Special Issue "Imaging of Gynecological Disease"

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Imaging and Theranostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 13882

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Manuela Ludovisi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
IRCCS, Fdn Policlin Univ A Gemelli, Dipartimento Sci Salute Donna & Bambino, Lgo Gemelli 8, I-00168 Rome, Italy
Interests: ultrasound; ovarian cancer; cervical cancer; sonography; diagnosis; ultrasonography; gynecologic oncology; imaging; treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The evaluation of a pelvic mass, detected at routine ultrasound or in the context of having acute symptoms, requires certain methodical steps. It is necessary to diagnose the primary site or origin of the lesion; understand whether the lesion is an intra- or an extra-peritoneal lesion; attempt to discriminate between the benign or malignant nature of the lesion; formulate a specific diagnosis; and furthermore, in the case of a possible malignant mass, define the stage of the disease process. Transvaginal ultrasonography is a dynamic and interactive examination and, in addition to an analysis of the echostructure and “elasticity” of a pelvic mass, it also permits an assessment of site-specific pain in different pelvic areas and an evaluation of the movement of the mass in relation to adjacent structures. All these “dynamic” features, together with morphological and vascular parameters, are essential for making a correct diagnosis.

Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer among women in the developed world, and most women with ovarian cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, when large intraperitoneal dissemination has already occurred. An accurate preoperative assessment of the tumor dissemination is pivotal for adequate counseling among risks and benefits of an aggressive surgical procedure, often required to achieve a complete cytoreduction. When performed by an experienced sonographer, ultrasound has an invaluable role in the primary diagnosis of gynecological cancer, in the assessment of tumor extent in the pelvis and abdominal cavity. Finally, ultrasound allows performing a biopsy in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, obtaining an adequate specimen for histologic diagnosis.

Intraoperative ultrasound techniques have been used for a long time in some surgical areas, especially in liver surgery, where some authors describe the role of intraoperative ultrasound during radiofrequency ablation or hepatic resection. However, in gynecology, these methods are not yet commonly employed.

An appropriate preoperative evaluation is required to obtain an optimal surgical procedure, and transvaginal ultrasound is the most used diagnostic method due to its feasibility and availability. However, and also in benign pathology, some fibroids are difficult to detect during surgery, especially when the palpation is not possible or limited, such as during laparoscopy or minilaparotomy.

Recently, intraoperative ultrasound examination has been proposed in this setting as a useful method to guide the surgeon during myomectomy. Ultrasound examiners and surgeons should work together more often to guarantee the best therapeutic management for the patient in the gynecological setting.

The prevalence of pelvic urinary tract infiltration on transvaginal ultrasound examination in women with gynecologic malignancy was 10%. Pelvic urinary tract assessment plays a key role during transvaginal ultrasound examination, to plan the management of patients with gynecologic cancers.

Improvements in the treatment of cervical carcinoma have made it possible to offer optimal and personalized treatment. Cervical cancer staging is based on clinical examination and histological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the optimal method for staging cervical carcinoma because of its high accuracy in assessing local extension of disease and distant metastases. Ultrasound has gained increased attention in recent years; it is faster, cheaper, and more widely available than other imaging techniques and is highly accurate in detecting tumor presence and evaluating local extension of disease. Both are often used together with computed tomography or positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography to assess the whole body, a more accurate detection of pathological lymph nodes and metabolic information of the disease.

Ultrasound examination is an indisputable imaging method in the diagnosis of endometriosis, as the first step in the detection, as the fundamental tool in planning the management, and as the best diagnostic instrument during surveillance of affected women.

Dr. Manuela Ludovisi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • ultrasound
  • ovarian cancer
  • cervical cancer
  • gynecologic oncology
  • endometriosis
  • ultrasound biopsy
  • imaging
  • treatment

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Article
Classification of Vascular Hotspots and MicroVessel Flow Velocity Waveforms in Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and HPV Condyloma of the Cervix
Diagnostics 2022, 12(10), 2390; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12102390 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 159
Abstract
To assess hotspot micro-vessel flow velocity waveforms in human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infections using transvaginal power Doppler ultrasound (TV-PDU) and to explore the associations of these sonographic parameters with HPV condyloma and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) of the cervix. A total of [...] Read more.
