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Special Issue "Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Social Ecology and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 14396

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Helena Carvalho
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UNIDEMI, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: supply chain; sustainability; circular economy; industrial symbiosis; eco-innovation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Michael Martin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 34, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
2. Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy
Interests: environment; sustainability; environmental impact assessment; sustainable development; environmental analysis; climate change; environmental management; energy; renewable energy; environmental studies; biofuel production; life cycle assessment; biofuels; sustainable consumption and production; life cycle thinking; waste; LCA; bioenergy; biogas; biodiesel; industrial ecology; cleaner production; ethanol; industrial symbiosis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Radu Godina
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
UNIDEMI, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: industrial engineering; industrial symbiosis; energy management; sustainability; circular economy; additive manufacturing; lean manufacturing; quality management systems; sustainable energy systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the current economic and political environment, proper waste management systems are an unconditional priority, and challenge, for both private and public sectors. The research topic of industrial symbiosis seeks to address these concerns by improving the exchanges of resources between industries, where the waste of one company may be useful for others. When it comes to facing these challenges, industrial symbiosis allows for the reuse of materials that otherwise could have been wasted, and it prevents them from being misused or discarded altogether.

Industrial symbiosis has generally been associated with primarily industries. However, other types of sectors, such as research and academia, governments, and municipal and associated systems (agriculture, forestry, etc.) can also become involved in symbiotic exchanges of material, energy, and knowledge. These exchanges can result in numerous environmental and economic benefits among different entities to bring collective benefits. Interwoven with the concept of circular economy, industrial ecology, and eco-industrial parks, industrial symbiosis is considered to be a groundbreaking method that could decrease resource waste and is a key element for circular economy realization.

This Special Issue intends to deepen the knowledge of industrial symbiosis and its implications for sustainability, one of the main concepts in the circular economy and industrial ecology. The potential benefits that industrial symbiosis can bring are diverse; therefore, contributions from different research areas are welcome. Researchers are encouraged to submit contributions that touch on several aspects of industrial symbiosis and its relationship to several contiguous topics.        

Dr. Helena Carvalho
Dr. Michael Martin
Dr. Radu Godina
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Industrial symbiosis
  • Eco-industrial parks
  • Urban industrial symbiosis
  • Industrial ecology
  • Management of industrial waste and materials
  • Industrial symbiosis policies
  • Recycling, reuse, regeneration, and recovery of waste in industry
  • Resource sharing
  • Eco-industrial development
  • Inter-firm cooperation
  • Sustainable production.

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
Uncovering Barriers for Industrial Symbiosis: Assessing Prospects for Eco-Industrialization through Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Developing Regions
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6898; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116898 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Industrialization is indispensable for socio-economic development but poses far-reaching implications for resources and the environment. Consequently, industrial symbiosis-based collaborations are gaining recognition as a viable strategy to manage resource consumption for mitigating environmental distress. However, these types of synergistic collaborations are more prevalent [...] Read more.
Industrialization is indispensable for socio-economic development but poses far-reaching implications for resources and the environment. Consequently, industrial symbiosis-based collaborations are gaining recognition as a viable strategy to manage resource consumption for mitigating environmental distress. However, these types of synergistic collaborations are more prevalent in developed regions and are linked to larger-sized industries. Admittedly, such collaborative partnerships are less focused in developing regions and small- to medium-size enterprises (SMEs). This calls for discovering the potentials for synergistic partnerships among the small and medium scaled industrial entities in developing economies. Therefore, the study was designed to identify, assess and explore the prospects of symbiotic collaborations among SMEs in Pakistan. Moreover, the inputs are equally relevant for developing and expanding such productive associations in developing regions. Data regarding inputs and outputs was collected from sixty-one (61) SMEs through field survey during the year 2019. It was processed and analyzed to uncover existing and potential synergies among SMEs. The significant findings transpired that the majority of collaborative linkages are bilateral and are driven to maximize economic gains. However, informal networks of recyclers and absence of a stringent regulatory regime are the ground realities in developing/transforming economies. These factors symptomatically interfere with the process of formal/informal exchanges between and among firms. Furthermore, it was observed that the lack of awareness and impulsiveness of SMEs, as well as the inconsistent supply of by-products, act as barriers for such partnerships in developing countries. It calls for proactive engagements and facilitations from the state institutions through policy instruments. The study addresses a broad audience including industrialists, investors, policy makers and researchers engaged in IS studies. Moreover, the inputs will provide impetus for stimulating eco-industrial progress in developing regions such as Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Article
Policies and Strategic Incentives for Circular Economy and Industrial Symbiosis in Portugal: A Future Perspective
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6888; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116888 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 400
Abstract
During the last two decades, Portugal has made efforts to implement a circular economy and its business models in industries, which has led to a series of operational and strategic initiatives. Nevertheless, after 20 years, further efforts are required for a larger-scale implementation [...] Read more.
