Special Issue "Industrial Applications of Power Electronics"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Eduardo M. G. Rodrigues
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Management and Production Technologies of Northern Aveiro—ESAN, Estrada do Cercal, 449, Santiago de Riba-Ul, 3720-509 Oliveira de Azeméis, Portugal
Interests: advanced industrial power electronics applications; instrumentation and signal acquisition; digital signal processing; maintenance engineering; advanced control techniques and implementation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Edris Pouresmaeil
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
Interests: application of power electronics in power and energy sectors; stability analysis of power grids; analysis and control of power networks; microgrid modelling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

In recent years, power electronics have been intensely contributing to the development and evolution of new structures for the processing of energy. It is becoming very common to generate electrical energy in different ways and convert it into another form in order to be able to use it—for instance, renewable sources, battery banks, and the transmission of electric power in direct current (DC), which make available the voltage of the network in different levels in detriment to the supplied voltage from the grid. The main users of these signals are the electronic equipment that use voltages at levels different from that available from the grid; the drives of electrical machines, which modify the voltage of the electrical network (amplitude and frequency) to control the machines; and finally in electrical systems, DC power transmission and frequency conversion.

Two leading trends are currently noticeable in the power systems field of study. The first trend is the increasingly and prevalent employment of renewable energy resources. The second trend is decentralized energy generation. This scenario raises many challenges. Therefore, the design, development, and optimization of power electronics and controller devices are required in order to face such challenges. New microprocessor control units (MCUs) could be utilized for power production control and for remote control operation, while power electronic converters are and could be utilized to control the power flow.

Nevertheless, power electronics can be used for a wide range of applications, from power systems and electrical machines to electric vehicles and robot arm drives. In conjunction with the evolution of microprocessors and advanced control theories, power electronics is playing an increasingly essential role in our society.

Thus, in order cope with the obstacles lying ahead, original studies and modeling methods can be developed and proposed that could overcome the physical and technical boundary conditions and at the same time consider technical, economic, and environmental aspects. The objective of this Special Issue is to present studies in the field of electrical energy conditioning and control using circuits and electronic devices, with emphasis on power applications and industrial control. Therefore, researchers are invited to submit their manuscripts to this Special Issue and contribute their models, proposals, reviews, and studies.

Prof. Dr. Eduardo M. G. Rodrigues
Prof. Dr. Edris Pouresmaeil
Dr. Radu Godina
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • power converters
  • electrical machines
  • power grid stability analysis
  • power network analysis and control
  • power electronics switching devices
  • simulations of power electronic systems
  • renewable power generation technologies
  • industrial, commercial, and residential applications
  • solar inverters
  • power control of wind turbines
  • motor drives
  • power semiconductor devices
  • multilevel converters
  • fault diagnosis in electrical machines
  • power supplies
  • converters in microgrid applications
  • power electronics in smart grid
  • manufacturing of components and assemblies used in power electronics
  • manufacturing, quality, and testing of power electronics equipment
  • electric/hybrid vehicle converters
  • power quality, harmonics, and reactive power compensation
  • electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and electromagnetic interference (EMI)

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Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Industrial Applications of Power Electronics
Electronics 2020, 9(9), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9091534 - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Electronic applications use a wide variety of materials, knowledge, and devices, which pave the road to creative design, development, and the creation of countless electronic circuits with the purpose of incorporating them in electronic products. Therefore, power electronics have been fully introduced in [...] Read more.
