Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2023) | Viewed by 43370

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Periodontology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: microorganisms; cytokines; RT-PCR; occlusal trauma; adjunctive periodontal therapy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although significant progress has been made in the field of dental medicine regarding diagnosis and treatment possibilities, periodontal and peri-implant disease still affect a large part of the population worldwide, up to 55% by some reports. Furthermore, this percentage is expected to rise even more in the coming years due to an aging population. In addition to the affected esthetics, function, and quality of life that these pathologies induce, the significant economic burden must also be considered.

Taking all this into account, non-invasive, early diagnosis that can discriminate between health and pathology, but also inactive and active periods of disease, is paramount. Moreover, the effectiveness of treatment and monitoring during the maintenance phase is a necessary step in appropriate disease management.

The aim of this special issue is to offer an update on the current knowledge of diagnostic methods of periodontal and peri-implant diseases, but also methods of monitoring treatment effectiveness.

It is our pleasure to invite researchers to submit either original research or reviews for publication in the upcoming Special Issue of the Diagnostics journal, especially, but not limited to, periodontal diagnosis, theoretical and clinical studies on new and established diagnostic methods, and treatment effectiveness evaluation.

Prof. Dr. Martu Silvia
Dr. Maria-Alexandra Martu
Prof. Dr. Liliana-Georgeta Foia
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • periodontitis
  • gingivitis
  • periimplantitis
  • biomarkers
  • cytokines
  • oxidative stress markers
  • PCR test
  • point-of-care test
  • CBCT
  • periodontal treatment
  • immunomodulatory therapy
  • local drug delivery

Published Papers (17 papers)

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14 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Various Risk Factors for Biological and Mechanical/Technical Complications in Fixed Implant Prosthetic Therapy: A Retrospective Study
by Dimitrios Bardis, Doriana Agop-Forna, Stavros Pelekanos, Nicolae Chele, Cristina Dascălu, Roland Török, Bianca Török, Ioana Cristea, Panagiota Moulavasili Bardi and Norina Forna
Diagnostics 2023, 13(14), 2341; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13142341 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
The goals of this research were to determine the influence of several factors on implants’ biological and technical complications in posterior fixed implant prosthetic therapy. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 67 edentulous patients (mean age: 63.88 ± 11.709 yrs; 20 [...] Read more.
The goals of this research were to determine the influence of several factors on implants’ biological and technical complications in posterior fixed implant prosthetic therapy. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 67 edentulous patients (mean age: 63.88 ± 11.709 yrs; 20 males, 47 females) with implant prosthetic therapy for posterior edentulism. A total of 76 implant-supported fixed partial dentures (IP-FPDs) and 178 implants were assessed using clinical and paraclinical assessments. Risk factors for biological complications (peri-implantitis) and technical complications were determined by using the Pearson Chi-squared test and multivariate analysis. Results: The implant success (the absence of biological and mechanical/technical complications) was 66.30%. The prevalence of biological complications was 13.5%. The prevalence of technical complications was 28.70%. Variables that were associated with a higher risk of peri-implantitis were poor oral hygiene and bruxism. In univariate analysis, poor oral hygiene increased the risk of peri-implantitis 5.778 times and bruxism 5.875 times. Variables that were associated with a higher risk of mechanical/technical complications were age group > 60 yrs, smoking, history of periodontal disease, and bruxism. In univariate analysis, the risk of technical complications increased 4.14 times for patients in the age group > 60 years (vs. age group 40–60 years) and 20.5 times for patients with bruxism. Bruxism and smoking were significant predictors of mechanical/technical complications in the multivariate model. Conclusions: In univariate models, patients with poor oral hygiene and bruxism have an increased risk of peri-implantitis. In multivariate models, we did not identify significant predictors of peri-implantitis. Age group > 60 yrs, smoking, history of periodontal disease, bone grafting, and bruxism are risk factors for the increase in the mechanical/technical complication rate. In the multivariate model, smoking and bruxism are significant predictors of the mechanical/technical complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
14 pages, 2627 KiB  
Article
Clinical and Radiological Characterization of the Long-Term Association between Unaffected/Minimally Affected Implants and History of Severe Periodontitis: A Retrospective Study
by Darian Rusu, Viorelia Rădulescu, Stefan-Ioan Stratul, Ionut Luchian, Horia Calniceanu, Octavia Vela, Simina Boia, Giorgios Kardaras, Salvatore Chinnici and Andrada Soanca
Diagnostics 2023, 13(11), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13111880 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Objectives: The objectives of this research were to compare, retrospectively, the clinical and radiographic modifications of periodontal parameters and peri-implant conditions and to analyze the relationship between the changes in periodontal parameters and peri-implant conditions over a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years [...] Read more.