During the last two decades, Portugal has made efforts to implement a circular economy and its business models in industries, which has led to a series of operational and strategic initiatives. Nevertheless, after 20 years, further efforts are required for a larger-scale implementation of such models. This study aims to identify the current status in the legislative context of the industrial circular economy and industrial symbiosis (ICE&IS) in Portugal, with a special focus on the policies and incentives for the promotion of this model. The main objective of this research is to verify whether there are conditions for the promotion of ICE&IS, and the main aspects to reinforce the current Portuguese strategy. To achieve this objective, a mixed research approach was defined and performed. This approach is based on methods of gathering information and analyzing the results through a comparative policy analysis. The result of this study shows that Portugal still has a considerable number of gaps and needs (strategic, fiscal, and financial) that must be addressed for effective implementation. Our research suggests that Portugal will face a series of critical aspects for industrial CE implementation, namely, promoting effective incentives (i), simplifying the national strategy (ii), and dealing with bureaucracy (iii). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Article
Data-Center Farming: Exploring the Potential of Industrial Symbiosis in a Subarctic Region
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2774; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052774 - 26 Feb 2022
Viewed by 693
Abstract
As our world becomes increasingly digitalized, data centers as operational bases for these technologies lead to a consequent increased release of excess heat into the surrounding environment. This paper studies the challenges and opportunities of industrial symbiosis between data centers’ excess heat and [...] Read more.
As our world becomes increasingly digitalized, data centers as operational bases for these technologies lead to a consequent increased release of excess heat into the surrounding environment. This paper studies the challenges and opportunities of industrial symbiosis between data centers’ excess heat and greenhouse farming, specifically utilizing the north of Sweden as a case study region. The region was selected in a bid to tackle the urgent urban issue of self-sufficiency in local food production. A synergetic approach towards engaging stakeholders from different sectors is presented through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to facilitate resilient data-center-enabled food production. The paper delivers on possible future solutions on implementing resource efficiency in subarctic regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Article
Network Analysis of Industrial Symbiosis in Chemical Industrial Parks: A Case Study of Nanjing Jiangbei New Materials High-Tech Park
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031381 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 625
Abstract
As the primary drivers of the chemical industry, chemical industrial parks should be characterized by industrial symbiosis, which is essential for realizing the worldwide transformation from linear to circular economies based on sustainable development. At present, a lack of sufficient attention is paid [...] Read more.
