# A Compound Current Limiter and Circuit Breaker

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

- Ability to remain invisible to the grid under normal operation mode, introducing negligible impedance in the network;
- Short recovery time and ability to limit the fault current before initiation of the first peak;
- By connecting the proposed CLCB to the grid, the mechanical circuit breaker can be replaced;
- Using the proposed CLCB in the network decreases the grid short-circuit levels;
- Fast recovery after fault removal.

## 2. Electrical Network Modeling

_{1}and S

_{b}are power electronics diode and IGBT switch, respectively, and C

_{s}is a series capacitor bank. In addition, the primary side of transformer T

_{1}is connected in series to a line and its secondary is connected to two anti-parallel IGBTs. During normal operation mode, the resonance transformer and series capacitor form a series resonance L-C tank with resonance frequency equal to electrical network frequency. In this case, D

_{1}for positive half-cycles and S

_{b}for negative half-cycles, are in on-state and voltage drop on the CLCB components is negligible. The CLCB configuration during normal operation mode is shown in Figure 3a.

_{L}). In this case, the control circuit detects the fault and turns on the antiparallel IGBTs. Therefore, the secondary side of the resonance transformer is short-circuited and the resonance transformer shows negligible impedance. The series capacitor impedance then limits the fault current. Figure 3b shows the CLCB topology in the fault current limiting mode. To open the faulty line, the control circuit turns off S

_{b}after one cycle delay. In this case, D

_{1}passes a positive half-cycle and the induced DC voltage on the series capacitor charges it. Then, the series capacitor opens the faulty line successfully. The CLCB topology in circuit breaker mode is shown in Figure 3c.

## 3. Analytical Studies

#### 3.1. CLCB Operation in Normal Mode

_{s}(t) and is equal to V

_{m}sin(ωt). By applying Kirchhoff law to the network, the line current for the steady-state condition,

#### 3.2. CLCB Operation in Fault Current Limiting Mode

_{D}and V

_{IGBT}is IGBT voltage drop, respectively

_{1}and A

_{2}can be obtained using initial conditions. Then,

_{L}(t) includes two-term responses and one steady-state term. The transient responses are dampened after some milliseconds. The steady-state response includes the phase angle shift as shown in the simulation results.

#### 3.3. CLCB Operation in Circuit Breaking Mode

_{b}and induces the DC voltage on the series capacitor. The charged capacitor then opens the faulty line and the transmission line current reaches zero. In this case, we have:

## 4. Control Strategy

_{b}was in on-state for negative half-cycles and IGBTs were in off-state. Therefore, the line current (i

_{L}) passed through the series resonance LC tank and the CLCB showed negligible impedance.

_{L}becomes greater than the maximum permissible current (I

_{ref}) and the control circuit turns on the anti-parallel IGBTs and turns off the S

_{b}after the one cycle delay. Therefore, the resonance transformer is bypassed and the impedance of the series capacitor limits the fault current. By turning off the T

_{s1}, the faulty line is opened and the CLCB acts as a circuit breaker. After fault removal, the step generator resets the gates pulses of the power electronics switches and returns the network to the pre-fault condition.

## 5. Simulation Results

_{s1}and induced DC voltage on the series capacitor charged it with DC voltage. In this case, the faulty line was opened via a series capacitor and the fault current reached zero.

## 6. Experimental Results

- A low number of series power electronic switches (two switches);
- Series switch low voltage stress;
- Low current magnitude in breaking state;
- Combination of fault current limiting structure with solid-state breaker;
- Very fast operation in comparison with mechanical breakers.

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 3.**Proposed CLCB topology (

**a**) normal operation, (

**b**) fault current limiting, and (

**c**) fault current breaking.

**Figure 8.**Series capacitor voltage during the normal operation and fault including fault current limiting mode (AC operation) and circuit breaking mode (DC capacitor charging).

**Figure 10.**Comparison of line current during the normal and fault operation modes; with and without using CLCB.

Parameters | Value | Description |
---|---|---|

Vs(t) | 20 kV | Nominal voltage |

ω | 314 rad/s | Nominal frequency |

R_{s} | 0.5 Ω | Source resistance |

L_{s} | 9 mH | Source inductance |

C_{s} | 56 uF | Series capacitor |

L_{p} | 20 mH | Primary inductance of the transformer |

L_{m} | 0.18 H | Magnetization inductance of the transformer |

L_{t} | 50 mH | Secondary inductance of the transformer |

R_{p} | 2 Ω | Primary resistance of the transformer |

R_{t} | 2 Ω | Secondary resistance of the transformer |

Z_{L} | 0.27 + j0.35 Ω/km | Line impedance |

Z_{T} | 0.07 + j2.16 Ω | Transformer impedance |

Parameters | Value | Description |
---|---|---|

Vs(t) | 110 V | Nominal voltage (rms) |

ω | 314 rad/sec | Nominal frequency |

r_{s} | 0.5 Ω | Source resistance |

L_{s} | 10 mH | Source inductance |

C_{s} | 56 uF | Series capacitor |

L_{p} | 20 mH | Primary inductance of transformer |

L_{m} | 0.18 H | Magnetization inductance of transformer |

r_{eL} | 0.016 Ω | Linkage resistance |

X_{eL} | 0.65 Ω | Linkage inductance |

R_{cL} | 29.62 Ω | Transformer core resistance |

R_{L} | 600 Ω | Transformer impedance |

LTS25-NP | 25 A | Current sensor |

Atmega32 | Pulse generator | |

TLP-250 | IGBTS gate drivers | |

IGBT(NGTB25N120IHL) | 1200 V, 25 A | Fast-closing switches |

Power Diode(SEMIKRON) | 1200 V, 25 A | Transmission line switches |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Heidary, A.; Radmanesh, H.; Bakhshi, A.; Rouzbehi, K.; Pouresmaeil, E.
A Compound Current Limiter and Circuit Breaker. *Electronics* **2019**, *8*, 551.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050551

**AMA Style**

Heidary A, Radmanesh H, Bakhshi A, Rouzbehi K, Pouresmaeil E.
A Compound Current Limiter and Circuit Breaker. *Electronics*. 2019; 8(5):551.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050551

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Heidary, Amir, Hamid Radmanesh, Ali Bakhshi, Kumars Rouzbehi, and Edris Pouresmaeil.
2019. "A Compound Current Limiter and Circuit Breaker" *Electronics* 8, no. 5: 551.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050551