Advances in Periodontal Pathogens

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 17434

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Periodontology, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16 Universitatii Str., 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: periodontitis etiopathogeny; periodontal medicine; periodontal adjunctive treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Dental Medicine, Department of Periodontology, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: periodontal risk factors; periodontal non-surgical therapy; periodontal adjunctive treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is a sincere pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript to our Special Issue “Advances in Periodontal Pathogens”. This issue is designed to reflect the latest data in the particular field of periodontal microbiology, oral dysbiosis, particular host responses and targeted treatment methods addressed to restore homeostasis. In recent years, shifts in the understanding of the complex and intertwined factors involved in the etiopathogeny of periodontal disease have been produced, with new perspectives on the role of microbial dysbiosis. There is a constant need to clarify the mechanisms that contribute to the onset and evolution of periodontal disease, in order to provide adequate treatment, an objective also proposed by this Special Issue.

All review articles, research articles and techniques on advanced technologies and methods of microbial diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment are of interest to this Special Issue. The editorial board is looking forward to receiving your valuable research work. 

Dr. Irina-Georgeta Sufaru
Dr. Sorina Mihaela Solomon
Dr. Maria-Alexandra Martu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • periodontitis etiopathogeny
  • periopathogens
  • targeted treatment
  • antimicrobial treatment

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Periodontal Pathogens
by Irina-Georgeta Sufaru, Maria-Alexandra Martu and Sorina Mihaela Solomon
Microorganisms 2022, 10(7), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10071439 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Even though periodontitis is considered an infectious disease, there are a number of factors that distinguish it from other infectious diseases: it is not the result of infection with an individual pathogen, but rather the consequence of a modified microbial community interaction with [...] Read more.
Even though periodontitis is considered an infectious disease, there are a number of factors that distinguish it from other infectious diseases: it is not the result of infection with an individual pathogen, but rather the consequence of a modified microbial community interaction with the host organism [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Periodontal Pathogens)

Research

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12 pages, 1288 KiB  
Article
Current Data on Oral Peri-Implant and Periodontal Microbiota and Its Pathological Changes: A Systematic Review
by Virginie Gazil, Octave Nadile Bandiaky, Emmanuelle Renard, Katia Idiri, Xavier Struillou and Assem Soueidan
Microorganisms 2022, 10(12), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10122466 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
The 5- and 10-year implant success rates in dentistry are nearly 90%. Prevalence of peri-implant diseases is 10% for peri-implantitis and 50% for peri-implant mucositis. To better understand these inflammatory pathologies of infectious origin, it is important to know if the composition of [...] Read more.
The 5- and 10-year implant success rates in dentistry are nearly 90%. Prevalence of peri-implant diseases is 10% for peri-implantitis and 50% for peri-implant mucositis. To better understand these inflammatory pathologies of infectious origin, it is important to know if the composition of the peri-implant microbiota is comparable with the periodontal microbiota in healthy and pathological conditions. New generation sequencing (NGS) is a recent metagenomic method that analyzes the overall microorganisms present in an ecological niche by exploiting their genome. These methods are of two types: 16S rRNA sequencing and the shotgun technique. For several years, they have been used to explore the oral, periodontal, and, more specifically, peri-implant microbiota. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the recent results of these new explorations by comparing the periodontal and peri-implant microbiota in patients with healthy and diseased sites and to explore the microbiological characteristics of peri-implantitis. A better knowledge of the composition of the peri-implant microbiota would enable us to optimize our therapeutic strategies. An electronic systematic search was performed using the medical databases PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect, and Periodontology 2000. The selected articles were published between January 2015 and March 2021. Inclusion criteria included clinical studies comparing healthy and pathological periodontal and peri-implant microbiota exclusively using 16S rRNA sequencing or shotgun sequencing, with enrolled populations free of systemic pathology, and studies without substantial bias. Eight articles were selected and reviewed. All of them used 16S rRNA sequencing exclusively. The assessment of these articles demonstrates the specific character of the peri-implant microbiota in comparison with the periodontal microbiota in healthy and pathological conditions. Indeed, peri-implant diseases are defined by dysbiotic bacterial communities that vary from one individual to another, including known periodontopathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) and genera less mentioned in the periodontal disease pattern such as Filifactor alocis. Examination of peri-implant microbiota with 16S rRNA sequencing reveals differences between the periodontal and peri-implant microbiota under healthy and pathological conditions in terms of diversity and composition. The pattern of dysbiotic drift is preserved in periodontal and peri-implant diseases, but when comparing the different types of pathological sites, the peri-implant microbiota has a specificity in the presence of bacteria proper to peri-implantitis and different relative proportions of the microorganisms present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Periodontal Pathogens)
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13 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
Expression of Macrophage Polarization Markers against the Most Prevalent Serotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemomitans
by Daniel Betancur, Camila Muñoz and Angel Oñate
Microorganisms 2022, 10(7), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10071384 - 9 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium with seven serotypes (a–g) according to the structure of its LPS, has been defined as one of the most important pathogens in the development of a dysbiotic periodontal biofilm and the onset of periodontitis (an inflammatory chronic [...] Read more.
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium with seven serotypes (a–g) according to the structure of its LPS, has been defined as one of the most important pathogens in the development of a dysbiotic periodontal biofilm and the onset of periodontitis (an inflammatory chronic disease of the tissues around the teeth), where the serotype b is characterized as the most virulent compared with the other serotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of the macrophage polarization markers M0, M1, and M2 against A. actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: THP-1 cells were infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes a, b, and c. The expression of CD11b, CD4, CD14, and CD68 for M0; IL-6, HLA/DRA, and CXCL10 for M21, and IL-10, CD163, fibronectin-1 or FN1, and CCL17 was evaluated by qPCR at 2 and 24 h after infection. Results: An increase in the expression of these molecules was induced by all serotypes at both times of infection, showing higher levels of expression to the M1 panel at 2 and 24 h compared to other markers. Conclusions: A. actinomycetemcomitans has a role in the macrophage polarization to the M1 phenotype in a non-serotype-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Periodontal Pathogens)
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Review