As the primary drivers of the chemical industry, chemical industrial parks should be characterized by industrial symbiosis, which is essential for realizing the worldwide transformation from linear to circular economies based on sustainable development. At present, a lack of sufficient attention is paid to analyzing the structural characteristics and interaction patterns of industrial symbiosis networks in chemical industrial parks, especially in large-scale specialized chemical industrial parks on a national scale. In this context, with Nanjing Jiangbei New Materials High-Tech Park as an example, this study applies a social-network analysis to empirically investigate the structural characteristics and interaction patterns of an industrial symbiosis network. The results revealed that the industrial symbiosis network of Nanjing Jiangbei New Materials High-Tech Park is currently in a state of low-level agglomeration with a poor transitivity index and that short-distance straight chains are the main connections between enterprises with few transverse connections. Recycling enterprises occupy the core position in the network, while chemical manufacturing enterprises are mostly located on the periphery of the network and fail to establish sufficient effective connections. In terms of individuals, stakeholders’ understanding and evaluation of industrial symbiosis are insufficient; in terms of enterprises, the obstruction of byproducts and waste information circulation and other factors are the main obstacles restricting the industrial symbiosis activities in Nanjing Jiangbei New Materials High-Tech Park. Some policy recommendations are proposed to improve the industrial symbiosis network in large-scale specialized chemical industrial parks on a national scale, and these include establishing industrial symbiosis information systems for the parks, fostering multiple central nodes, and advancing nested development among industrial chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Article
Fuzzy Inference Model for Decision Support in Sustainable Production Planning Processes—A Case Study
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031355 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
Due to crises (e.g., climate crisis, extinction of species, shortage of natural resources, human health crisis), customer requirements for conventionally produced products shift to more sustainably produced products, reducing and avoiding negative environmental and social impacts. Circular thinking in production systems offers new [...] Read more.
Due to crises (e.g., climate crisis, extinction of species, shortage of natural resources, human health crisis), customer requirements for conventionally produced products shift to more sustainably produced products, reducing and avoiding negative environmental and social impacts. Circular thinking in production systems offers new opportunities to meet these new customer expectations. However, it enlarges new challenges for production planning too. Research gaps exist in production planning approaches, considering all three sustainability aspects (economic, environmental, and social) simultaneously. This paper presents a concept of a fuzzy inference model (FIM) to assess the sustainability of production programs. The FIM concept is demonstrated and tested using a single case study considering lab production schedules. The model’s outcome indicates the most significant opportunities to improve production programs’ sustainability using experts’ knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Article
Results and Lessons Learned from Assessing 50 Industrial Parks in Eight Countries against the International Framework for Eco-Industrial Parks
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10611; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410611 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Over the past two years the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) assessed 50 parks in eight developing and transition countries against 51 prerequisites and performance indicators outlined in the International Framework for Eco-Industrial Parks (International EIP Framework). The eight countries covered are: [...] Read more.
Over the past two years the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) assessed 50 parks in eight developing and transition countries against 51 prerequisites and performance indicators outlined in the International Framework for Eco-Industrial Parks (International EIP Framework). The eight countries covered are: Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Nigeria, Peru, South Africa, Ukraine, and Viet Nam. This article provides a summary of the analysis and lessons learned from the assessments of the industrial parks and their performance against the International EIP Framework. The methodology is based on assessments of the current and intended performance of the industrial parks on four key categories (park management, environmental, social, and economic), supported by a scoring method. The analysis indicates that the International EIP Framework can be regarded as a practical and relevant means to assess the performance of industrial parks, as well as a basis to identify and prioritize EIP initiatives to strengthen their performance. There is a wide range of performance among the industrial parks assessed. Higher average current performance against the International Framework can be found in Colombia (68%), Indonesia (67%), and Viet Nam (63%). Ukraine and South Africa have the highest improvement potential (27% and 25%, respectively). Across all eight countries, the environmental and social performance categories have a lower compliance (34% and 44%, respectively) compared to economic performance (72% current compliance) and park management (55% compliance). A review of the root-causes indicates that the main compliance issue for 16 prerequisites and performance indicators outlined in the International EIP Framework seems mainly with the industrial park- and country-specific conditions. There is an opportunity to refine the formulation of five prerequisites and indicators outlined in the International EIP Framework. Across all 50 parks assessed, the following topics have the lowest current compliance: energy; local community outreach; environmental and park management and monitoring; waste and material use; and climate change and the natural environment. A low compliance with specific prerequisites and performance indicators under park management, economic, environmental, and social performance indicates a need by the industrial park for technical assistance. If high-performance industrial parks exist in a country, it implies that there is capacity in the country to develop an eco-industrial park. In this scenario, technical assistance should include a stronger focus on knowledge dissemination, sharing experiences, and peer-to-peer learning between industrial parks and the regulating authorities. Industrial parks managed by public–private partnerships and the private sector show a higher average EIP performance than industrial parks managed solely by the public sector. This seems to illustrate that industrial parks perform better if they are run like a private business or public–private partnership, rather than a government-managed initiative. This article is the first academic publication discussing the results from the application of the International EIP Framework with a large number of industrial parks in multiple countries. It is hoped that this article will encourage further EIP assessments to be undertaken in more industrial parks to assist in their transformation into eco-industrial parks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Article
Technical Viability Analysis of Industrial Synergies—An Applied Framework Perspective
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7720; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187720 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
To foster the implementation of Industrial Symbiosis, several support tools have been developed to facilitate the dissemination of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) and the engagement of stakeholders; the establishment of exchanges between companies, the so-called synergies; and the assessment of impacts and benefits. Despite [...] Read more.