Objectives: The objectives of this research were to compare, retrospectively, the clinical and radiographic modifications of periodontal parameters and peri-implant conditions and to analyze the relationship between the changes in periodontal parameters and peri-implant conditions over a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years in a treated population with progressive/uncontrolled periodontitis and at least one unaffected/minimally affected implant. Materials and methods: Nineteen partially edentulous patients having 77 implants inserted, with a mean age of 54.84 ± 7.60 years, were matched for age, gender, compliance, smoking status, general health, and implant characteristics. Periodontal parameters were evaluated in the remaining teeth. Means per teeth and implants were used when making comparisons. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between baseline and final examination in teeth for tPPD, tCAL and MBL. Furthermore, at 7.6 years, statistically significant differences existed between implants and teeth with regard to iCAL and tCAL (p = 0.03). Multiple regression analyses were performed and revealed a significant association regarding iPPD and CBL with smoking and periodontal diagnosis. In addition, FMBS was significantly associated with CBL. Unaffected/minimally affected implants were found more frequently in the posterior mandible, with longer lengths (>10 mm) and small diameters (<4 mm), including in screwed multi-unit bridges. Conclusions: The study results appear to reflect minimally affected mean crestal bone-level loss around implants in comparison to the marginal bone-level loss around teeth when exposed to uncontrolled severe periodontal disease over a mean period of observation of 7.6 years, while the unaffected/minimally affected implants seemed to benefit from a combination of clinical factors, including posterior mandibular position, smaller diameters, and screwed multi-unit restorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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12 pages, 2428 KiB  
Article
Is Laser Therapy an Adjuvant in the Treatment of Peri-Implant Mucositis? A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Luminița Lazăr, Timea Dakó, Izabella-Éva Mureșan, Mircea Suciu, George-Alexandru Maftei, Monica Tatarciuc and Ana-Petra Lazăr
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061192 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
(1) Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of peri-implant mucositis may reduce inflammatory markers and halt the progression of the condition to peri-implantitis. Adjunctive laser treatment may have therapeutic benefits that are not yet well known. The aim of this study was to determine [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of peri-implant mucositis may reduce inflammatory markers and halt the progression of the condition to peri-implantitis. Adjunctive laser treatment may have therapeutic benefits that are not yet well known. The aim of this study was to determine the advantages and limitations of laser therapy as an adjuvant in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis. (2) Methods: A total of 42 patients with at least 2 implants situated in different hemiarches were included in this study and divided into two groups: G1 (received laser therapy) and G2 (no laser therapy). Periodontal health status indices were recorded at the initial moment (T0), and all patients underwent non-surgical debridement therapy accompanied by oral hygiene training. In patients from group G1, one implant site received adjuvant laser therapy (subgroup IL), and the other one did not receive active laser light (IC). The plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and bleeding on probing (BOP) values recorded after 3 months (T1) and 6 months (T2) were analyzed and compared with those at T0. (3) Results: PI values considerably reduced at moment T1 and T2 for both G1 and G2 (p = 0.0031). PPD was also reduced, but the difference between the groups and the three recording moments was not statistically significant. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the BOP values between G1 IL and G1 IC for T0/T1 (p = 0.0182) and T1/T2 (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant difference between G2 and G1 IL or G1 IC. (4) Conclusions: Laser therapy as an adjunct to conventional treatment of peri-implant mucositis leads to a statistically significant reduction in bleeding on probing at 3-month and 6-month re-evaluations. Moreover, it leads to an evident reduction in probing depth but with no statistical significance. These results should be interpreted with caution, and more in-depth research should be performed to create a complete laser therapy protocol for peri-implant mucositis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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19 pages, 4283 KiB  
Article
Research Regarding Dental Mobility Phenomena in the Clinical Recognition Diagnosis of Temporomandibular Disorders
by Laura Elisabeta Checherita, Magda Ecaterina Antohe, Lupu Iulian Costin, Mihai Bogdan Văscu, Ovidiu Stamatin, Irina Croitoru, Sorina Mihaela Solomon, Silvia Teslaru, Irina Gradinaru, Vasilica Toma, Bulancea Petru Bogdan, Daniel Petru Cioloca, Ovidiu Dumitru Aungurencei, Carina Ana Maria Balcoș and Ana Maria Fătu