Electronic applications use a wide variety of materials, knowledge, and devices, which pave the road to creative design, development, and the creation of countless electronic circuits with the purpose of incorporating them in electronic products. Therefore, power electronics have been fully introduced in industry, in applications such as power supplies, converters, inverters, battery chargers, temperature control, variable speed motors, by studying the effects and the adaptation of electronic power systems to industrial processes. Recently, the role of power electronics has been gaining special significance regarding energy conservation and environmental control. The reality is that the demand for electrical energy grows in a directly proportional manner with the improvement in quality of life. Consequently, the design, development, and optimization of power electronics and controller devices are essential to face forthcoming challenges. In this Special Issue, 19 selected and peer-reviewed papers discussing a wide range of topics contribute to addressing a wide variety of themes, such as motor drives, AC-DC and DC-DC converters, electromagnetic compatibility and multilevel converters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Efficient H7 Single-Phase Photovoltaic Grid Connected Inverter for CMC Conceptualization and Mitigation Method
Electronics 2020, 9(9), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9091440 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Transformerless inverters are the economic choice as power interfaces between photovoltaic (PV) renewable sources and the power grid. Without galvanic isolation and adequate power convert design, single-phase grid connected inverters may have limited performance due to the presence of a significant common mode [...] Read more.
Transformerless inverters are the economic choice as power interfaces between photovoltaic (PV) renewable sources and the power grid. Without galvanic isolation and adequate power convert design, single-phase grid connected inverters may have limited performance due to the presence of a significant common mode ground current by creating safety issues and enhancing the negative impact of harmonics in the grid current. This paper proposes an extended H6 transformerless inverter that uses an additional power switch (H7) to improve common mode leakage current mitigation in a single-phase utility grid. The switch with a diode in series connection aims to make an effective clamp of common mode voltage at the DC link midpoint. The principles of operation of the proposed structure with bipolar sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) is presented and formulated. Laboratory tests’ performance is detailed and evaluated in comparison with well-known single-phase transformer-less topologies in terms of power conversion efficiency, total harmonic distortion (THD) level, and circuit components number. The studied topology performance evaluation is completed with the inclusion of reactive power compensation functionality verified by a low-power laboratory implementation with 98.02% efficiency and 30.3 mA for the leakage current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Efficacious Utilization of Fuzzy-Logic Controller-Based Two-Quadrant Operation of PMBLDC Motor Drive Systems for Multipass Hot-Steel Rolling Processes
Electronics 2020, 9(6), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9061008 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study investigates the rough steel-rolling process, which requires repeated and rapid bidirectional hot-rolling operations and proposes a fuzzy-logic-controller-based brushless electric DC (BLDC) motor drive system for the same. We present a modeling of the hot-steel rough-rolling process using a set of metallurgical [...] Read more.
This study investigates the rough steel-rolling process, which requires repeated and rapid bidirectional hot-rolling operations and proposes a fuzzy-logic-controller-based brushless electric DC (BLDC) motor drive system for the same. We present a modeling of the hot-steel rough-rolling process using a set of metallurgical parameters and mechanical equations based on their operating conditions, specific features and characteristics, all obtained from actual data. The above equations and related parameters were modeled in MATLAB/Simulink schematic under variations in temperature and slab thickness corresponding using three different hot-rolled (HR) steel specimens. This led to the creation of a pair of speed and torque- profiles with alternate polarities for successive passes covering the entire rolling process for each steel specimen. A fuzzy logic controller utilized the above profiles on the motor shaft by incorporating speed and current feedback loops to attain reference speed and calculation of instantaneous stator currents of the BLDC motor with respective phase sequences, so as to satisfy the torque-profile. Simulation results showing the detailed performance of the drive system are presented. Further, experimental work on a BLD-motor-drive system is presented, along with loading arrangements and an arm controller embedded with control algorithm for the multi-loop feedback system used for the closed loop speed control. The efficacy of the new applications proposed in this study for the first time can be seen from the validation of the results from the BLDC motor with its fuzzy-based controller in terms of simulation and hardware, thereby serving to be an attractive alternative to conventional induction motor drive systems for steel rolling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Single DC Source Multilevel Inverter with Changeable Gains and Levels for Low-Power Loads
Electronics 2020, 9(6), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9060937 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Different types of multilevel converters have been used to convert DC voltage to AC voltage for different applications. It is, however, desirable for flexible AC output voltage to be created from a single DC source at lower cost. This paper presents a new [...] Read more.