To assess hotspot micro-vessel flow velocity waveforms in human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infections using transvaginal power Doppler ultrasound (TV-PDU) and to explore the associations of these sonographic parameters with HPV condyloma and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) of the cervix. A total of 39 patients with cervical HPV infections with abnormal cytology and colposcopy results (26 cases of LSIL; 13 cases of HPV condyloma) were enrolled to assess the vascular classification of the cervix and micro-vessel flow velocity using TV-PDU before treatment; 40 individuals with a pathologically normal cervix were used as the control group; seven parameters were measured, including vascular grading classification (Class I, Class II, and Class III), lowest pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), peak systolic velocity (PS), end-diastolic velocity (ED), time average maximum velocity (TAMV), and the vascular index (VI = PS/ED). According to vascular classification, most LSILs were class I (69.2%, 18/26), followed by class II (26.9%, 7/26) and class III (3.8%, 1/26). Most HPV condylomas were class I (92.3%, 12/13), and one was class II (7.7%, 1/13). PI, RI, VI (p < 0.0001), and the PSs (p < 0.05) were significantly lower in these cases than in the controls. The ED and TAMV were not significantly different between the patients and controls (p = 0.4985 and p = 0.1564). No sonographic parameter was significantly different between LSIL and HPV condyloma. The mean PI, RI, and VI were significantly lower in LSIL than in the controls. For HPV condyloma, a PI of 1.07 had an 84.6% sensitivity, 85.0% specificity, and an AUC of 88.8%; for LSIL, a PI of 1.08 had a 100% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and an AUC of 94.2%; for HPV infection (HPV condyloma + LSIL), a PI of 1.08 had a 94.9% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and an AUC of 92.4%. Hotspot vascular classification and micro-vessel flow velocity waveforms may provide a potential practical method for the auxiliary diagnosis of cervical HPV infection. The PI may represent a valuable index for distinguishing the micro-vessel flow velocity waveforms in LSIL and HPV condyloma. Since the case numbers were limited in the current study, further validation is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
Article
Predicting Placenta Accreta Spectrum Disorders in a Cohort of Pregnant Patients in the North-East Region of Romania—Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Diagnostics 2022, 12(9), 2130; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12092130 - 01 Sep 2022
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Background: Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders are associated with high mortality and morbidity due to postpartum hemorrhage, hysterectomy, and organ injury, and a multidisciplinary team is required for an individualized case management. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of [...] Read more.
Background: Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders are associated with high mortality and morbidity due to postpartum hemorrhage, hysterectomy, and organ injury, and a multidisciplinary team is required for an individualized case management. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of the most important ultrasonographic (US) and magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) markers for PAS disorders. Material and Methods: The study included 39 adult pregnant patients with at least one previous cesarean delivery and both US and MRI investigations for placenta previa evaluated at the tertiary maternity hospital ‘Cuza Voda’, Iasi, between 2019 and 2021. The following US signs were evaluated: intra-placental lacunae, loss of the retroplacental hypoechoic zone, myometrial thinning < 1 mm, bladder wall interruption, placental bulging, bridging vessels, and the hypervascularity of the uterovesical or retroplacental space. The MRI signs that were evaluated were intra-placental dark T2 bands, placental bulging, loss of the retroplacental hypointense line on T2 images, myometrial thinning, bladder wall interruption, focal exophytic placental mass, and abnormal vascularization of the placental bed. Results: The US and MRI signs analyzed in our study presented adequate sensitivities and specificities for PAS, but no sign proved to be a useful predictor by itself. The presence of three or more US markers for accretion was associated with a sensitivity of 84.6.6% and a specificity of 92.3% (p < 0.001). The presence of three or more MRI signs supplemented these results and were associated with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 61.5% for predicting PAS (p < 0.001). Moreover, US and MRI findings were correlated with FIGO grading and severity of PAS. Conclusions: Even though no US or MRI finding alone can predict PAS with high sensitivity and specificity, our study proves that the presence of three or more imagistic signs could significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy of this condition. Furthermore, US and MRI could be useful tools for evaluating prognostic and perinatal planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Article
Changes in Cystoscopic Findings after Intravesical Hyaluronic Acid Instillation Therapy in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis
Diagnostics 2022, 12(8), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12082009 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 297
Abstract