To foster the implementation of Industrial Symbiosis, several support tools have been developed to facilitate the dissemination of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) and the engagement of stakeholders; the establishment of exchanges between companies, the so-called synergies; and the assessment of impacts and benefits. Despite this, it has been found that stakeholders still do not have a clear envisioning of the required steps to the technical implementation of synergies and there are no facilitating tools, such as methodologies, frameworks, modelling tools, and databases, among others, that aid to technically support decision-making of synergy implementation. Thus, the goal of this paper is to present a dedicated framework that provides a set of guidelines and defines a technical viability analysis to support the implementation of potential synergies, which can be used and replicated by any IS practitioner. It comprehends a methodological approach to assess the compliance of a given synergy opportunity; its characterization concerning the definition of the necessary intermediary steps for the technical implementation; and an assessment of the technical feasibility of the synergy. The implementation of the framework allowed the successful technical validation of the studied synergy opportunities, providing a final technical viability assessment that can support decision-making of technology selection and synergy implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Article
Industrial Symbiosis in Taiwan: Case Study on Linhai Industrial Park
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4564; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114564 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Eco-industrial parks (EIP) are a community of manufacturing businesses which seek better environmental and economic performance by using the principles of Industrial Ecology (IE). In Taiwan, government-designated EIPs have operated since 1995, with 23 industrial parks currently in operation. This study presents a [...] Read more.
Eco-industrial parks (EIP) are a community of manufacturing businesses which seek better environmental and economic performance by using the principles of Industrial Ecology (IE). In Taiwan, government-designated EIPs have operated since 1995, with 23 industrial parks currently in operation. This study presents a case from Taiwan, the Linhai Industrial park, and analyzes the park’s transition towards industrial symbiosis and resource sharing. Resource sharing modifications resulted in reduced carbon emissions, millions of liters of fuel saved, and thousands of tons of industrial waste recycled. This successful transition was possible because of coordinated government support. Key factors include technological subsidies, policy support, and willing manufacturers. Additional explanations for Linhai’s current success are explored and future areas of research are identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Article
Fostering Circular Economy Through the Analysis of Existing Open Access Industrial Symbiosis Databases
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030952 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1582
Abstract
Digital evolution underwent great progress in the late 20th century, democratizing the use of the Internet and, therefore, access to public sources of information. This technological shift caused great impacts on different fields, including Industrial Symbiosis (IS). IS stems from the concept of [...] Read more.