Different types of multilevel converters have been used to convert DC voltage to AC voltage for different applications. It is, however, desirable for flexible AC output voltage to be created from a single DC source at lower cost. This paper presents a new type of single DC source multilevel inverter which has the ability to create a different number of levels with low rate components. This device is also able boost the magnitude of the output voltage by means of a variable gain with one DC source. The advantages of the multilevel inverter are rapid stepping among levels, and its ability to produce different ranges of levels (seven, nine and eleven) and gains (two, four and eight). The proposed multilevel inverter includes six semiconductor switches, eight diodes, two capacitors and two inductors, making it suitable for low-power applications. A simulation in MATLAB and experimental tests on a prototype setup showed good performance for different modulations, with THD% down to 2.29%, which are meets the IEEE standard (IEEE 519). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Multiple Lightning Waveform Parameters on the Aging Characteristics of ZnO Varistors
Electronics 2020, 9(6), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9060930 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, in order to study the effect of multi-pulse waveform parameters on the aging characteristics of ZnO varistor, the aging rate and surface temperature rise of ZnO varistor under the impact of multi-pulse current were analyzed. The number of pulses and [...] Read more.
In this study, in order to study the effect of multi-pulse waveform parameters on the aging characteristics of ZnO varistor, the aging rate and surface temperature rise of ZnO varistor under the impact of multi-pulse current were analyzed. The number of pulses and the pulse interval under multiple pulses play a decisive role in the aging rate of ZnO varistor. The greater the number of pulses and the smaller the pulse interval, the higher the temperature rise of the ZnO varistor and the faster the aging rate, the more likely to be failure and damage. The surface temperature distribution of the ZnO varistor under multi-pulse is not uniform, and the more pulses, the more uneven the temperature distribution, but the surface temperature rise has a nonlinear relationship with the number of pulses. The relationship between pulse interval, impact times and average surface temperature rise is established. The aging mechanism of the ZnO varistor under a multi-pulse lightning stroke was revealed from the perspective of energy absorption and heat transfer modelling. The energy sustained by the ZnO varistor under multiple pulses have a nonlinear multiple relationship with the energy of the single pulse current wave at the same amplitude. The superimposed cumulative energy of the impact under multiple pulses accelerates the aging process of the ZnO varistor, and eventually produces an irreversible structural destruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
Robust ESD-Reliability Design of 300-V Power N-Channel LDMOSs with the Elliptical Cylinder Super-Junctions in the Drain Side
Electronics 2020, 9(5), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050730 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The weak ESD-immunity problem has been deeply persecuted in ultra high-voltage (UHV) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and urgently needs to be solved. In this paper, a UHV 300 V circular n-channel (n) lateral diffused MOSFET (nLDMOS) is taken as the benchmarked reference device [...] Read more.
The weak ESD-immunity problem has been deeply persecuted in ultra high-voltage (UHV) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and urgently needs to be solved. In this paper, a UHV 300 V circular n-channel (n) lateral diffused MOSFET (nLDMOS) is taken as the benchmarked reference device for the electrostatic discharge (ESD) capability improvement. However, a super-junction (SJ) structure in the drain region will cause extra depletion zones in the long drain region and reduce the peak value of the channel electric field. Therefore, it may directly increase the resistance of the device to ESD. Then, in this reformation project for UHV nLDMOSs to ESD, two strengthening methods were used. Firstly, the SJ area ratio changed by the symmetric eight-zone elliptical-cylinder length (X) variance (i.e., X = 5, 10, 15 and 20 μm) is added into the drift region of drain side to explore the influence on ESD reliability. From the experimental results, it could be found that the breakdown voltages (VBK) were changed slightly after adding this SJ structure. The VBK values are filled between 391 and 393.5 V. Initially, the original reference sample is 393 V; the VBK changing does not exceed 0.51%, which means that these components can be regarded as little changing in the conduction characteristic after adding these SJ structures under the normal operating conditions. In addition, in the ESD transient high-voltage bombardment situation, the human-body model (HBM) capability of the original reference device is 2500 V. Additionally, as SJs with the length X high-voltage P-type well (HVPW) are inserted into the drain-side drift region, the HBM robustness of these UHV nLDMOSs increases with the length X of the HVPW. When the length X (HVPW) is 20 μm, the HBM value can be upgraded to a maximum value of 5500 V, the ESD capability is increased by 120%. A linear relationship between the HBM immunity level and area ratio of SJs in the drains side in this work can be extracted. The second part revealed that, in the symmetric four-zone elliptical cylinder SJ modulation, the HBM robustness is generally promoted with the increase of HVPW SJ numbers (the highest HBM value (4500 V) of the M5 device improved by 80% as compared with the reference device under test (DUT)). Therefore, from this work, we can conclude that the addition of symmetric elliptical-cylinder SJ structures into the drain-side drift region of a UHV nLDMOS is a good strategy for improving the ESD immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Realization of a Bidirectional Full Bridge Converter with Improved Modulation Strategies
Electronics 2020, 9(5), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050724 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper a Full-Bridge Converter (FBC) for bidirectional power transfer is presented. The proposed FBC is an isolated DC-DC bidirectional converter, connected to a double voltage source—a voltage bus on one side and a Stack of Super-Capacitors (SOSC) on the other side. [...] Read more.
