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Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Dentistry and Oral Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2022) | Viewed by 15765

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Periodontology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: periodontal disease; periimplantitis, periodontal diagnosis; point-of-care testing; periodontal disease treatment; interaction between periodontitis and systemic diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Dentistry, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: periodontal disease non-surgical and surgical treatment; adjunctive periodontal treatment; orthodontic-periodontal interface; microbiome; immune system; host modulation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent affections worldwide.

Periodontal inflammation has, most frequently, a chronic character and is caused by immune responses against various types of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, such as P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

Diagnosis of periodontal disease is a complex one, and it involves, in addition to many advanced technologies and techniques, the accurate evaluation of the general status of the patient.

Treatment of different types of periodontal disease has become a challenge for the clinician, as protocols are improved continuously. The therapeutic protocols are very diverse and include many avant-garde and minimally invasive solutions. This is why expert opinions are needed to optimize the use of advanced technologies in the clinical setting.

This Special Issue welcomes both original and review articles regarding advances in methods of periodontal diagnosis and also new approaches in therapeutic management.

Prof. Dr. Silvia Martu
Dr. Maria Alexandra Mârțu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • periodontitis
  • gingivitis
  • saliva
  • crevicular fluid
  • markers
  • cytokines
  • oxidative stress
  • lasers
  • photoactivation
  • CBCT
  • RT-PCR
  • FEM
  • occlusal trauma
  • periodontal non-surgical treatment
  • periodontal surgical treatment

