgrid is composed of a large number of inverters and various types of power equipment, and the interaction between inverters with different control methods may cause system instability, which will cause the power equipment to malfunction. Therefore, effective methods for analyzing the stability of the microgrid system have become particularly important. Generally, impedance modeling methods are used to analyze the stability of power electronic converter systems. In this paper, the impedance models of a PQ-controlled inverter and droop-controlled inverter are established in d-q frame. In view of the difference of output characteristics between the two control methods, the island microgrid is equivalent to a double closed-loop system. The impedance model of the parallel system is derived and the open loop transfer function of the system is extracted. Based on the generalized Nyquist criterion (GNC), the stability of parallel system working in island microgrid mode is analyzed using this proposed impedance model. The simulation and experiment results are presented to verify the analysis. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Novel Compact dq-Reference Frame Model for Inverter-Based Microgrids
Electronics 2019, 8(11), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111326 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The development and the experimental validation of a novel dynamic model of an islanded three-phase Inverter-based Microgrid (IMG) is presented in this paper. The proposed model reproduces the relevant system dynamics without excessive complexity and enough accuracy. The dynamics of the IMG are [...] Read more.
The development and the experimental validation of a novel dynamic model of an islanded three-phase Inverter-based Microgrid (IMG) is presented in this paper. The proposed model reproduces the relevant system dynamics without excessive complexity and enough accuracy. The dynamics of the IMG are captured with a compact and scalable dynamic model, considering inverter based distributed generators with d-current droop primary and proportional resonant inner controllers. The complete development of the model, the practical assumptions, and the accurate proportional power sharing of the primary control technique are shown. The accuracy performance was verified in experiments performed at the Aalborg Intelligent Microgrids Laboratory for an islanded IMG case. Full article
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