Advancements in Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Techniques for Electronic Systems

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Circuit and Signal Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 9240

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Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Educators, ASPETE—School of Pedagogical and Technological Education of Athens, 14121 Heraklion, Greece
Interests: power system protection; electrical power engineering; power systems simulation; power systems analysis; simulation; electrical engineering; engineering, applied and computational mathematics; transformers; power engineering; power transmission; electrostatic discharge; electromagnetic compatibility; high voltages
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Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Educators, School of Pedagogical and Technological Education (ASPETE), N. Heraklion Attikis, 141 21 Athens, Greece
Interests: transmission and distribution grids; electric vehicles; distributed generation; energy storage, energy markets; artificial intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electronic circuits are extremely vulnerable from any kind of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) that may cause disturbances in their normal function or even worse total destruction. The EMI coupling mechanisms vary, depending on the path that the EMI travels from the source to the destination. Conductive, inductive, capacitive, and radiated coupling are the types of EMI coupling techniques. No matter the EMI coupling technique, it is crucial to keep the EMI effect away from electronic circuits and shielding techniques must be applied. The most effective EMI mitigation system to utilize is determined by the prevalent EMI coupling technique in the circuit. This is why improved electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in electronic circuits depends on having a solid understanding of EMI coupling mechanisms.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to present recent advances in the electronic circuits design, taking into consideration all possible EMI sources as electrostatic discharges (ESD), induced voltages derived by various sources of electromagnetic radiation, etc. Leading researchers from around the globe will be able to discuss their most recent findings and developments in cutting-edge fields in this Special Issue. This Special Issue will take into account original research papers in the area, encompassing novel theories, algorithms, and systems, as well as new implementations and applications utilizing cutting-edge methods. We also encourage review articles and efforts on benchmark datasets and performance evaluation.

Dr. Georgios Fotis
Dr. Vasiliki Vita
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • electromagnetic compatibility
  • electromagnetic interference
  • electrostatic discharge
  • EMC applications of artificial intelligence/machine learning
  • EMC or/and E/M field measurements
  • EMC simulations
  • emissions
  • immunity
  • shielding
  • numerical modeling