(1) Background: Limited data showed changes in glomerulation in the bladder mucosa of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC) after intravesical hyaluronic acid (HA) bladder infusion. We aimed to investigate the above changes. (2) Methods: Medical records of IC patients were reviewed retrospectively, from [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Limited data showed changes in glomerulation in the bladder mucosa of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC) after intravesical hyaluronic acid (HA) bladder infusion. We aimed to investigate the above changes. (2) Methods: Medical records of IC patients were reviewed retrospectively, from January 2010 to October 2019. Patients who had received repeated cystoscopy after intravesical HA treatment were enrolled. The associations of multiple parameters, including the ages, symptoms, initial glomerulation stage, HA doses, and the interval period of repeated cystoscopy between the glomerulation change in the repeated cystoscopy were analyzed. (3) Results: Among the 35 patients, 9 cases (25.7%) showed better glomerulation grades in the repeated cystoscope (Group 1), 20 cases (57.1%) showed the same grades (Group 2), and 6 cases showed worse grades (Group 3). No difference was seen in the initial grades or treatment course among the three groups. The interval periods from the initial to the repeated cystoscopy of Group 1 were longer than Group 2 and Group 3 (p = 0.031). Group 3 presents an elder age trend than the other two groups. (4) Conclusion: Intravesical HA repaired bladder glomerulation in a small group of patients with IC. Prolonged treatment has potential benefits, while older age is possibly a negative factor. However, no strong correlation was found between the initial glomerulation grades or changes in glomerulation grades with clinical symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Article
Temporal Changes in Subcutaneous Fibrosis in Patients with Lower Extremity Lymphedema Following Surgery for Gynecologic Cancer: A Computed Tomography-Based Quantitative Analysis
Diagnostics 2022, 12(8), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12081949 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Lymphedema causes inflammation, which provokes fibrosis within the epifascial tissue. Temporal change in fibrosis according to severity of the lymphedema has not been widely investigated. We aimed to study the quantitative changes in epifascial fibrosis during lymphedema treatment using computed tomography (CT). Forty-five [...] Read more.
Lymphedema causes inflammation, which provokes fibrosis within the epifascial tissue. Temporal change in fibrosis according to severity of the lymphedema has not been widely investigated. We aimed to study the quantitative changes in epifascial fibrosis during lymphedema treatment using computed tomography (CT). Forty-five patients (mean age: 57.75 ± 11.12 years) who developed lymphedema following gynecologic surgery were included in this retrospective study. Two weeks of complete decongestive therapy and continued self-bandaging or compression garments were prescribed under regular follow-up monitoring. Lower-extremity epifascial fibrosis was quantitatively analyzed on the initial and follow-up CT scans. Circumference, skin fibrosis, subcutaneous tissue, and fibrosis ratio were calculated in the axial scan. Based on the change in lymphedema severity, we divided subjects into ‘improved’ and ‘aggravated’ groups. The affected lower extremities showed higher circumference, more skin fibrosis and subcutaneous tissue, and higher fibrosis ratio than the unaffected sides on initial CT scan. At follow-up, compared to the aggravated group, the improved group showed significant decreases in fibrosis of skin and subcutaneous tissue and fibrosis ratio. Subcutaneous fibrosis was reversible with volume resolution of lymphedema. Therapeutic approaches should be established on the basis of the reversible nature of fibrotic changes in patients with lower extremity lymphedema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Article
T2*-Weighted Imaging Performance in the Detection of Deep Endometriosis among Readers with Different Experience: Comparison with Conventional MRI Sequences
Diagnostics 2022, 12(7), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12071545 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an effective technique for the diagnosis and preoperative staging of deep infiltrative endometriosis (DIE). The usefulness of MRI sequences susceptible to chronic blood degradation products, such as T2*-weighted imaging, remains uncertain. The present study aims to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an effective technique for the diagnosis and preoperative staging of deep infiltrative endometriosis (DIE). The usefulness of MRI sequences susceptible to chronic blood degradation products, such as T2*-weighted imaging, remains uncertain. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of these sequences in addition to the conventional protocol for DIE assessment. Forty-four MRI examinations performed for clinical and/or ultrasound DIE suspicion were evaluated by three readers with variable experience in female imaging. The inter-observer agreement between the reader who analysed only the conventional protocol and the one who also considered T2*-weighted sequences was excellent. The less experienced reader diagnosed a significantly higher number of endometriosis foci on the T2*-weighted sequences compared with the most experienced observer. T2*-weighted sequences do not seem to provide significant added value in the evaluation of DIE, especially in less experienced readers. Furthermore, artifacts caused by undesirable sources of magnetic inhomogeneity may lead to overdiagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Article
Alignment of the Cervix with the Vagina in Uterine Retroversion: A Possible Risk Factor in Uterine Prolapse
Diagnostics 2022, 12(6), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12061428 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Multiple observational studies have found an association of uterine prolapse with uterine retroversion. Mechanisms proposed to explain this apparent association assume that the cervix of a retroverted uterus will usually insert at the apex of the vagina, with resultant alignment of the cervix [...] Read more.