Digital evolution underwent great progress in the late 20th century, democratizing the use of the Internet and, therefore, access to public sources of information. This technological shift caused great impacts on different fields, including Industrial Symbiosis (IS). IS stems from the concept of Circular Economy and requires well-structured information to encourage waste reuse. Under these premises, this investigation aimed at processing and analyzing existing open-access IS databases from several perspectives, including types of business areas, waste and new uses involved. In addition, existing IS data were explored with the support of different tools, such as correspondence, network and correlation analyses. The application of this methodology to a set of 496 shortlisted IS exchanges led to several findings, highlighting the strong relationship between metallurgy and the production of cement, the key role played by the electricity production sector both as a donor and a recipient, the versatility of the agriculture area due to their capacity for reusing a variety of waste as fertilizers and the importance of chemical products and steam and hot water as new uses. Overall, these results provide companies with efficient and understandable knowledge to donate or receive materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Review

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Review
The Importance of Individual Actor Characteristics and Contextual Aspects for Promoting Industrial Symbiosis Networks
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 4927; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094927 - 20 Apr 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Factors that affect and influence industrial symbiosis (IS) collaborations have been researched extensively in the literature, where they are mostly reported at a network level or for IS in general, and lack the individual actor’s perspective. This review article contributes to and expands [...] Read more.
Factors that affect and influence industrial symbiosis (IS) collaborations have been researched extensively in the literature, where they are mostly reported at a network level or for IS in general, and lack the individual actor’s perspective. This review article contributes to and expands knowledge of influencing factors and their effect on the individual actor. In a systematic review, guided by the PRISMA 2020 guidelines, this study reviews 53 scientific papers examining planned or existing IS networks. It examines literature from 1 January 2000 to 28 March 2022, and it identifies drivers, barriers, and enablers influencing actors to participate in IS. It explores whether and how the perception and impact of these factors differs depending on the characteristics of individual actors and their specific context. The main findings of this study reveal that an actor’s specific characteristics and the network’s context have a significant impact on decision making and how actors both perceive and are affected by factors influencing collaboration. Furthermore, an additional novel contribution to this field of research is that the study identifies three underlying and recurring considerations that actors appear to find critical, namely, perceived business opportunities/risks, regulatory and political setting, and potential inequalities in the network. The results show that an actor’s take on these critical considerations determines whether the actor is willing to engage in IS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Review
Analysis of the Development of Industrial Symbiosis in Emerging and Frontier Market Countries: Barriers and Drivers
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4223; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074223 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 547
Abstract
Industrial symbiosis (IS) allows the use of the resources of a productive chain, based on collaboration between companies, finding ways to use the waste of one as inputs or raw materials for the other entity. IS seeks to generate environmental sustainability, maximize resources, [...] Read more.
Industrial symbiosis (IS) allows the use of the resources of a productive chain, based on collaboration between companies, finding ways to use the waste of one as inputs or raw materials for the other entity. IS seeks to generate environmental sustainability, maximize resources, and generate social, environmental, and economic benefits based on the physical exchanges of waste, residues, and materials, which generate various advantages for companies and environmental benefits for society. Over the years, research has been conducted worldwide on the implementation of IS in business settings and case studies related to IS in countries with strong economies; however, no papers mapping studies on IS that are focused on emerging and frontier market countries have been identified, and academic literature on research in these countries is also scarce. In this research, an in-depth review of the literature on IS cases in emerging and frontier market countries was conducted to provide future researchers with information on the similarities, weaknesses, strengths, and elements to consider in addressing the topic and closing research gaps in the area. In addition, a mapping was made of the evolution of studies on IS according to country, economic activity, distribution by journal, year of publication, methods used, barriers and drivers in the case studies, and the importance of this topic in the current academic context. In Asian and developing countries, the integration of companies and economic activities takes place in industrial parks, and they have legislation and government regulations that support IS. On the other hand, in the United States and Africa, integrating various sources such as energy, water, coal, and waste in industrial environments is at an early stage of development, and opportunities are being identified to promote IS between companies. This research interests a broad audience, including investors, regulators, policymakers, and researchers interested in fostering IS in emerging and frontier market countries as a mechanism for industrial and economic development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Review
Analysis of the Food Loss and Waste Valorisation of Animal By-Products from the Retail Sector
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2830; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052830 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 662
Abstract
The meat industry generates a large amount of animal by-products not only derived from the slaughter process but also due to the losses and waste of meat products along the supply chain, contributing to the world’s food loss and waste problem. Yearly, 1.7 [...] Read more.