Diagnostics 2023, 13(4), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13040598 - 6 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1690
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to quantify the implications of the complications of periodontal pathology and dental mobility on the pathology of dysfunctional algo syndrome, a clinical entity with profound implications for the patient’s quality of life. Methodology: Clinical and laboratory [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to quantify the implications of the complications of periodontal pathology and dental mobility on the pathology of dysfunctional algo syndrome, a clinical entity with profound implications for the patient’s quality of life. Methodology: Clinical and laboratory evaluation was conducted in the 2018–2022 period, on a group of 110 women and 130 men, aged between 20–69, selected from our practice venue, Policlinica Stomatologica nr. 1 Iasi, Clinical Base of Dentistry Education “Mihail Kogalniceanu” Iasi, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi and “Apollonia” University Iasi. Overall, 125 subjects were diagnosed with periodontal disease with complications and TMJ disorders and followed periodontal therapy in the context of oral complex rehabilitation treatments (study group); the results of their clinical evaluation were compared with the results of the evaluation of the control group, made from the other 115 patients). Results: Dental mobility and gingival recession were identified as more frequent in the study sample compared with the control sample, the differences being statistically significant in both cases. In total, 26.7% of patients had different types of TMJ disorders and 22.9% of patients had occlusal changes; the percentages are slightly increased in the study sample compared with the control one, but the recorded differences are not statistically significant. Conclusions: Dental mobility, most of the time, is a negative consequence of periodontal disease, leading to the alteration of the mandibular-cranial relations, materializing in an important proportion as an etiopathogenic factor of the dysfunctional syndrome of the stomatognathic system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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11 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
Effects of Acidic Challenge on Demineralized Root Surface Treated with Silver Diamine Fluoride and Potassium Iodide
by Alexandru Iovan, Marcelin Benchea, Simona Stoleriu, Ionuț Tărăboanță, Nicanor Cimpoeșu, Irina Nica and Sorin Andrian
Diagnostics 2023, 13(3), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13030530 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the protective effect of applying potassium iodide (KI) over silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on demineralized root dentin in the case of a sustained acidogenic attack. Methods: Forty caries-free third molars were used in the [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the protective effect of applying potassium iodide (KI) over silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on demineralized root dentin in the case of a sustained acidogenic attack. Methods: Forty caries-free third molars were used in the study. A diamond disc was used to separate the roots and the tooth crowns from the roots. Each root fragment was randomly distributed in one of the four study groups: C—samples were not demineralized; DD—demineralized samples; RS1—demineralized samples covered with SDF+KI (RS-Riva Star product, SDI limited, Bayswater, Australia); RS2—demineralized samples covered with SDF+KI and submersed to another acidic challenge for 3 days. SEM and EDX were used for the morphological and elemental analysis. Vickers hardness assessment was performed using a tribometer CETR UMT-2 (Bruker Corporation, Berlin, Germany). One-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests were used for the statistical analysis with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Morphological and elemental changes were observed on the surface of the study samples. Significant differences were observed between the recorded hardness values of groups C and DD (p = 0.005), C and RS2 (p = 0.002), DD and RS1 (p = 0.011); RS1 and RS2 (p = 0.004). Conclusions: The application of SDF and KI (Riva Star product) on root dentin caries resulted in the formation of a heterogeneous outer layer that sealed the dentin and increased the microhardness of the treated surface. In the conditions of the present study, this layer did not provide enough protection for root dentin exposed to continuous attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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17 pages, 1507 KiB  
Article
Is the Diagnosis of Generalized Stage IV (Severe) Periodontitis Compatible with the Survival of Extended Stabilizing Prosthetic Restorations? A Medium-Term Retrospective Study
by Viorelia Rădulescu, Marius Boariu, Darian Rusu, Camelia Boldeanu, Ruxandra Christodorescu, Alexandra Roman, Petra Surlin, Andreea Cristiana Didilescu, Octavia Vela, Giorgios Kardaras, Ioana Veja, Ioana Martu and Stefan-Ioan Stratul
Diagnostics 2022, 12(12), 3053; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12123053 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