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17 pages, 756 KiB  
Review
The Contribution of the Human Oral Microbiome to Oral Disease: A Review
by Austin Gregory Morrison, Soumyadev Sarkar, Shahid Umar, Sonny T. M. Lee and Sufi Mary Thomas
Microorganisms 2023, 11(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11020318 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5386
Abstract
The oral microbiome is an emerging field that has been a topic of discussion since the development of next generation sequencing and the implementation of the human microbiome project. This article reviews the current literature surrounding the oral microbiome, briefly highlighting most recent [...] Read more.
The oral microbiome is an emerging field that has been a topic of discussion since the development of next generation sequencing and the implementation of the human microbiome project. This article reviews the current literature surrounding the oral microbiome, briefly highlighting most recent methods of microbiome characterization including cutting edge omics, databases for the microbiome, and areas with current gaps in knowledge. This article also describes reports on microorganisms contained in the oral microbiome which include viruses, archaea, fungi, and bacteria, and provides an in-depth analysis of their significant roles in tissue homeostasis. Finally, we detail key bacteria involved in oral disease, including oral cancer, and the current research surrounding their role in stimulation of inflammatory cytokines, the role of gingival crevicular fluid in periodontal disease, the creation of a network of interactions between microorganisms, the influence of the planktonic microbiome and cospecies biofilms, and the implications of antibiotic resistance. This paper provides a comprehensive literature analysis while also identifying gaps in knowledge to enable future studies to be conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Periodontal Pathogens)
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15 pages, 1406 KiB  
Review
Virulence Factors of the Periodontal Pathogens: Tools to Evade the Host Immune Response and Promote Carcinogenesis
by Linah A. Shahoumi, Muhammad H. A. Saleh and Mohamed M. Meghil
Microorganisms 2023, 11(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11010115 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3744
Abstract
Periodontitis is the most common chronic, inflammatory oral disease that affects more than half of the population in the United States. The disease leads to destruction of the tooth-supporting tissue called periodontium, which ultimately results in tooth loss if uncured. The interaction between [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is the most common chronic, inflammatory oral disease that affects more than half of the population in the United States. The disease leads to destruction of the tooth-supporting tissue called periodontium, which ultimately results in tooth loss if uncured. The interaction between the periodontal microbiota and the host immune cells result in the induction of a non-protective host immune response that triggers host tissue destruction. Certain pathogens have been implicated periodontal disease formation that is triggered by a plethora of virulence factors. There is a collective evidence on the impact of periodontal disease progression on systemic health. Of particular interest, the role of the virulence factors of the periodontal pathogens in facilitating the evasion of the host immune cells and promotion of carcinogenesis has been the focus of many researchers. The aim of this review is to examine the influence of the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) in the modulation of the intracellular signaling pathways of the host cells in order to evade the host immune response and interfere with normal host cell death and the role of their virulence factors in this regard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Periodontal Pathogens)
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15 pages, 570 KiB  
Review
Modulatory Mechanisms of Pathogenicity in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Other Periodontal Pathobionts
by Sara Sharaf and Karolin Hijazi
Microorganisms 2023, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11010015 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
The pathogenesis of periodontitis depends on a sustained feedback loop where bacterial virulence factors and immune responses both contribute to inflammation and tissue degradation. Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease that is associated with a pathogenic shift in the oral microbiome. Within this shift, [...] Read more.
The pathogenesis of periodontitis depends on a sustained feedback loop where bacterial virulence factors and immune responses both contribute to inflammation and tissue degradation. Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease that is associated with a pathogenic shift in the oral microbiome. Within this shift, low-abundance Gram-negative anaerobic pathobionts transition from harmless colonisers of the subgingival environment to a virulent state that drives evasion and subversion of innate and adaptive immune responses. This, in turn, drives the progression of inflammatory disease and the destruction of tooth-supporting structures. From an evolutionary perspective, bacteria have developed this phenotypic plasticity in order to respond and adapt to environmental stimuli or external stressors. This review summarises the available knowledge of genetic, transcriptional, and post-translational mechanisms which mediate the commensal-pathogen transition of periodontal bacteria. The review will focus primarily on Porphyromonas gingivalis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Periodontal Pathogens)
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