In this paper a Full-Bridge Converter (FBC) for bidirectional power transfer is presented. The proposed FBC is an isolated DC-DC bidirectional converter, connected to a double voltage source—a voltage bus on one side and a Stack of Super-Capacitors (SOSC) on the other side. The control law aims at the regulation either of the bus current (when the load requires power) or of the SOSC current (when the stack requires a recharge). Analysis and design of the proposed FBC are discussed. A Phase Shift Modulation (PSM) scheme is proposed, along with an improved modulation variant for the efficiency optimization, through a proper reduction of the transformer power losses. The realized prototype, compliant with automotive applications, is presented and experimental results are highlighted. The target power level is 2 kW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The P-Type Module with Virtual DC Links to Increase Levels in Multilevel Inverters
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121460 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
There has been an active interest in the evolution of newer multilevel inverter topologies in which the highest operation of DC sources become an important subject. In the paper, a new structure module presented a seventeen levels asymmetrical multilevel inverter by using two [...] Read more.
There has been an active interest in the evolution of newer multilevel inverter topologies in which the highest operation of DC sources become an important subject. In the paper, a new structure module presented a seventeen levels asymmetrical multilevel inverter by using two unequal DC sources (with the ratio 3:1). The configuration was focused on creating virtual DC links by two chargeable capacitors. The module had a simple inherent charging for capacitors without any additional circuit. The proposed multilevel inverter could produce higher voltage levels by a lower number of components; therefore, it is suitable for a wide range of applications. Also, the cascade connection of the module led to a modular topology with more voltage levels at higher voltages. The capability of the inherent negative voltage was involved. The simulation results obtained in MATLAB/Simulink, as well as the experimental results, verified the proposed topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Control of MMC-Based STATCOM as an Effective Interface between Energy Sources and the Power Grid
Electronics 2019, 8(11), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111264 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents a dynamic model of modular multilevel converters (MMCs), which are considered as an effective interface between energy sources and the power grid. By improving the converter performance, appropriate reactive power compensation is guaranteed. Modulation indices are calculated based on detailed [...] Read more.
This paper presents a dynamic model of modular multilevel converters (MMCs), which are considered as an effective interface between energy sources and the power grid. By improving the converter performance, appropriate reactive power compensation is guaranteed. Modulation indices are calculated based on detailed harmonic evaluations of both dynamic and steady-state operation modes, which is considered as the main contribution of this paper in comparison with other methods. As another novelty of this paper, circulating current control is accomplished by embedding an additional second harmonic component in the modulation process. The proposed control method leads to an effective reduction in capacitor voltage fluctuation and losses. Finally, converter’s maximum stable operation range is modified, which provides efficiency enhancements and also stability assurance. The proficiency and functionality of the proposed controller are demonstrated through detailed theoretical analysis and simulations with MATLAB/Simulink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
Feedforward Interpolation Error Compensation Method for Field Weakening Operation Region of PMSM Drive
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8091052 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study proposes a field weakening control method with interpolation error compensation of the look-up table based permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) method. The look-up table (LUT) based control method has robust control characteristics compared to other control methods that use linear controllers for [...] Read more.