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 2114 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Systemic and Maxillary Bone Loss in Cancer Patients with Endo-Periodontal Lesions Using Dkk-1 Biomarker and Dental Radiological Examinations
by Cristina Antohi, Mihaela Salceanu, Liana Aminov, Maria-Alexandra Martu, Cristina Gena Dascalu, Gianina Dodi, George Stoica, Geanina Bandol, Dragos Iancu, Bogdan Dobrovat and Danisia Haba
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5235; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12105235 - 22 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2055
Abstract
The aim of our study was to correlate systemic bone loss by evaluating human Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1) biomarker compared to horizontal bone loss as well as the presence and size of periapical lesions assessed by dental X-ray (ortopantomography—OPT) and cone beam computed [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to correlate systemic bone loss by evaluating human Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1) biomarker compared to horizontal bone loss as well as the presence and size of periapical lesions assessed by dental X-ray (ortopantomography—OPT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in patients with cancer in the ears, nose and throat (ENT) region vs. healthy controls. The study included 63 subjects divided into a study group of 33 cancer patients with ENT cancer (larynx/oropharynx/sinuses) and a control group of 30 healthy individuals. Blood samples were collected from both groups to assess Dkk-1 level using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The dental radiological examination consisted of a panoramic X-ray and a CBCT in order to appraise the horizontal bone loss, the presence and size of the periapical lesions in 2D vs. 3D images. The panoramic X-ray showed that in the control group, the maximum bone loss reached 13.2 mm, with an average of 4.930 ± 3.258 mm, while in the study group, the maximum horizontal bone loss was 11.3 mm, with an average of 5.191 ± 2.109 mm. The CBCT 3D investigation, when compared to the OPT, showed increased values for horizontal bone loss, both in the control group and in the study group; in the control group, the maximum bone loss reached 14.10 mm, with an average of 5.736 ± 3.471 mm, and in the study group, the maximum value was 12.40 mm, and the average was again slightly higher (6.152 ± 2.519 mm). The mean value for Dkk-1 in cancer patients was 1.209 ± 0.110 ng/mL, significantly lower than the value observed in healthy patients (1.712 ± 0.100 ng/mL). CBCT revealed higher values for the investigated parameters when compared to panoramic X-rays. Taking into account the preliminary nature of our study, we observed a significant correlation between the level of bone loss recorded by the Dkk-1 biomarker and radiological dental examination in patients with ENT cancer when compared to the control group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases)
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8 pages, 956 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Periodontal Laser Therapy on Pain in Adult Patients with Orthodontic Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Ana-Petra Lazăr, Timea Dakó, Anamaria Bud, Alexandru Vlasa, Alina Ormenișan, Maria-Alexandra Mârțu, Mariana Păcurar and Luminița Lazăr
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3601; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073601 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
(1) Background: Pain is the most common complaint of patients with fixed orthodontic treatment, especially when applying and activating the orthodontic device. The effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing pain caused by the orthodontic treatment has been frequently studied over the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Pain is the most common complaint of patients with fixed orthodontic treatment, especially when applying and activating the orthodontic device. The effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing pain caused by the orthodontic treatment has been frequently studied over the last few years. In this study, we aim to evaluate the influence of laser therapy on pain caused by orthodontic forces acting on periodontal tissues during fixed orthodontic treatment. (2) Methods: A total of 36 patients who met the inclusion criteria were submitted to laser therapy after beginning a fixed orthodontic treatment. For each patient, one half-arch was treated with laser (HL), the opposite one being the control half-arch (HC). The evaluation of pain was conducted by asking the patients to rate their pain on a VAS scale from 0 to 10. (3) Results: Analyzing the VAS score values reported after applying the orthodontic device, we noticed that the pain increased in the first few hours, it was the highest 24 h after application, and it decreased towards the 7th day. The pain reported by most patients was significantly reduced in the HL compared to the HC, in all three moments that were evaluated (p < 0.0001). (4) Conclusions: Repeated LLLT in patients with orthodontic treatment leads to a significant decrease in pain levels, as the comparison between the laser half-arch and the control half-arch showed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases)
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10 pages, 2228 KiB  
Article
Clinical Effects of Locally Delivered Lactobacillus reuteri as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with Periodontitis: A Split-Mouth Study
by Irina-Georgeta Sufaru, Luminita Lazar, Dorina-Cerasella Sincar, Maria-Alexandra Martu, Liliana Pasarin, Elena-Odette Luca, Ada Stefanescu, Eliza-Maria Froicu and Sorina-Mihaela Solomon
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052470 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Different methods and products have been investigated as measures of adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP). Probiotic use has gained interest for this particular application, especially Lactobacillus spp. This split-mouth interventional prospective study aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of L. [...] Read more.
Different methods and products have been investigated as measures of adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP). Probiotic use has gained interest for this particular application, especially Lactobacillus spp. This split-mouth interventional prospective study aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of L. reuteri DSM 17938 with local application in periodontal pockets of severe periodontitis patients. The study was conducted on 40 subjects with stage 3–4 periodontitis who, based on a split-mouth model, followed SRP and SRP + L. reuteri solution in five weekly sessions. Probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were assessed at baseline and at three months after probiotic treatment completion. Both SRP and SRP + L. reuteri generated significant improvements of all three clinical parameters, but the changes were significantly better for SRP + L. reuteri treated sites. Therefore, we can conclude that adjunctive therapy with L. reuteri DSM 17938 could represent an interesting treatment option, particularly for severe periodontitis cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases)
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11 pages, 451 KiB  
Article
Randomized Trial of Feasibility and Preliminary Effectiveness of PerioTabs® on Periodontal Diseases
by Begum Alkan and Mutlu Özcan
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1677; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031677 - 6 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1590
Abstract
This double-blinded and split-mouth design, randomized feasibility study aimed to assess the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic use of a new age NitrAdineTM-based brushing solution (PerioTabs®) on the clinical parameters before and after periodontal therapy. Four subjects were randomly [...] Read more.
This double-blinded and split-mouth design, randomized feasibility study aimed to assess the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic use of a new age NitrAdineTM-based brushing solution (PerioTabs®) on the clinical parameters before and after periodontal therapy. Four subjects were randomly assigned to two treatment groups according to periodontal infection: PerioTabs® and placebo. At the first appointment, a split-mouth scaling was performed in all participants. All oral care instructions concerning the use of effervescent tablets were explained to the participants in detail. The morning after the tablets were finished, a full-mouth scaling was completed in all participants. All parameters were recorded at 0, 11, and 40 days. According to the results, both the therapeutic and prophylactic interventions showed similar impacts on the gingival index and probing depth compared to the placebo in all patients. The bleeding on probing was further reduced at the PerioTabs® group at baseline until day 40 compared to the placebo in the gingivitis patients with both interventions; at both 11 and 40 days in the periodontitis patients receiving the therapeutic intervention; and at baseline to day 40 in the periodontitis group receiving the prophylactic intervention. While the preliminary results of this new-age brushing solution appear to be a promising approach for a future therapy of periodontal diseases, further research on a larger sample size is needed to draw firm conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases)
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21 pages, 7656 KiB  
Article
Periodontal Tissue Reaction Consecutive Implantation of Endodontic Materials and Subsequent Integration of Complex Oral Rehabilitation Treatments
by Liana Aminov, Aurelian Sorin Pasca, Eusebiu Viorel Sindilar, Maria Antonela Beldiman, Bogdan Petru Bulancea, Ovidiu Stamatin, Iulian Costin Lupu, Irina Croitoru, Silvia Teslaru, Sorina Mihaela Solomon, Georgeta Liliana Foia and Laura Elisabeta Checherita
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031464 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1978
Abstract
Oral rehabilitation is a main branch of dentistry focused on diagnosing the patient’s problem and creating a treatment plan to restore aesthetics, recondition morphologically all components, and recover the functionality of the oral cavity. Biological compatibility of the materials used has a major [...] Read more.
Oral rehabilitation is a main branch of dentistry focused on diagnosing the patient’s problem and creating a treatment plan to restore aesthetics, recondition morphologically all components, and recover the functionality of the oral cavity. Biological compatibility of the materials used has a major importance, due to the direct contact with essential tissues, such as the soft and hard tissue of the periodontium and the potential influence on the outcome of the treatment. The present material aims to assess the inflammatory response after subcutaneous implantation of three materials frequently used in endodontics (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate—MTA, DiaRoot BioAggregate, and Sealapex). The evaluation of the reparative tissue reaction after 7, 30, and 60 days, respectively, subsequent to in vivo implantation, was carried out through electron microscopy imaging. Moreover, evaluation of the dynamics of the osteogenesis process was an indicator for the maintenance of internal homeostasis in the context of complex intraoral rehabilitation treatments that include fixed prosthodontics correlated with the particular periodontal-aesthetic aspects and completed by cranio-mandibular repositioning. Our study showed increased absolute values of alkaline phosphatase in all material-implanted cases (more pronounced in MTA and Bio Aggregate), highlighting that this enzyme could be an effective indicator of bone formation, which takes place after the material implantation, with the most significant elevated values at 30 days postoperatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases)
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Review