Multiple observational studies have found an association of uterine prolapse with uterine retroversion. Mechanisms proposed to explain this apparent association assume that the cervix of a retroverted uterus will usually insert at the apex of the vagina, with resultant alignment of the cervix with the vagina. The angle of the axis of the cervix with the axis of the vagina was measured by two readers on 323 sagittal pelvic MRI scans and sagittal reconstructions of pelvic CT scans performed for clinical purposes. One reader observed and recorded the anatomic relations of the uterus that differed by insertion site and version: 44 of 49 retroverted uteri (89.8%) inserted at the vaginal apex, and 13 of 274 anteverted uteri (4.7%) inserted at the vaginal apex. This difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05) by the Chi square test. The urinary bladder, vaginal walls, and rectum were inferiorly related to anteriorly inserted anteverted uteri. Only the vaginal lumen and the rectum at a shallow oblique angle were inferiorly related to apically inserted retroverted uteri. Most retroverted uteri insert at the apex of the vagina. Apically inserted retroverted uteri appear to receive less support from adjacent structures than anteriorly inserted anteverted uteri. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Article
Cervical Power Doppler Angiography with Micro Vessel Blood Flow Indices in the Auxiliary Diagnosis of Acute Cervicitis
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051131 - 03 May 2022
Viewed by 631
Abstract
We have conducted cervical imaging of uterine and micro-vessel flow velocity waveforms in acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) by transvaginal power Doppler ultrasound (TVPDU) in order to explore the associations of sonographic parameters with simple and complex cervicitis. Thirty-eight patients with acute PID [...] Read more.
We have conducted cervical imaging of uterine and micro-vessel flow velocity waveforms in acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) by transvaginal power Doppler ultrasound (TVPDU) in order to explore the associations of sonographic parameters with simple and complex cervicitis. Thirty-eight patients with acute PID (26 with acute simple cervicitis and 12 with complex cervicitis) were enrolled for an assessment of vascular grading of cervix and micro-vessel flow velocity using TVPDU before treatment. Seven parameters, including vascular grading (VG), lowest pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), peak systolic velocity (PS), end diastolic velocity (ED), time average maximum velocity (TAMV), and vascular index (VI = PS/ED), were measured and recorded. Forty-one healthy patients were assessed as the control group. Vascular grading (VG) was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (p < 0.0001). The PI, RI, and VI were significantly lower in the study group than control group (p < 0.0001). No significant associations were observed between seven sonographic parameters and acute simple or/and complex cervicitis. For acute simple cervicitis, a PI cutoff of 1.1 had a sensitivity of 85.4% and a specificity of 92.1% (area under ROC curve [AUC], 93.2%). A RI of 0.6 had a sensitivity of 85.4% and a specificity of 78.9% (AUC, 86.1%). A VI of 2.6 had a sensitivity of 85.4% and a specificity of 78.9% (AUC, 84.9%). Power Doppler angiography of micro-vessel flow velocity waveforms in the cervix could represent a practical method to assist the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease presented as acute cervicitis detected on transvaginal ultrasound before medical or surgical treatment. Cervical PI may be a useful index to detect micro-vessel flow velocity waveforms in acute cervicitis and differentiate acute simple cervicitis from complex cervicitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Article
A New Angle Measurement in Translabial Ultrasound as an Adjunct for the Diagnosis of Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010098 - 03 Jan 2022
Viewed by 342
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the data obtained by a pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) examination with the translabial ultrasound (TLUS) quantification of prolapse, using a new method of angle measurement. We analyzed the TLUS and POP-Q exam findings of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the data obtained by a pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) examination with the translabial ultrasound (TLUS) quantification of prolapse, using a new method of angle measurement. We analyzed the TLUS and POP-Q exam findings of 452 patients with symptoms of POP. The POP-Q system was used for clinical staging. TLUS was performed both at rest, and during the Valsalva maneuver after proper preparation. A horizontal reference line was drawn through the inferior margin of the symphysis pubis and the levator plate connected to the rectal ampulla, and the difference was calculated between the rest and the Valsalva maneuver. The Spearman’s correlation coefficient of agreement between the TLUS and the clinical POP-Q staging was used for statistical analysis. There was a weak degree of correlation between the POP-Q findings for the Ap parameter and our new angle measurement (rho = 0.17, p < 0.001). Thus, POP staging in conjunction with TLUS with this new angle measurement shows better agreement for the diagnosis of POP than POP-Q staging alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Article
Differences between [18F]FLT and [18F]FDG Uptake in PET/CT Imaging in CC Depend on Vaginal Bacteriology
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010070 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 388
Abstract