This study proposes a field weakening control method with interpolation error compensation of the look-up table based permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) method. The look-up table (LUT) based control method has robust control characteristics compared to other control methods that use linear controllers for current reference generation. However, it is impossible to store all current references under all circumstances for torque commands. General LUT based control methods use two input parameters. In order to mitigate the effect of discretely stored data, two-dimensional interpolation is used to linearly interpolate values between discontinuous data. However, because the current trajectories of PMSMs are generally ellipsoidal, an error occurs between the linearly interpolated and controllable current references. This study proposes a method to compensate for this interpolation error using a feedforward controller for rapid compensation. The improvement using the proposed method is verified by experiment and simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Multi-Inductor H Bridge Fault Current Limiter
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070795 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Current power systems will suffer from increasing pressure as a result of an upsurge in demand and will experience an ever-growing penetration of distributed power generation, which are factors that will contribute to a higher of incidence fault current levels. Fault current limiters [...] Read more.
Current power systems will suffer from increasing pressure as a result of an upsurge in demand and will experience an ever-growing penetration of distributed power generation, which are factors that will contribute to a higher of incidence fault current levels. Fault current limiters (FCLs) are key power electronic devices. They are able to limit the prospective fault current without completely disconnecting in cases in which a fault occurs, for instance, in a power transmission grid. This paper proposes a new type of FCL capable of fault current limiting in two steps. In this way, the FCLs’ power electronic switches experience significantly less stress and their overall performance will significantly increase. The proposed device is essentially a controllable H bridge type fault current limiter (HBFCL) that is comprised of two variable inductances, which operate to reduce current of main switch in the first stage of current limiting. In the next step, the main switch can limit the fault current while it becomes open. Simulation studies are carried out using MATLAB and its prototype setup is built and tested. The comparison of experimental and simulation results indicates that the proposed HBFCL is a promising solution to address protection issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved Model Predictive Torque Control for a Two-Level Inverter Fed Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070769 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
In conventional model predictive control, the dimensions of the control variables are different from each other, which makes adjusting the weighted factors in the cost function complicated. This issue can be solved by adopting the model predictive flux control. However, the performance of [...] Read more.
In conventional model predictive control, the dimensions of the control variables are different from each other, which makes adjusting the weighted factors in the cost function complicated. This issue can be solved by adopting the model predictive flux control. However, the performance of the electromagnetic torque is affected by the change of the cost function. A novel model predictive torque control of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is presented in this paper, and the cost function involving the excitation torque and reluctance torque is established. Combined with the model predictive flux control and discrete space vector modulation, the current ripple and torque ripple are reduced. The performance of torque under an overload condition is superior to model predictive flux control. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by the simulation and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Wide-Frequency Constant-Amplitude Transmitting Circuit for Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Detection Transmitter
Electronics 2019, 8(6), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8060640 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, a novel AC magnetic transmitter current source circuit is proposed for application of frequency domain electromagnetic method (FEM) prospecting. The proposed current source circuit is capable of generating high frequency and high constant amplitude currents, which are key technical problems [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel AC magnetic transmitter current source circuit is proposed for application of frequency domain electromagnetic method (FEM) prospecting. The proposed current source circuit is capable of generating high frequency and high constant amplitude currents, which are key technical problems for FEM. It is suitable for very wide frequencies. The main circuit of the proposed current source consists of a rising-edge enhancing unit, a constant current control unit, and a high voltage clamping unit. Large constant clamping voltage is applied during the rising edge and the falling edge of the alternating square current to obtain a high frequency and high linearity current source. On the current flat stage, the constant current unit provides the energy to the load to ensure the constant amplitude of the output current. Detailed operations of the proposed magnetic current source are given. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed circuit achieves short reversal time, the linearity of the rising/falling edge, constant amplitude and low power loss. These are the desired characteristics of the ac square current source probing transmitter for the magnetic FEM applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Compound Current Limiter and Circuit Breaker
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050551 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
The protection of sensitive loads against voltage drop is a concern for the power system. A fast fault current limiter and circuit breaker can be a solution for rapid voltage recovery of sensitive loads. This paper proposes a compound type of current limiter [...] Read more.