The aim of the study was to identify the most relevant patient-related factors directly involved (alone or in combinations) in the long-term survival and functionality of the abutment teeth of extensive stabilizing bridges and removable prosthesis, in patients treated for Stage IV periodontitis, [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to identify the most relevant patient-related factors directly involved (alone or in combinations) in the long-term survival and functionality of the abutment teeth of extensive stabilizing bridges and removable prosthesis, in patients treated for Stage IV periodontitis, adhering to SPT over a period of at least 5 years. Seventy-six patients treated between 2000–2022, rehabilitated with FDPs and RDPs, adhering to SPT for at least 5 years were included. Patient-related factors influencing retention of RDPs and FDP, survival rates in regular (RCs) and irregular compliers (ICs), and incidence of biological and technical complications were assessed. During a follow-up of 69 months, from 57 patients with FDPs and 19 patients with RDPs, 39 (51.32%) were ICs, while 37 (48.68%) were RCs. An overall statistically significant association (p = 0.04) was identified between biological complications and the type of prostheses. The RDP patients had more complications than FDP patients. In 5.26% of the RDP patients, root caries were identified, and 10.53% were diagnosed with a periapical (endodontic) lesion, while 3.51% of the FDPS patients presented root caries. In five (6.57%) cases, abutment loss resulted in the loss of the prosthesis. Statistically significant correlations were observed between systemic diseases and tooth loss, and between type of tooth lost and the reason for tooth loss, irrespective of the type of prosthesis. A total of 66.67% of the lost incisors, 85.71% of the lost premolars, and 88.89% of the lost molars occurred due to periodontal causes. Furthermore, 93% of the FDPs and RDPs were still in place and in function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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17 pages, 2503 KiB  
Article
The Efficiency of Photodynamic Therapy in the Bacterial Decontamination of Periodontal Pockets and Its Impact on the Patient
by Ioana R. Munteanu, Ruxandra E. Luca, Marius Mateas, Laura Diana Darawsha, Simina Boia, Eugen-Radu Boia and Carmen D. Todea
Diagnostics 2022, 12(12), 3026; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12123026 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Research in the field of periodontal disease continues to focus on disease-associated microorganisms, as the microbial plaque and the host immune responses are considered to be important causative factors, that are highly responsible for the progression of this disease. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Research in the field of periodontal disease continues to focus on disease-associated microorganisms, as the microbial plaque and the host immune responses are considered to be important causative factors, that are highly responsible for the progression of this disease. The purpose of this article is to compare the reduction in the number of specific periodontopathogens in two test groups according to different therapeutic approaches in periodontal disease and to show possible differences. This article is based on a prospective clinical study involving eighteen subjects with forty-four average periodontal pockets assigned to study groups treated by two different methods, SRP and SRP followed by a single PDT application. Efficiency in removing specific bacterial species was evaluated by PCR testing, at baseline and immediately after treatment. The hypothesis that using SRP + aPDT results in an increased decontamination potential was confirmed statistically, when all five specific bacterial pathogens were investigated together. When the pathogens were considered separately, two of the five microorganisms tested were significantly lower in the SRP + PDT group (p < 0.00), and important germ counts reductions were also observed for the other three. There is also a statistically significant relation between the pain at 48 h postoperatively and the type of treatment the patients received, as resulted from the Questionnaire Form. Our results demonstrate that aPDT, as an adjunctive treatment to conservative mechanical cleaning of root surfaces at sites affected by periodontitis, represents an effective tool in terms of reducing specific periodontopathogen germs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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12 pages, 5298 KiB  
Article
Custom-Made Direct Metal Laser Sintering Titanium Subperiosteal Implants in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery for Severe Bone-Deficient Patients—A Pilot Study
by Alexandru Nemtoi, Vlad Covrig, Ana Nemtoi, George Stoica, Ruxandra Vatavu, Danisia Haba and Irina Zetu
Diagnostics 2022, 12(10), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12102531 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3001
Abstract
Background: Nowadays, a combination of classical subperiosteal implant designs with 3D imaging and printing allows one to reduce treatment time and provides support for fixed prostheses in cases where other techniques do not provide satisfactory results. This study aims to present a digital [...] Read more.