This study aims to investigate if vaginal bacteriology obtained prior to treatment influences the 3′-deoxy-3 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) [18F]FLT and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) [18F]FDG parameters in positron emission tomography (PET/CT) in cervical cancer (CC) patients. [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate if vaginal bacteriology obtained prior to treatment influences the 3′-deoxy-3 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) [18F]FLT and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) [18F]FDG parameters in positron emission tomography (PET/CT) in cervical cancer (CC) patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on 39 women with locally advanced histologically confirmed cervical cancer who underwent dual tracer PET/CT examinations. The [18F]FLT and [18F]FDG PET parameters in the primary tumor, including SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV, heterogeneity, before radiotherapy (RT) were analyzed, depending on the bacteriology. The p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In the vaginal and/or cervical smears, there were 27 (79.4%) positive results. In seven (20.6%) cases, no opportunistic pathogen growth was observed (No Bacteria Group). In positive bacteriology, eleven (32%) Gram-negative bacilli (Bacteria group 2) and fifteen (44%) Gram-positive bacteria (Bacteria group 1) were detected. Five patients with unknown results were excluded from the analysis. Data analysis shows a statistically significant difference between the SUVmax, and SUVmin values for three independent groups for the [18F]FLT. Conclusions: The lowest values of SUVmax and SUVmin for [18F]FLT are registered in Gram-negative bacteria, higher are in Gram-positive, and the absence of bacteria causes the highest [18F]FLT values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Article
The Natural History of Uterine Venous Plexus Thrombosis
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081338 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
The management of incidental or unusual site venous thrombosis (VT) is challenging and is often extrapolated from studies on symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT). There is a tendency to treat with anticoagulation, due to the theoretical risk of propagation and embolism; however, this [...] Read more.
The management of incidental or unusual site venous thrombosis (VT) is challenging and is often extrapolated from studies on symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT). There is a tendency to treat with anticoagulation, due to the theoretical risk of propagation and embolism; however, this is not without risk. Furthermore, there is little guidance on how to monitor incidental VT. The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of incidental uterine venous plexus thrombosis (UVPT) and provide a structured approach to its overall management. A prospective study was conducted in a university teaching hospital over a 16-month period. Women diagnosed with UVPT on transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) were followed up over a six-month period and managed based on an individualised risk assessments, in conjunction with haematologists. Fifty women were diagnosed with UVPT during the study period, of which 38 were managed expectantly. The resolution was documented in 70% of women. There were no cases of symptomatic DVT or pulmonary embolisms in either the expectant or treatment groups. Our study has shown that in a high proportion of women, incidental UVPT could be managed successfully without the need for anticoagulation. The overall management of UVPT should be based on individualised clinical risk assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Article
Risk of Pre-Malignancy or Malignancy in Postmenopausal Endometrial Polyps: A CHAID Decision Tree Analysis
Diagnostics 2021, 11(6), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11061094 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Background and aims: Postmenopausal endometrial polyps are commonly managed by surgical resection; however, expectant management may be considered for some women due to the presence of medical co-morbidities, failed hysteroscopies or patient’s preference. This study aimed to identify patient characteristics and ultrasound morphological [...] Read more.
Background and aims: Postmenopausal endometrial polyps are commonly managed by surgical resection; however, expectant management may be considered for some women due to the presence of medical co-morbidities, failed hysteroscopies or patient’s preference. This study aimed to identify patient characteristics and ultrasound morphological features of polyps that could aid in the prediction of underlying pre-malignancy or malignancy in postmenopausal polyps. Methods: Women with consecutive postmenopausal polyps diagnosed on ultrasound and removed surgically were recruited between October 2015 to October 2018 prospectively. Polyps were defined on ultrasound as focal lesions with a regular outline, surrounded by normal endometrium. On Doppler examination, there was either a single feeder vessel or no detectable vascularity. Polyps were classified histologically as benign (including hyperplasia without atypia), pre-malignant (atypical hyperplasia), or malignant. A Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree analysis was performed with a range of demographic, clinical, and ultrasound variables as independent, and the presence of pre-malignancy or malignancy in polyps as dependent variables. A 10-fold cross-validation method was used to estimate the model’s misclassification risk. Results: There were 240 women included, 181 of whom presented with postmenopausal bleeding. Their median age was 60 (range of 45–94); 18/240 (7.5%) women were diagnosed with pre-malignant or malignant polyps. In our decision tree model, the polyp mean diameter (≤13 mm or >13 mm) on ultrasound was the most important predictor of pre-malignancy or malignancy. If the tree was allowed to grow, the patient’s body mass index (BMI) and cystic/solid appearance of the polyp classified women further into low-risk (≤5%), intermediate-risk (>5%–≤20%), or high-risk (>20%) groups. Conclusions: Our decision tree model may serve as a guide to counsel women on the benefits and risks of surgery for postmenopausal endometrial polyps. It may also assist clinicians in prioritizing women for surgery according to their risk of malignancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Review

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Review
Ultrasound-Guided Trans-Uterine Cavity Core Needle Biopsy of Uterine Myometrial Tumors to Differentiate Sarcoma from a Benign Lesion—Description of the Method and Review of the Literature
Diagnostics 2022, 12(6), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12061348 - 29 May 2022
Viewed by 926
Abstract
Uterine sarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors with poor prognosis that can be further negatively affected by inadequate surgical approaches such as morcellation. There are no clinical and radiologic criteria for differentiating leiomyoma from malignant uterine tumors. However, some ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging [...] Read more.