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12 pages, 1815 KiB  
Review
Assessment of Negative Gingival Recession: A Critical Component of Periodontal Diagnosis
by I-Ching Wang, Hsun-Liang Chan, Georgia K. Johnson and Satheesh Elangovan
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7015; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147015 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4947
Abstract
Accurate measurement of negative gingival recession (GR) is essential to accurately determine the clinical attachment loss, which leads to an accurate diagnosis and optimal therapy of periodontal disease. However, the accuracy of measuring the negative GR has been shown to be low and [...] Read more.
Accurate measurement of negative gingival recession (GR) is essential to accurately determine the clinical attachment loss, which leads to an accurate diagnosis and optimal therapy of periodontal disease. However, the accuracy of measuring the negative GR has been shown to be low and highly variable between examiners. The position of the gingiva margin in relation to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) varies among different stages of passive eruption. The amount of negative GR is about 2 mm on average at the mid-facial sites and ranges from 2 to 3.5 mm at interproximal sites in periodontally healthy patients. Some other clinical conditions may change the gingival dimension coronal to the CEJ, such as altered passive eruption and gingival enlargement. In addition to the traditional approach using a periodontal probe to assess the negative GR, nowadays dental ultrasound imaging may be able to assist in accurately measuring the amount of negative GR. This narrative review will discuss the existing evidence of the dimension of dentogingival tissue and the clinical assessment of negative GR using different clinical tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases)
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