The protection of sensitive loads against voltage drop is a concern for the power system. A fast fault current limiter and circuit breaker can be a solution for rapid voltage recovery of sensitive loads. This paper proposes a compound type of current limiter and circuit breaker (CLCB) which can limit fault current and fast break to adjust voltage sags at the protected buses. In addition, it can act as a circuit breaker to open the faulty line. The proposed CLCB is based on a series L-C resonance, which contains a resonant transformer and a series capacitor bank. Moreover, the CLCB includes two anti-parallel power electronic switches (a diode and an IGBT) connected in series with bus couplers. In order to perform an analysis of CLCB performance, the proposed structure was simulated using MATLAB. In addition, an experimental prototype was built, tested, and the experimental results were reported. Comparisons show that experimental results were in fair agreement with the simulation results and confirm CLCB’s ability to act as a fault current limiter and a circuit breaker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Data-Driven Based Voltage Control Strategy for DC-DC Converters: Application to DC Microgrid
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050493 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper develops a data-driven strategy for identification and voltage control for DC-DC power converters. The proposed strategy does not require a pre-defined standard model of the power converters and only relies on power converter measurement data, including sampled output voltage and the [...] Read more.
This paper develops a data-driven strategy for identification and voltage control for DC-DC power converters. The proposed strategy does not require a pre-defined standard model of the power converters and only relies on power converter measurement data, including sampled output voltage and the duty ratio to identify a valid dynamic model for them over their operating regime. To derive the power converter model from the measurements, a local model network (LMN) is used, which is able to describe converter dynamics through some locally active linear sub-models, individually responsible for representing a particular operating regime of the power converters. Later, a local linear controller is established considering the identified LMN to generate the control signal (i.e., duty ratio) for the power converters. Simulation results for a stand-alone boost converter as well as a bidirectional converter in a test DC microgrid demonstrate merit and satisfactory performance of the proposed data-driven identification and control strategy. Moreover, comparisons to a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controllers demonstrate the merits of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Comprehensive Comparative Analysis of Impedance-Source Networks for DC and AC Application
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040405 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive analytical comparison of the impedance-source-based dc-dc and dc-ac converters in terms of the passive component count and size, semiconductor stress, and range of input voltage variation. The conventional solution with a boost converter was considered as a reference [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive analytical comparison of the impedance-source-based dc-dc and dc-ac converters in terms of the passive component count and size, semiconductor stress, and range of input voltage variation. The conventional solution with a boost converter was considered as a reference value. The main criterion of the comprehensive comparison was the energy stored in the passive elements, which was considered both under a constant and predefined high frequency current ripple in the inductors and the voltage ripple across the capacitors. Main impedance-source converters with or without a transformer and with or without inductor coupling were analyzed. Dc-dc and dc-ac applications were considered. Selective simulation results along with experimental verification are shown. The conclusions provide a selection guide of impedance-source networks for different applications taking into account its advantages and disadvantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Effects of Three-Level Neutral-Point Clamped Inverter on Speed Sensorless Control of Induction Motor
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040402 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
In the model reference adaptive speed observer, the induction motor supply voltage is used as the input of the reference model. However, measuring the supply voltage complicates the system and increases the cost, so the command voltage calculated by the controller is generally [...] Read more.
In the model reference adaptive speed observer, the induction motor supply voltage is used as the input of the reference model. However, measuring the supply voltage complicates the system and increases the cost, so the command voltage calculated by the controller is generally used instead of the actual supply voltage in the drive system. However, due to the nonlinear effects of the inverter, the voltage calculated by the controller is different from the actual supply voltage, resulting in a speed observation deviation. This paper analyzes the multiple effects that cause the three-level neutral-point clamped (TL-NPC) inverter output voltage and command voltage deviation. A voltage deviation compensation measure based on the volt-second balance principle is proposed. In this context, the expression of the rotational speed deviation caused by the voltage deviation is derived rigorously and in detail. Finally, the effectiveness of the voltage compensation measure is verified by experiments. The experimental results are basically consistent with the theoretical derivation expressions. The method and analysis in this paper is applicable to induction motor speed sensorless control systems driven by two-level and other multilevel inverters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Topology-Based Approach to Improve Vehicle-Level Electromagnetic Radiation
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030364 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
The popularity of the electric vehicle (EV) brings us many challenges of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Automotive manufacturers are obliged to keep their products in compliance with EMC regulations. However, the EV is a complex system composed of various electromagnetic interferences (EMI), sensitive equipment [...] Read more.