Uterine sarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors with poor prognosis that can be further negatively affected by inadequate surgical approaches such as morcellation. There are no clinical and radiologic criteria for differentiating leiomyoma from malignant uterine tumors. However, some ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings may be informative. We present a technique of ultrasound-guided trans-uterine cavity (UG-TUC) core needle biopsy for uterine lesions. As the procedure is an in-organ biopsy, there is no risk of needle canal contamination. The technique also enables the biopsy of lesions inaccessible by the transvaginal tru-cut biopsy. The core needle of the automatic biopsy system is inserted via the cervical canal into the uterine cavity and is directed and activated at the myometrial lesion under ultrasound control. The standard local treatment of localized uterine sarcomas is en bloc total hysterectomy; for fibroids, there are multiple options including conservative management or tumorectomy and tumor morcellation using minimally invasive techniques. Fragmentation of the sarcoma significantly worsens oncologic outcomes and should therefore be avoided. The UG-TUC core needle biopsy of uterine lesions can complement imaging to obtain sufficient material for histologic and molecular analyses of suspected or undetermined lesions, thus facilitating treatment planning and decreasing the risk of unsuspected sarcomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Review
Mobile Mammography Services and Underserved Women
Diagnostics 2022, 12(4), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12040902 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Breast cancer, the second most common cause of cancer in women, affects people across different ages, ethnicities, and incomes. However, while all women have some risk of breast cancer, studies have found that some populations are more vulnerable to poor breast cancer outcomes. [...] Read more.
Breast cancer, the second most common cause of cancer in women, affects people across different ages, ethnicities, and incomes. However, while all women have some risk of breast cancer, studies have found that some populations are more vulnerable to poor breast cancer outcomes. Specifically, women with lower socioeconomic status and of Black and Hispanic ethnicity have been found to have more advanced stages of cancer upon diagnosis. These findings correlate with studies that have found decreased use of screening mammography services in these underserved populations. To alleviate these healthcare disparities, mobile mammography units are well positioned to provide convenient screening services to enable earlier detection of breast cancer. Mobile mammography services have been operating since the 1970s, and, in the current pandemic, they may be extremely helpful. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted necessary screening services, and reinstatement and implementation of accessible mobile screenings may help to alleviate the impact of missed screenings. This review discusses the history and benefits of mobile mammography, especially for underserved women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Review
The Application of Sonovaginography for Implementing Ultrasound Assessment of Endometriosis and Other Gynaecological Diseases
Diagnostics 2022, 12(4), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12040820 - 27 Mar 2022
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Sonovaginography is a way of assessing gynaecological diseases that can be described as cheap yet accurate and non-invasive. It consists of distention of the vagina with ultrasound gel or saline solution while performing transvaginal sonography to clearly visualize and assess a host of [...] Read more.
Sonovaginography is a way of assessing gynaecological diseases that can be described as cheap yet accurate and non-invasive. It consists of distention of the vagina with ultrasound gel or saline solution while performing transvaginal sonography to clearly visualize and assess a host of local cervical, as well as any vaginal, disorders. With endometriosis being a steadily growing gynaecological pathology affecting 8–15% of women of fertile age, transvaginal sonography (TVS) can be considered as one of the most accurate and comprehensive imaging techniques in its diagnosis. Nevertheless, the accuracy may vary depending on scan sites. The purpose of this narrative review is to assess the performance of sonovaginography in detecting endometriosis in those sites where TVS has a low sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Review
The Role of Ultrasound Guided Sampling Procedures in the Diagnosis of Pelvic Masses: A Narrative Review of the Literature
Diagnostics 2021, 11(12), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122204 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
Ultrasound-guided sampling methods are usually minimally invasive techniques applied to obtain cytological specimens or tissue samples, mainly used for the diagnosis of different types of tumors. The main benefits of ultrasound guidance is its availability. It offers high flexibility in the choice of [...] Read more.
