Special Issue "Resilient and Sustainable Distributed Energy Systems"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Edris Pouresmaeil
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
Interests: application of power electronics in power and energy sectors; stability analysis of power grids; analysis and control of power networks; microgrid modelling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Eduardo M. G. Rodrigues
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Guest Editor
Management and Production Technologies of Northern Aveiro—ESAN, Estrada do Cercal, 449, Santiago de Riba-Ul, 3720-509 Oliveira de Azeméis, Portugal
Interests: advanced industrial power electronics applications; instrumentation and signal acquisition; digital signal processing; maintenance engineering; advanced control techniques and implementation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last few decades, the existence of large centralized power plants and overhead power lines that extend as far as we could see was the norm, as was the high environmental price that inevitably had to be paid in order to obtain reliable energy instantaneously by just switching the lights on. Environmental concern and the interest of governments to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases are at the base of the current trend towards a sustainable distributed generation of electricity. Several benefits can be obtained by implementing sustainable distributed energy systems, such as greater energy efficiency, better capacity to reduce the costs of the electricity supply, further promotion of sustainable generation, a lower environmental impact, economic independence of isolated regions, and more flexibility.

However, many challenges arise that prevent distributed energy systems from reaching their full economic potential. Distributed energy systems offer a highly complex and technical challenge to grid operation. Power quality complications, voltage rise effect, control, stability, and protection are an example of a wide range of technical challenges that have to be addressed. In addition, challenges concerning existing or newly erected commercial and regulatory barriers and obstacles have to be addressed, as well. Still, exploring and studying distributed energy systems allows exploring locally available energy resources and ensuring a more sustainable power grid.

This Special Issue intends to deepen the knowledge of sustainable and resilient distributed generation and its implications for energy supply. The potential benefits that reliable distributed generation systems can bring are diverse; therefore, contributions from different research areas are welcome. Researchers are encouraged to submit their contributions that touch on several aspects of distributed generation and its relationship to several contiguous topics.

Dr. Radu Godina
Dr. Edris Pouresmaeil
Dr. Eduardo M. G. Rodrigues
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Distributed energy systems
  • Renewable energy sources
  • Multienergy systems
  • Energy generation and management
  • Energy storage systems
  • Power quality
  • Control, stability, and protection
  • Building and home energy management
  • Energy markets
  • Energy policy