Background: Nowadays, a combination of classical subperiosteal implant designs with 3D imaging and printing allows one to reduce treatment time and provides support for fixed prostheses in cases where other techniques do not provide satisfactory results. This study aims to present a digital technique for the manufacturing of custom-made subperiosteal implants and what complications might appear after this type of surgery. Methods: Sixteen patients treated with a custom-made DMLS titanium subperiosteal implant during the period between October 2021 and February 2022 were enrolled in the study. Orthopantomography (OPT) and cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) were recorded for all patients. The measurements taken into account in this study were the fit and stability of implants, duration of surgery, implant survival, and early and late complications. Results: The fit of the implants was extremely satisfactory, with a mean rating of 4 out of 5. The mean duration of the intervention was 86.18 min. At the end of the study, one implant was lost due to insufficient fit and recurrent, untreatable infections. Eleven implants (69%) were placed on the maxillary and five (31%) implants were placed on the mandible. Conclusions: Taking this into consideration, custom-made DMLS titanium subperiosteal implants could present satisfactory implant survival and low complication rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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12 pages, 1250 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Accuracy of Salivary Biomarkers for Periodontal Diagnosis
by Hiba Abdullah Mohammed, Ali Abbas Abdulkareem, Faraedon Mostafa Zardawi and Sarhang Sarwat Gul
Diagnostics 2022, 12(10), 2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12102485 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Background: We aimed to investigate the accuracy of salivary matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8 and -9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in diagnosing periodontitis and in distinguishing periodontitis stages (S)1 to S3. Methods: This study was a case–control study that included patients with periodontitis [...] Read more.
Background: We aimed to investigate the accuracy of salivary matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8 and -9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in diagnosing periodontitis and in distinguishing periodontitis stages (S)1 to S3. Methods: This study was a case–control study that included patients with periodontitis S1 to S3 and subjects with healthy periodontia (controls). Saliva was collected, and then, clinical parameters were recorded, including plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level. Diagnosis was confirmed by assessing the alveolar bone level using radiography. Salivary biomarkers were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: A total of 45 patients (15 for each stage) and 18 healthy subjects as controls were included. The levels of all salivary biomarkers and clinical parameters were significantly higher in periodontitis subjects than in the controls. The ROC curve showed that MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, MMP-8/TIMP-1, and MMP-9/TIMP-1 had statistically significant diagnostic accuracy, with areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.892, 0.844, 0.920, 0.986, and 1.000, respectively, when distinguishing periodontitis from the controls. Similarly, these biomarkers showed significant diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of S1 periodontitis from the controls (AUC range from 0.902 to 1.000). Conclusions: This study suggested that salivary biomarkers exhibited high diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing periodontal health from periodontitis in general as well as S1 periodontitis. Furthermore, TIMP-1 could differentiate S1 from S3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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13 pages, 1198 KiB  
Article
Soft-Tissue Healing Assessment after Extraction and Socket Preservation Using Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) in Smokers: A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial
by Yasser Alrayyes, Saleh Aloraini, Ahmed Alkhalaf and Reham Aljasser
Diagnostics 2022, 12(10), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12102403 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6279
Abstract
Background: Wound healing is essential in any surgical procedure, and multiple factors, such as smoking, can impair it. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the ability of platelet-rich fibrin to enhance socket wound healing in smokers. Methods: A total of [...] Read more.