Ultrasound-guided sampling methods are usually minimally invasive techniques applied to obtain cytological specimens or tissue samples, mainly used for the diagnosis of different types of tumors. The main benefits of ultrasound guidance is its availability. It offers high flexibility in the choice of sampling approach (transabdominal, transvaginal, and transrectal) and short duration of procedure. Ultrasound guided sampling of pelvic masses represents the diagnostic method of choice in selected patients. We carried out a narrative review of literatures regarding the ultrasound-guided methods of cytological and histological evaluation of pelvic masses as well as the positive and negative predictors for the achievement of an adequate sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Systematic Review
Contrast-Enhanced Mammography versus Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Diagnostics 2022, 12(8), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12081890 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Background: Contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) are commonly used in the screening of breast cancer. The present systematic review aimed to summarize, critically analyse, and meta-analyse the available evidence regarding the role of CE-MRI and CEM in the early [...] Read more.
Background: Contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) are commonly used in the screening of breast cancer. The present systematic review aimed to summarize, critically analyse, and meta-analyse the available evidence regarding the role of CE-MRI and CEM in the early detection, diagnosis, and preoperative assessment of breast cancer. Methods: The search was performed on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science on 28 July 2021 using the following terms “breast cancer”, “preoperative staging”, “contrast-enhanced mammography”, “contrast-enhanced spectral mammography”, “contrast enhanced digital mammography”, “contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging” “CEM”, “CESM”, “CEDM”, and “CE-MRI”. We selected only those papers comparing the clinical efficacy of CEM and CE-MRI. The study quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 criteria. The pooled sensitivities and specificity of CEM and CE-MRI were computed using a random-effects model directly from the STATA “metaprop” command. The between-study statistical heterogeneity was tested (I2-statistics). Results: Nineteen studies were selected for this systematic review. Fifteen studies (1315 patients) were included in the metanalysis. Both CEM and CE-MRI detect breast lesions with a high sensitivity, without a significant difference in performance (97% and 96%, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings confirm the potential of CEM as a supplemental screening imaging modality, even for intermediate-risk women, including females with dense breasts and a history of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Case Report
Retained Placenta Percreta with Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation—Case Report and Short Review of the Literature
Diagnostics 2022, 12(4), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12040904 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 617
Abstract
Placenta accreta spectrum disorder (PAS) has an increased frequency due to the high number of cesarean sections. The abnormal placentation associated with a retained placenta can cause persistent uterine bleeding, with ultrasound Doppler examination being the main choice to assess the uterine hemorrhage. [...] Read more.
Placenta accreta spectrum disorder (PAS) has an increased frequency due to the high number of cesarean sections. The abnormal placentation associated with a retained placenta can cause persistent uterine bleeding, with ultrasound Doppler examination being the main choice to assess the uterine hemorrhage. An acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) may occur because of uterine trauma, spontaneous abortion, dilation and curettage, endometrial carcinoma or gestational trophoblastic disease. The treatment for abnormal placentation associated with AVM can be conservative, represented by methotrexate therapy, arterial embolization, uterine curettage, hysteroscopic loop resection or radical, which takes into consideration total hysterectomy. Therapeutic management always considers the degree of placental invasion, the patient hemodynamic state and fertility preservation. Considering the aspects described, we present a case of retained placenta percreta associated with acquired uterine AVM, with imagistic and clinical features suggestive of a gestational trophoblastic disease, successfully treated by hysterectomy, along with a small review of the literature, as only a few publications have reported a similar association of diagnostics and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Case Report
Ultrasound Imaging of Acquired Myometrial Pseudoaneurysm: The Role of Manipulators as an Unusual Cause during Laparoscopic Surgery
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010164 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
An acquired uterine artery myometrial pseudoaneurysm can occur due to inflammation, trauma, or iatrogenic causes, such as surgical procedures, and can lead to profuse bleeding. The efficacy of uterine manipulators in gynecological surgery, particularly as a cause of a pseudoaneurysm, has been poorly [...] Read more.