The popularity of the electric vehicle (EV) brings us many challenges of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Automotive manufacturers are obliged to keep their products in compliance with EMC regulations. However, the EV is a complex system composed of various electromagnetic interferences (EMI), sensitive equipment and complicated coupling paths, which pose great challenges to the efficient troubleshooting of EMC problems. This paper presents an electromagnetic topology (EMT) based model and analysis method for vehicle-level EMI prediction, which decomposes an EV into multi-subsystems and transforms electromagnetic coupling paths into network parameters. This way, each part could be modelled separately with different technologies and vehicle-level EMI was able to be predicted by algebra calculations. The effectiveness of the proposed method was validated by comparing predicted vehicle-radiated emissions at low frequency with experimental results, and application to the troubleshooting of emission problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
An Alternative Carrier-Based Implementation of Space Vector Modulation to Eliminate Common Mode Voltage in a Multilevel Matrix Converter
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020190 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The main aim of the paper is to find a control method for a multilevel matrix converter (MMC) that enables the elimination of common mode voltage (CMV). The method discussed in the paper is based on a selection of converter configurations and the [...] Read more.
The main aim of the paper is to find a control method for a multilevel matrix converter (MMC) that enables the elimination of common mode voltage (CMV). The method discussed in the paper is based on a selection of converter configurations and the instantaneous output voltages of MMC represented by rotating space vectors. The choice of appropriate configurations is realized by the use of space vector modulation (SVM), with the application of Venturini modulation functions. A multilevel matrix converter, which utilizes a multilevel structure in a traditional matrix converter (MC), can achieve an improved output voltage waveform quality, compared with the output voltage of MC. The carrier-based implementation of SVM is presented in this paper. The carrier-based implementation of SVM avoids any trigonometric and division operations, which could be required in a general space vector approach to the SVM method. With use of the proposed control method, a part of the high-frequency output voltage distortion components is eliminated. The application of the presented modulation method eliminates the CMV in MMC what is presented in the paper. Additionally, the possibility to control the phase shift between the appropriate input and output phase voltages is obtained by the presented control strategy. The results of the simulation and experiment confirm the utility of the proposed modulation method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Study of the Failure Mode of ZnO Varistors Under Multiple Lightning Strokes
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020172 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, in order to explore the failure mode of ZnO varistors under multiple lightning strokes, a five-pulse 8/20 μs nominal lightning current with pulse intervals of 50 ms was applied to ZnO varistors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) [...] Read more.
In this study, in order to explore the failure mode of ZnO varistors under multiple lightning strokes, a five-pulse 8/20 μs nominal lightning current with pulse intervals of 50 ms was applied to ZnO varistors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were used to analyze the microstructure of the material. The failure processes of ZnO varistors caused by multiple lightning impulse currents were described. The performance changes of ZnO varistors after multiple lightning impulses were analyzed from both macro and micro perspectives. According to the results of this study’s experiments, the macroscopic failure mode of ZnO varistors after multiple lightning impulses involved the rapid deterioration of the electrical parameters with the increase of the number of impulse groups, until destruction occurred by side-corner cracking. The microstructural examination indicated that, after the multiple lightning strokes, the proportion of Bi in the crystal phases was altered, the grain size of the ZnO varistors became smaller, and the white intergranular phase (Bi-rich grain boundary layer) increased significantly. The failure mechanism was thermal damage and grain boundary structure damage caused by temperature gradient thermal stress, generated by multiple lightning currents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Applications of Power Electronics)
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