Background: Wound healing is essential in any surgical procedure, and multiple factors, such as smoking, can impair it. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the ability of platelet-rich fibrin to enhance socket wound healing in smokers. Methods: A total of 18 smoker participants with forty non-restorable upper molars indicated for extraction were recruited to the study and were randomly allocated to four different groups for the assessment of four techniques: advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF), factor-enriched bone graft matrix with advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A/S-PRF), freeze-dried bone allograft and crosslinked collagen membrane (FDBA/CM), and resorbable collagen plug (RCP). One examiner clinically measured soft-tissue closure and the healing pattern using a periodontal probe and a healing index. Each subject was given a questionnaire after each follow-up visit to record several patient-reported experience measures (PREMs). This was conducted at baseline and 10, 21, and 28 days after the extraction procedure. Results: Both A-PRF and A/S-PRF showed significant results in terms of mesio-distally (p = 0.012), and healing pattern parameters (p < 0.0001), while RCP showed the least favorable outcome. Conclusions: Different forms of PRF exhibited enhanced wound closure and healing patterns, as well as reduced post-operative complications among smokers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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11 pages, 1245 KiB  
Article
The Ability of a Novel Trypsin-like Peptidase Activity Assay Kit to Detect Red-Complex Species
by Michihiko Usui, Masanori Iwasaki, Wataru Ariyoshi, Kaoru Kobayashi, Shingo Kasai, Rieko Yamanaka, Keisuke Nakashima and Tatsuji Nishihara
Diagnostics 2022, 12(9), 2172; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12092172 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
The trypsin-like peptidase activity assay kit measures the trypsin-like protease produced by three red-complex species, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, causing periodontitis, and detects the presence of these bacteria in samples. The purpose of this study was to [...] Read more.
The trypsin-like peptidase activity assay kit measures the trypsin-like protease produced by three red-complex species, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, causing periodontitis, and detects the presence of these bacteria in samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the detection of TLPs by a novel TLP-AA, ADCHECK and the detection of red-complex pathogens by real-time PCR using tongue swabs from patients with periodontitis. The detection limit of trypsin-like protease activity by ADCHECK was validated using the culture supernatants of two different Porphyromonas gingivalis bacterial strains. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the number of red-complex species in the tongue coatings of patients with periodontal disease. Trypsin-like protease activity in tongue-swab samples was scored using ADCHECK. ADCHECK successfully detected trypsin-like protease activity in 103 Porphyromonas gingivalis bacterial strains. The specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of ADCHECK for the presence of red-complex pathogens determined by real-time PCR were 90%, 97%, 98%, and 92%, respectively. ADCHECK is an effective tool for the detection of red-complex pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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14 pages, 2357 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Pulpal Status in Primary Teeth Following Direct Pulp Capping in an Experimental Canine Model
by Andreea Igna, Cornel Igna, Mariana Ioana Miron, Larisa Schuszler, Roxana Dascălu, Mihaela Moldovan, Adrian Aristide Voicu, Carmen Darinca Todea, Marius Boariu, Maria-Alexandra Mârțu and Ștefan-Ioan Stratul
Diagnostics 2022, 12(8), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12082022 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aimed to assess the pulpal response of primary teeth by pulse-oximetry (PO) in a canine model, following direct pulp capping (DPC). (2) Methods: Forty-eight primary teeth from eight canine subjects were divided into three treatment groups, based on the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aimed to assess the pulpal response of primary teeth by pulse-oximetry (PO) in a canine model, following direct pulp capping (DPC). (2) Methods: Forty-eight primary teeth from eight canine subjects were divided into three treatment groups, based on the DPC material—calcium hydroxide (CH), MTA, BiodentineTM)—and three corresponding control groups. Data from PO pulp testing were correlated with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) testing, computer tomographic (CT) densitometry and histological analysis; the experiment lasted 14 days. (3) Results: SpO₂ recordings revealed statistically significant differences (p = 0.002, <0.05) between the treatment and control groups, and no significant differences (p = 0.257, >0.05) were observed between treatment groups. LDF recordings showed significant differences (p = 0.002, <0.05) between the treatment and control groups and identified significant differences between materials (p = 0.001, <0.05). CT densitometry indicated vital pulps in all teeth, with pulpal inflammation detected in 6/8 CH-capped teeth and 2/8 MTA-capped teeth. Histologic evaluation confirmed vital pulp in all specimens, with different degrees of inflammation. (4) Conclusions: Within its limitations, the present study confirms the diagnostic value of PO evaluation of pulpal status in primary teeth with histologic means after pulp-capping procedures in a canine model. However, various degrees of pulpal inflammation elicited by different pulp-capping materials seem not to correlate with the obtained PO values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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12 pages, 1090 KiB  