An acquired uterine artery myometrial pseudoaneurysm can occur due to inflammation, trauma, or iatrogenic causes, such as surgical procedures, and can lead to profuse bleeding. The efficacy of uterine manipulators in gynecological surgery, particularly as a cause of a pseudoaneurysm, has been poorly discussed in the literature. In this paper, we discuss a case of a 39-year-old woman with profuse uterine bleeding that occurred seven days after operative laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis. The color Doppler ultrasound better evoked the arterial-like turbulent blood flow inside this cavity. These sonographic features were highly suggestive of uterine artery pseudoaneurysm, presumably related to a secondary trauma caused by the manipulator. The diagnosis was subsequently re-confirmed by angiography, and the patient was treated conservatively with uterine artery embolization. Ultrasound has been shown to be a valuable and safe tool for imaging pseudoaneurysm and guiding subsequent interventional procedures. Accordingly, we briefly review the most suitable manipulators used in benign gynecological surgeries to verify if the different types in use can guide the surgeon towards the correct choice according to surgical needs and thus prevent potentially dangerous trauma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Case Report
A New Case of Herlyn–Werner–Wunderlich Syndrome: Uterine Didelphys with Unilateral Cervical Dysgenesis, Vaginal Agenesis, Cervical Distal Ureteral Remnant Fistula, Ureterocele, and Renal Agenesis in a Patient with Contralateral Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010083 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 490
Abstract
The aim of this study was to present a new case of congenital Herlyn–Werner–Wunderlich syndrome, a rare anomaly of the female reproductive tract, and review the related literature. A 12-year-old girl presented with severe dysmenorrhea since menarche and magnetic resonance imaging showing a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to present a new case of congenital Herlyn–Werner–Wunderlich syndrome, a rare anomaly of the female reproductive tract, and review the related literature. A 12-year-old girl presented with severe dysmenorrhea since menarche and magnetic resonance imaging showing a bicornuate uterus, double cervix, right hematometra, and hematosalpinx with ipsilateral renal agenesis, accompanied by a remnant distal ureter with hydroureter. A diagnostic cystoscopy and a reduced-port robot-assisted laparoscopy with chromopertubation were performed in order to identify the anomaly. Uterine didelphys and right cervical dysgenesis with ipsilateral vaginal agenesis, cervical distal ureteral remnant fistula, ureterocele, and renal agenesis were diagnosed on the basis of histopathologic findings, and she subsequently underwent a robotic unilateral right total hysterectomy with salpingectomy. This case report reinforces the importance of the intraoperative biopsy for an accurate diagnosis, despite magnetic resonance imaging being considered the gold-standard diagnostic tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Interesting Images
18F-FDG PET/CT in Relapsed Endometrial Cancer Treated with Preoperative PD-1 Inhibitor Dostarlimab
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081353 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Dostarlimab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) targeting the Programmed-Death-1 (PD-1) co-receptor, recently approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a novel therapy for recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer. We report the case of a [...] Read more.
Dostarlimab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) targeting the Programmed-Death-1 (PD-1) co-receptor, recently approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a novel therapy for recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer. We report the case of a 64-year-old woman, experiencing vaginal recurrence with microsatellite instability high/hypermutated of a FIGO stage IA grade 2 endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. She received preoperative chemotherapy with four cycles of carboplatin plus paclitaxel, with stable disease on pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). Dostarlimab (500 mg intravenously every 3 weeks) was then introduced. The subsequent evaluation after three perfusions demonstrated a complete metabolic response on 18F-FDG PET/CT according to immunotherapy-modified PET response criteria in solid tumors (imPERCIST) criteria, then confirmed by MRI according to immune response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (iRECIST). This clinical description suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT might take place among available tools for guiding the preoperative management for recurrent endometrial cancer patients receiving dostarlimab immunotherapy that should be further explored through clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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Case Report
Acute Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis in a Pregnant Patient at 10 Weeks Gestation: A Case Report
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081348 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 568
Abstract
Acute abdominal pain during pregnancy is challenging, both from a diagnostic and management perspective. A non-localized, persistent pain out of proportion to physical examination is a sign that advanced imaging may be necessary. Mesenteric venous thrombosis in a pregnant patient is extremely rare, [...] Read more.
Acute abdominal pain during pregnancy is challenging, both from a diagnostic and management perspective. A non-localized, persistent pain out of proportion to physical examination is a sign that advanced imaging may be necessary. Mesenteric venous thrombosis in a pregnant patient is extremely rare, but if diagnosis is delayed, can be potentially fatal to both the mother and the fetus. We present here a pregnant patient in the tenth week of gestation with classic clinical manifestations of mesenteric vein thrombosis and the corresponding findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Gynecological Disease)
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