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Day Ahead Bidding of a Load Aggregator Considering Residential Consumers Demand Response Uncertainty Modeling
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7310; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207310 - 19 Oct 2020
Abstract
As the electricity consumption and controllability of residential consumers are gradually increasing, demand response (DR) potentials of residential consumers are increasing among the demand side resources. Since the electricity consumption level of individual households is low, residents’ flexible load resources can participate in [...] Read more.
As the electricity consumption and controllability of residential consumers are gradually increasing, demand response (DR) potentials of residential consumers are increasing among the demand side resources. Since the electricity consumption level of individual households is low, residents’ flexible load resources can participate in demand side bidding through the integration of load aggregator (LA). However, there is uncertainty in residential consumers’ participation in DR. The LA has to face the risk that residents may refuse to participate in DR. In addition, demand side competition mechanism requires the LA to formulate reasonable bidding strategies to obtain the maximum profit. Accordingly, this paper focuses on how the LA formulate the optimal bidding strategy considering the uncertainty of residents’ participation in DR. Firstly, the physical models of flexible loads are established to evaluate the ideal DR potential. On this basis, to quantify the uncertainty of the residential consumers, this paper uses a fuzzy system to construct a model to evaluate the residents’ willingness to participate in DR. Then, based on the queuing method, a bidding decision-making model considering the uncertainty is constructed to maximize the LA’s income. Finally, based on a case simulation of a residential community, the results show that compared with the conventional bidding strategy, the optimal bidding model considering the residents’ willingness can reduce the response cost of the LA and increase the LA’s income. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient and Sustainable Distributed Energy Systems)
Open AccessArticle
A Mathematical Model for the Scheduling of Virtual Microgrids Topology into an Active Distribution Network
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7199; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207199 - 15 Oct 2020
Abstract
This article presents a method based on a mathematical optimization model for the scheduling operation of a distribution network (DN). The contribution of the proposed method is that it permits the configuration and operation of a DN as a set of virtual microgrids [...] Read more.
This article presents a method based on a mathematical optimization model for the scheduling operation of a distribution network (DN). The contribution of the proposed method is that it permits the configuration and operation of a DN as a set of virtual microgrids with a high penetration level of distributed generation (DG) and battery energy storage systems (BESS). The topology of such virtual microgrids are modulated in time in response to grid failures, thus minimizing load curtailment, and maximizing local renewable resource and storage utilization as well. The formulation provides the load reduced by bus to balance the system at every hour and the global probability to present energy not supplied (ENS). Furthermore, for every bus, a flexibility load response range is considered to avoid its total load curtailment for small load reductions. The model has been constructed considering a linear version of the AC optimal power flow (OPF) constraints extended for multiple periods, and it has been tested in a modified version of the IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system considering four different scenarios of 72 h, where the global energy curtailment has been 27.9% without demand-side response (DSR) and 10.4% considering a 30% of flexibility load response. Every scenario execution takes less than a minute, making it appropriate for distribution system operational planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient and Sustainable Distributed Energy Systems)
Open AccessArticle
A Secondary Reconfigurable Inverter and Its Control Strategy
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7021; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207021 - 09 Oct 2020
Abstract
This article proposes a topology of the secondary reconfigurable inverter and the corresponding fault-tolerant control strategy. When the secondary reconfigurable inverter is operating normally, its topology structure is the TPSS circuit. When the power semiconductor devices in the inverter are faulty, the inverter [...] Read more.
This article proposes a topology of the secondary reconfigurable inverter and the corresponding fault-tolerant control strategy. When the secondary reconfigurable inverter is operating normally, its topology structure is the TPSS circuit. When the power semiconductor devices in the inverter are faulty, the inverter circuit needs to be reconfigured. After removing the faulty power semiconductor devices, the remaining power semiconductor devices and the DC side powers are reconstructed as the TPFS structure to keep the system running normally. This article also proposes a switch-pulse-resetting algorithm. This paper adopts the control strategy connecting the constant-voltage, constant-frequency control method with the switch pulse resetting algorithm. It need not change the control algorithm when the proposed reconfigurable inverter is transformed from the normal running state into the faulty running state. The inverter dependability is greatly improved. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed second reconfigurable inverter topology and control strategy are verified by simulation and experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient and Sustainable Distributed Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Grounding System Modeling and Evaluation Using Integrated Circuit Based Fast Relaxed Vector Fitting Approach, Considering Soil Ionization
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5632; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165632 - 14 Aug 2020
Abstract
Since high voltage transmission line towers or wind turbines structures are installed in high-altitude areas, it is essential to achieve a high overvoltage protection system against direct and indirect lightning strikes collisions. The lightning current must be discharged quickly into the protective earth, [...] Read more.
Since high voltage transmission line towers or wind turbines structures are installed in high-altitude areas, it is essential to achieve a high overvoltage protection system against direct and indirect lightning strikes collisions. The lightning current must be discharged quickly into the protective earth, to prevent the dangerous over-voltages formation and define a reference voltage node. This paper presents a novel model to assess the behavior of the grounding system, based on Pocklington integral equations under lightning magnetic fields and variations in soil ionization, in which an explicit circuit-based vector fitting RLC admittance branches are proposed. The frequency-dependent behavior of grounding system frequency response and soil ionization effect is modeled in time domain, straightly to implement into the electro-magnetic transient program (EMTP). The model verification contains horizontal, vertical, and their combinations of grounding grids to represent the complete investigations under lightning strikes. The harmonic impedance mathematical formulations and principles are derived based on a rational function, that could be applicable on ground potential rise (GPR) investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient and Sustainable Distributed Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation the Integration of Heliostat Solar Receiver to Gas and Combined Cycles by Energy, Exergy, and Economic Point of Views
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5307; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155307 - 31 Jul 2020
Abstract
Due to the high amount of natural gas resources in Iran, the gas cycle as one of the main important power production system is used to produce electricity. The gas cycle has some disadvantages such as power consumption of air compressors, which is [...] Read more.
Due to the high amount of natural gas resources in Iran, the gas cycle as one of the main important power production system is used to produce electricity. The gas cycle has some disadvantages such as power consumption of air compressors, which is a major part of gas turbine electrical production and a considerable reduction in electrical power production by increasing the environment temperature due to a reduction in air density and constant volumetric airflow through a gas cycle. To overcome these weaknesses, several methods are applied such as cooling the inlet air of the system by different methods and integration heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with the gas cycle. In this paper, using a heliostat solar receiver (HSR) in gas and combined cycles are investigated by energy, exergy, and economic analyses in Tehran city. The heliostat solar receiver is used to heat the pressurized exhaust air from the air compressor in gas and combined cycles. The key parameter of the three mentioned analyses was calculated and compared by writing computer code in MATLAB software. Results showed the use of HSR in gas and combined cycles increase the annual average energy efficiency from 28.4% and 48.5% to 44% and 76.5%, respectively. Additionally, for exergy efficiency, these increases are from 29.2% and 49.8% to 45.2% and 78.5%, respectively. However, from an economic point of view, adding the HRSG increases the payback period (PP) and it decreases the net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient and Sustainable Distributed Energy Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Power Quality Improvement with a Pulse Width Modulation Control Method in Modular Multilevel Converters under Varying Nonlinear Loads
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3292; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093292 - 09 May 2020
Abstract
In order to reach better results for pulse width modulation (PWM)-based methods, the reference waveforms known as control laws have to be achieved with good accuracy. In this paper, three control laws are created by considering the harmonic components of modular multilevel converter [...] Read more.
In order to reach better results for pulse width modulation (PWM)-based methods, the reference waveforms known as control laws have to be achieved with good accuracy. In this paper, three control laws are created by considering the harmonic components of modular multilevel converter (MMC) state variables to suppress the circulating currents under nonlinear load variation. The first control law consists of only the harmonic components of the MMC’s output currents and voltages. Then, the second-order harmonic of circulating currents is also involved with both upper and lower arm currents in order to attain the second control law. Since circulating current suppression is the main aim of this work, the third control law is formed by measuring all harmonic components of circulating currents which impact on the arm currents as well. By making a comparison between the switching signals generated by the three proposed control laws, it is verified that the second-order harmonic of circulating currents can increase the switching losses. In addition, the existence of all circulating current harmonics causes distributed switching patterns, which is not suitable for the switches’ lifetime. Each upper and lower arm has changeable capacitors, named “equivalent submodule (SM) capacitors” in this paper. To further assess these capacitors, eliminating the harmonic components of circulating currents provides fluctuations with smaller magnitudes, as well as a smaller average value for the equivalent capacitors. Moreover, the second-order harmonic has a dominant role that leads to values higher than 3 F for equivalent capacitors. In comparison with the first and second control laws, the use of the third control-law-based method will result in very small circulating currents, since it is trying to control and eliminate all harmonic components of the circulating currents. This result leads to very small magnitudes for both the upper and lower arm currents, noticeably decreasing the total MMC losses. All simulation results are verified using MATLAB software in the SIMULINK environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient and Sustainable Distributed Energy Systems)
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