Article
The Effects of 810 nm Diode Laser and Indocyanine Green on Periodontal Parameters and HbA1c in Patients with Periodontitis and Type II Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Study
by Irina-Georgeta Sufaru, Maria-Alexandra Martu, Ionut Luchian, Simona Stoleriu, Diana Diaconu-Popa, Cristian Martu, Silvia Teslaru, Liliana Pasarin and Sorina Mihaela Solomon
Diagnostics 2022, 12(7), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12071614 - 2 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adjunctive periodontal therapy of 5 mg/mL indocyanine green irradiation by an 810 nm diode laser (aPDT), supplementary to scaling and root planing (SRP) in patients with periodontitis and type II diabetes mellitus [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adjunctive periodontal therapy of 5 mg/mL indocyanine green irradiation by an 810 nm diode laser (aPDT), supplementary to scaling and root planing (SRP) in patients with periodontitis and type II diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to the SRP alone, on periodontal clinical parameters and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The study was conducted on 49 subjects with type II DM and periodontitis, divided into two groups: the SRP group (n = 25), who followed SRP alone, and the SRP + aPDT group (n = 24), who followed SRP and four weekly sessions of indocyanine green irradiation by an 810 nm diode laser. Plaque Index (PI), Bleeding on Probing Index (BOP), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and HbA1c were investigated at baseline and after 6 months. At 6 months, both SRP alone and SRP + aPDT generated significant reductions in all the investigated parameters; SRP + aPDT produced more significant reductions for BOP, PD and CAL (p < 0.001) but not for PI and HbA1c, than SRP alone. aPDT with indocyanine green therapy was well tolerated, with two subjects reporting slight discomfort. Therefore, aPDT with indocyanine green might represent a good adjunctive periodontal treatment option for SRP in patients with type II DM and periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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9 pages, 432 KiB  
Article
Effects of Locally Delivered Minocycline Microspheres in Postmenopausal Female Patients with Periodontitis: A Clinical and Microbiological Study
by Georgeta-Maria Laza, Irina-Georgeta Sufaru, Maria-Alexandra Martu, Cristian Martu, Diana Antonela Diaconu-Popa, Igor Jelihovschi and Silvia Martu
Diagnostics 2022, 12(6), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12061310 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
The postmenopausal period, due to low hormonal concentrations, can exert a negative influence on both periodontitis and osteoporosis evolution. The present study aimed to identify potential clinical and microbiological benefic effects of locally delivered minocycline microspheres (Arestin®) in post-menopausal female patients [...] Read more.
The postmenopausal period, due to low hormonal concentrations, can exert a negative influence on both periodontitis and osteoporosis evolution. The present study aimed to identify potential clinical and microbiological benefic effects of locally delivered minocycline microspheres (Arestin®) in post-menopausal female patients with moderate and severe periodontitis. Probing depth, clinical attachment levels and bleeding on probing index, along with BANA tests for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, were performed before and at 3 months after a combined treatment of scaling, root planing (SRP), and Arestin® placed in deep periodontal pockets. The association between SRP and Arestin® exerted significant improvements in terms of clinical periodontal parameters, as well as significant reductions in the red complex bacteria detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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Review

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20 pages, 1309 KiB  
Review
Desquamative Gingivitis in the Context of Autoimmune Bullous Dermatoses and Lichen Planus—Challenges in the Diagnosis and Treatment
by Ana Maria Sciuca, Mihaela Paula Toader, Carmen Gabriela Stelea, George Alexandru Maftei, Oana Elena Ciurcanu, Ovidiu Mihail Stefanescu, Bianca-Andreea Onofrei and Cristina Popa
Diagnostics 2022, 12(7), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12071754 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4829
Abstract
Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a clinical term that describes erythema, desquamation and erosions of the gingiva, of various etiologies. Although the clinical aspect is not specific for a certain disease, an accurate diagnosis of the underlying disorder is necessary because the disease course, [...] Read more.
Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a clinical term that describes erythema, desquamation and erosions of the gingiva, of various etiologies. Although the clinical aspect is not specific for a certain disease, an accurate diagnosis of the underlying disorder is necessary because the disease course, prognosis and treatment vary according to the cause. DG may inflict significant oral discomfort, which is why patients typically present to the dentist for a first consultation, rendering it important for these specialists to be informed about this condition. Our paper aims to review the ethiopatogenesis and diagnostic approach of DG, focusing on the most common underlying disorders (autoimmune bullous dermatoses and lichen planus) and on the management of these patients. Potential etiological agents leading to an inflammatory immune response in the oral mucosa and DG appearance include genetic predisposition, metabolic, neuropsychiatric, infectious factors, medication, dental materials, graft-versus-host reaction and autoimmunity. A thorough anamnesis, a careful clinical examination, paraclinical explorations including histopathological exam and direct immunofluorescence are necessary to formulate an appropriate diagnosis. Proper and prompt management of these patients lead to a better prognosis and improved quality of life, and must include management in the dental office with sanitizing the oral cavity, instructing the patient for rigorous oral hygiene, periodic follow-up for bacterial plaque detection and removal, as well as topical and systemic therapy depending on the underlying disorder, based on treatment algorithms. A multidisciplinary approach for the diagnosis and follow-up of DG in the context of pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, cicatricial pemhigoid or lichen planus is necessary, including consultations with dermatologists, oral medicine specialists and dentists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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15 pages, 337 KiB  
Review
Odontogenic Sinusitis: From Diagnosis to Treatment Possibilities—A Narrative Review of Recent Data
by Cristian Martu, Maria-Alexandra Martu, George-Alexandru Maftei, Diana Antonela Diaconu-Popa and Luminita Radulescu
Diagnostics 2022, 12(7), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12071600 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4207
Abstract
The maxillary sinus is a structure at the border of specialties: otorhinolaryngology and maxillofacial surgery. Due to this fact, regarding etiology, it can be affected by both the rhinogenic and odontogenic path and can impose diagnostic difficulties. The etiopathogenic mechanisms that can affect [...] Read more.
The maxillary sinus is a structure at the border of specialties: otorhinolaryngology and maxillofacial surgery. Due to this fact, regarding etiology, it can be affected by both the rhinogenic and odontogenic path and can impose diagnostic difficulties. The etiopathogenic mechanisms that can affect the Schneiderian membrane are mainly inflammatory, iatrogenic, traumatic, and tumorous in nature. From a microbiological point of view, the bacteriology is polymorphic, including both aerobic and anaerobic species in acute OS, the predominating species in acute OS being aerobic, and in chronic anaerobic germs. The role of fungi in the determination of this pathology and in the production of the biofilm that leads to resistance to antibiotic treatment is also discussed. The present paper aims to present the etiopathogenesis, bacteriology, clinical manifestations, as well as treatment of odontogenic sinusitis (OS) from an updated perspective through reviewing the literature. If unilateral maxillary sinusitis is usually due to odontogenic causes, this does not clinically exclude the possibility of strictly rhinogenic causes in the occurrence of sinusitis. This underlines the important role of complex oral and rhinological clinical examination as well as the role of preclinical examinations in specifying the certainty diagnosis. Simple radiography, orthopantomography, CT, and CBCT are compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy. The treatment of OS is complex, involving medication, dental, and surgical measures. The value of endoscopic surgery is emphasized, comparing its advantages over the classic Caldwell-Luc technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

17 pages, 485 KiB  
Systematic Review
Association between Sjögren’s Syndrome and Periodontitis: Epidemiological, Fundamental and Clinical Data: A Systematic Review
by Dorin Nicolae Gheorghe, Dora Maria Popescu, Stefan Cristian Dinescu, Margarita Silaghi, Petra Surlin and Paulina Lucia Ciurea
Diagnostics 2023, 13(8), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13081401 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
In recent decades, researchers have investigated the bidirectional links between periodontal disease and systemic diseases, and the results have allowed the development of the concept of periodontal medicine. This concept incorporates and analyzes the mutually influential interactions that can occur between periodontitis and [...] Read more.
In recent decades, researchers have investigated the bidirectional links between periodontal disease and systemic diseases, and the results have allowed the development of the concept of periodontal medicine. This concept incorporates and analyzes the mutually influential interactions that can occur between periodontitis and systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that targets the exocrine glands of the body, such as the lacrimal and salivary glands. The amount of saliva produced may gradually decrease with the progression of the disease, which can have an impact on the structures within the oral cavity. Although the reduction in saliva flow produces negative effects in the oral cavity, a direct association between Sjögren’s syndrome and periodontal disease has not yet been demonstrated. Available studies on this topic have not identified significant differences in the periodontal status of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and control groups at the clinical and bacteriological levels. On the other hand, other studies on this topic consider that patients with periodontitis have a higher risk of developing Sjögren’s syndrome than the general population. Therefore, the results remain inconclusive, highlighting the need for further complementary studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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