The meat industry generates a large amount of animal by-products not only derived from the slaughter process but also due to the losses and waste of meat products along the supply chain, contributing to the world’s food loss and waste problem. Yearly, 1.7 Mt of meat in the European retail sector and 20% of meat for consumption is wasted in this sector of the supply chain. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to find and evaluate alternatives for the valorisation of agri-food residues, more specifically the meat waste from the food retail sector, through a technological perspective. Thus, we delve into the industrial processes already implemented and the emerging procedures that use muscle, bones and fats by-products from poultry, cattle and pork as the main raw materials in order to identify and characterise them. The results indicate that in addition to the current destinations—landfill, incineration and the rendering process—these animal by-products can be incorporated in the production of biodiesel, food formulations, pharmaceuticals, fertilisers and biogas through an industrial symbiosis approach. Consequently, the several valorisation processes and procedures identified not only suggest an increase in concern about the impacts of the disposal of these materials, but also highlight the potential associated with the use of animal by-products as raw material to obtain added-value products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Review
Industrial Symbiosis and Energy Efficiency in European Process Industries: A Review
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9159; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169159 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Over the last few decades, process industries have invested increasing efforts in developing technical and operating solutions related to industrial symbiosis and energy efficiency in both production processes and auxiliary services. In particular, new technologies that enable industrial symbiosis, such as novel treatment [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, process industries have invested increasing efforts in developing technical and operating solutions related to industrial symbiosis and energy efficiency in both production processes and auxiliary services. In particular, new technologies that enable industrial symbiosis, such as novel treatment processes for byproduct extraction and valorization, water purification, and energy transformation, were implemented in different sectors. This work analyses recent relevant results in the implementation of industrial symbiosis and energy efficiency solutions within process industries across Europe, based on the transactions of energy and material flows. Current developments, based on the circular economy’s transformation levers and related achieved results, were taken into account by considering the achieved results coming from the literature, EU-funded projects, programmes, and initiatives on the implementation of technical solutions and practices related to industrial symbiosis and energy efficiency. In addition, the most relevant challenges deriving from the implementations of industrial symbiosis and energy efficiency were analysed. A comprehensive picture of the sectors involved in achieving more proactive cross-sectorial cooperation and integration was provided, as well as an analysis of the main drivers and barriers for IS and EE implementation in future scenarios for European process industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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Review
Industrial Symbiosis: A Sectoral Analysis on Enablers and Barriers
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041723 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Industrial Symbiosis (IS) around the world in the last 20 years had been characterized through an extensive analysis of scientific papers on the IS emerging process, with a special focus on its early stages. The literature suggests that in this process there are [...] Read more.
Industrial Symbiosis (IS) around the world in the last 20 years had been characterized through an extensive analysis of scientific papers on the IS emerging process, with a special focus on its early stages. The literature suggests that in this process there are key factors (enablers, barriers, triggers, and challenges) that play a critical role in Industrial Symbiosis. From those factors, the enablers and barriers have been highlighted in most of the studies in their different dimensions (social, economic, policy, technological, management, or geographical, amongst others). Several implementation cases suggest that the relevance of these factors rely on the dominant economic sectors involved. This study aims to reveal the key enablers and barriers in various economic sectors and its behaviour according to each one. To accomplish this objective, a comprehensive assessment methodology was designed and performed. This methodology is divided in two sequential phases: the first, sectoral analysis, focuses on the identification of the more relevant dimensions per economic sectors; in the second phase, incidence analysis, the individual behaviour of the enablers and barriers per economic sector are identified. This new approach correlates the economic sectors and factors incidence in order to provide new insights on the key barriers, and enablers on different dimensions. The main result of this study consists in the identification of a set of recommendations that might be critical to reinforce the emerging synergies process and to help overcome the barriers in each economic sector analysed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainability)
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