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 3681 KiB  
Article
Proposals for Updated EMC Standards and Requirements (9–500 kHz) for DC Microgrids and New Compliance Verification Methods
by Da Wang, Dominique Weyen and Paul Van Tichelen
Electronics 2023, 12(14), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12143122 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
This paper is aimed at making new proposals for developing future Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) standards tailored to DC microgrids in a frequency range between 9 and 500 kHz. In particular, new EMC proposals are made to reduce Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) with arc hazard [...] Read more.
This paper is aimed at making new proposals for developing future Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) standards tailored to DC microgrids in a frequency range between 9 and 500 kHz. In particular, new EMC proposals are made to reduce Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) with arc hazard detection and narrowband power line communication (PLC). To achieve this, first, arc detection requirements, PLC standards and existing EMC standards are reviewed. Next, new proposals are made to specify EMC requirements for equipment in DC microgrids in terms of conducted emission, immunity (9–500 kHz) and minimum impedance requirement (>40 kHz). The minimum impedance requirement is a new type of requirement and the relevant compliance testing method is developed. The new EMC proposals also distribute frequency bands to support arc detection and narrowband PLC. Then, to show the feasibility and advantage of proposed EMC codes, this paper develops a new arc detection method, which relies on only measuring the arc noise voltage (40–100 kHz) in a single point of the grid and does not need one or more current measurements. A total of three test cases are presented to show the feasibility of the arc detection method and the significance of having an EMC minimum impedance requirement. The executed tests for this paper also show that new EMC proposals are feasible and promising for DC microgrids. This concept and approach are the major novelties of this paper. The specific EMC threshold levels for conducted noise, immunity, and impedance within a frequency range between 9 and 500 kHz will need to be further fine-tuned based on the microgrid application parameters and further gathering of experimental data. Full article
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14 pages, 4342 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Electrostatic Discharge Interference Effects on Small Unmanned Vehicle Handling Systems
by Yongqiang Zhang, Yuejian Shen, Guilei Ma, Menghua Man and Shanghe Liu
Electronics 2023, 12(7), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12071640 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
Electrostatic discharge is a common phenomenon in daily life, and the electromagnetic pulse radiation generated during discharge can cause great harm to power, communication, sensing, and other equipment, resulting in systems not working properly. To verify the safety and reliability of unmanned vehicle [...] Read more.
Electrostatic discharge is a common phenomenon in daily life, and the electromagnetic pulse radiation generated during discharge can cause great harm to power, communication, sensing, and other equipment, resulting in systems not working properly. To verify the safety and reliability of unmanned vehicle handling systems in complex electromagnetic environments, the interference effect of electrostatic discharge, a common source of electromagnetic interference in life, on unmanned vehicle systems was studied. According to the electrostatic discharge interference mechanism, typical electrostatic discharge mode, and discharge model, an unmanned vehicle handling system was tested for electrostatic discharge according to the ISO10605-2008 standard. Based on the measured data, the effect of electrostatic discharge on the safety and functionality of the unmanned vehicle handling system and its sensors was analyzed, and threshold values for the failure of the unmanned vehicle handling system under different discharge methods, discharge models, and discharge polarity were obtained. When the electrostatic discharge voltage amplitude is only 2 kV, the vehicle’s LiDAR data sensor cannot work normally due to the echo reception circuit, and the failure rate of LiDAR continues to increase with increasing discharge voltage. When the discharge voltage is only 4 kV, the millimeter-wave radar is disconnected from the vehicle module due to the electrostatic discharge interference of the transmission cable, and when the discharge voltage is 12 kV, the unmanned vehicle is unable to provide stable and accurate environmental information to avoid collisions. This study provides a reference for the design of electromagnetic protection of unmanned equipment and will have a guiding role in enhancing the construction of reliable, safe, and intelligent equipment in complex electromagnetic environments. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 1824 KiB  
Review
Assessment of a Functional Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis of Near-Body Medical Devices Subject to Electromagnetic Field Perturbation
by Adel Razek
Electronics 2023, 12(23), 4780; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12234780 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 840
Abstract
This article aims to assess, discuss and analyze the disturbances caused by electromagnetic field (EMF) noise of medical devices used near living tissues, as well as the corresponding functional control via the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of these devices. These are minimally invasive and [...] Read more.
This article aims to assess, discuss and analyze the disturbances caused by electromagnetic field (EMF) noise of medical devices used near living tissues, as well as the corresponding functional control via the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of these devices. These are minimally invasive and non-ionizing devices allowing various healthcare actions involving monitoring, assistance, diagnoses and image-guided medical interventions. Following an introduction of the main items of the paper, the different imaging methodologies are conferred, accounting for their nature, functioning, employment condition and patient comfort and safety. Then the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) components and their fields, the consequential MRI-compatibility concept and possible image artifacts are detailed and analyzed. Next, the MRI-assisted robotic treatments, the possible robotic external matter introductions in the MRI scaffold, the features of MRI-compatible materials and the conformity control of such compatibility are analyzed and conferred. Afterward, the embedded, wearable and detachable medical devices, their EMF perturbation control and their necessary protection via shielding technologies are presented and analyzed. Then, the EMC control procedure, the EMF governing equations and the body numerical virtual models are conferred and reviewed. A qualitative methodology, case study and simple example illustrating the mentioned methodology are presented. The last section of the paper discusses potential details and expansions of the different notions conferred in the paper, in the perspective of monitoring the disturbances due to EMF noise of medical devices working near living tissues. This contribution highlights the possibility of the proper functioning of medical instruments working close to the patient’s body tissues and their protection by monitoring possible disturbances. Thanks to these commitments, various health recommendations have been taken into account. This concerns piezoelectric actuated robotics, assisted with MRI and the possible use of conductive materials in this imager under certain conditions. The safe use of onboard devices with EMF-insensitive or intelligently shielded materials with short exposure intervals is also of concern. Additionally, the need to monitor body temperature in case of prolonged exposure of onboard devices to EMF is analyzed in the Discussion section. Moreover, the use of virtual tissue models in EMC testing to achieve more realistic evaluation capabilities also features in the Discussion section. Full article
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21 pages, 3955 KiB  
Review
Electromagnetic Fields Radiated by Electrostatic Discharges: A Review of the Available Approaches
by Georgios Fotis
Electronics 2023, 12(12), 2577; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12122577 - 7 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a physical phenomenon that may destroy electronic components due to its high discharge current that may reach a few amperes in just a few ns. However, another major aspect of ESD is the related high-frequency electromagnetic (E/M) fields radiated [...] Read more.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a physical phenomenon that may destroy electronic components due to its high discharge current that may reach a few amperes in just a few ns. However, another major aspect of ESD is the related high-frequency electromagnetic (E/M) fields radiated by the ESD event. The electronic equipment that is affected by the ESD phenomenon is additionally affected by the induced voltages caused by these E/M fields. This is the reason that the current version of the IEC 61000-4-2 on ESD has a special reference to these fields and the measurement setup. Starting with the classical formulation of these fields, this paper reviews the most popular techniques for calculating the ESD electromagnetic fields while also emphasizing the best methods for minimizing computational effort. There is also a separate section for the measurement techniques that have been applied in research works, whose outcomes could be implemented in the next revision of the IEC 61000-4-2. It is extremely important for the next revision to include these measurement setups and the E/M field sensors because the ESD generators should comply with certain values related to the E/M fields they produce. Full article
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13 pages, 3656 KiB  
Review
Overview about E-Mobility Conducted Immunity Tests on ESA Communication Lines
by Stefano Righi, Luca Dossi, Alessandro Tacchini, Antonio Camarda and Luca Vincetti
Electronics 2023, 12(8), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12081850 - 13 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1670
Abstract
Due to the complexity of the Automotive Electromagnetic Compatibility legislation in force, this article aims to describe a simplified overview of several technical standards relating to conducted immunity tests on electronic sub-assemblies, where communication lines are involved. The discussed automotive standards reported in [...] Read more.
Due to the complexity of the Automotive Electromagnetic Compatibility legislation in force, this article aims to describe a simplified overview of several technical standards relating to conducted immunity tests on electronic sub-assemblies, where communication lines are involved. The discussed automotive standards reported in this article are: ISO 11452-1 and ISO 11452-4 for continuous narrowband electromagnetic fields immunity test, bulk current injection and tubular wave coupler, IEC 61000-4-5 for immunity against surge events, IEC 61000-4-4 for electrical fast transient/burst events immunity, ISO 10605 for electrostatic discharge events immunity, ISO 7637-2 and ISO 7637-3 for transient disturbances events immunity. For each cited standard, disturbance bandwidth evaluation was performed. Practical examples are reported, with analysis and discussion of some of the adoptable disturbance countermeasures applicable on controlled area network communication lines, and possible design advantages and disadvantages with different types of filtering and suppression circuit solutions. Full article
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