Special Issue "Crystal Plasticity"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Wojciech Polkowski
Website
Guest Editor
Łukasiewicz Research Network - Foundry Research Institute, Cracow, Poland
Interests: severe plastic deformation; plasticity; materials strengthening; solid/liquid interfacial phenomena; high temperature materials; intermetallics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The term of “Crystal Plasticity” builds a bridge between pure crystallography, materials science, and industrial processing of commonly applied materials pieces (sheets, plates, wires, etc.).

As materials scientists and technologists working in the field of (poly)crystals plasticity, we all tend to provide valuable quantitative and qualitative indicators that describe the process→(crystalline) structure→properties relationship. Generally, our efforts are focused on recognizing possible ways to improve materials’ behavior under predicted operational conditions and applied mechanical and/or thermal external loadings. However, we all know that this goal can be achieved only by having well-established knowledge on crystal structure evolution regarding mechanical and plastic deformation processing.

Nowadays, the  research on crystal plasticity-related phenomena is of high practical importance in the view of the following:

  • The on-going progress in conventional fabrication techniques (as a forging or a cold rolling processes);
  • The design of new processing methods (e.g., various complex severe plastic deformation techniques);
  • The development of novel materials (e.g., high-entropy alloys, intermetallics, bulk metallic glasses, ultra-finegrained alloys, nano-steel, etc.).

In this regard, this Special Issue is especially dedicated to theoretical and experimental research works providing new insights and practical findings in the field of crystal plasticity-related topics. Potential papers include but are not limited to the following subjects, covering processing of modern functional and structural materials:

  • Dislocation theory;
  • Crystal lattice phase transformations and atomic reordering;
  • Materials strengthening;
  • Crystallographic texture changes;
  • Materials processing;
  • Microstructure evolution.

Dr. Wojciech Polkowski
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Plasticity
  • Crystallographic texture
  • Severe plastic deformation
  • Cold/hot plastic deformation processing
  • Strengthening
  • Metals and alloys
  • Intermetallics

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Mechanisms of Grain Structure Evolution in a Quenched Medium Carbon Steel during Warm Deformation
Crystals 2020, 10(7), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10070554 - 29 Jun 2020
Abstract
The as-quenched medium-carbon low-alloy Fe-0.36wt.%C-1wt.%Cr steel was subjected to warm deformation via uniaxial compression at temperatures of 400–700 °C and strain rates of 10−4–10−2 s−1. At low temperatures (400–550 °C), the microstructure evolution was mainly associated with dynamic [...] Read more.
The as-quenched medium-carbon low-alloy Fe-0.36wt.%C-1wt.%Cr steel was subjected to warm deformation via uniaxial compression at temperatures of 400–700 °C and strain rates of 10−4–10−2 s−1. At low temperatures (400–550 °C), the microstructure evolution was mainly associated with dynamic recovery with the value of activation energy of 140 ± 35 kJ/mol. At higher temperatures (600–700 °C), dynamic recrystallization was developed, and activation energy in this case was 243 ± 15 kJ/mol. The presence of nanoscale carbide particles in the structure at temperatures of 400–600 °C resulted in the appearance of threshold stresses. A two-component <001>//compression direction (CD) and <111>//CD deformation texture was formed during deformation. Deformation at the low temperatures resulted in the formation of elongated ferritic grains separated mainly by high-angle boundaries (HAB) with a strong <001>//CD texture. The grains with the <111>//CD orientation were wider in comparison with those with the <001>//CD orientation. The development of substructure in the form of low-angle boundaries (LAB) networks was also observed in the <111>//CD grains. The development of dynamic recrystallization restricted the texture formation. The processing map for warm deformation of the 0.36C-1Cr steel was constructed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Plasticity)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Microstructure, Texture, and Strength Development during High-Pressure Torsion of CrMnFeCoNi High-Entropy Alloy
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040336 - 24 Apr 2020
Abstract
The equiatomic face-centered cubic high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi was severely deformed at room and liquid nitrogen temperature by high-pressure torsion up to shear strains of about 170. Its microstructure was analyzed by X-ray line profile analysis and transmission electron microscopy and its texture by [...] Read more.
The equiatomic face-centered cubic high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi was severely deformed at room and liquid nitrogen temperature by high-pressure torsion up to shear strains of about 170. Its microstructure was analyzed by X-ray line profile analysis and transmission electron microscopy and its texture by X-ray microdiffraction. Microhardness measurements, after severe plastic deformation, were done at room temperature. It is shown that at a shear strain of about 20, a steady state grain size of 24 nm, and a dislocation density of the order of 1016 m−2 is reached. The dislocations are mainly screw-type with low dipole character. Mechanical twinning at room temperature is replaced by a martensitic phase transformation at 77 K. The texture developed at room temperature is typical for sheared face-centered cubic nanocrystalline metals, but it is extremely weak and becomes almost random after high-pressure torsion at 77 K. The strength of the nanocrystalline material produced by high-pressure torsion at 77 K is lower than that produced at room temperature. The results are discussed in terms of different mechanisms of deformation, including dislocation generation and propagation, twinning, grain boundary sliding, and phase transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Plasticity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Strain on Transformation Diagrams of 100Cr6 Steel
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040326 - 21 Apr 2020
Abstract
Based on dilatometric tests, the effect of various values of previous deformation on the kinetics of austenite transformations during the cooling of 100Cr6 steel has been studied. Dilatometric tests have been performed with the use of the optical dilatometric module of the plastometer [...] Read more.
Based on dilatometric tests, the effect of various values of previous deformation on the kinetics of austenite transformations during the cooling of 100Cr6 steel has been studied. Dilatometric tests have been performed with the use of the optical dilatometric module of the plastometer Gleeble 3800. The obtained results were compared to metallographic analyses and hardness measurements HV30. Uniaxial compression deformations were chosen as follows: 0, 0.35, and 1; note that these are true (logarithmic) deformations. The highly important finding was the absence of bainite. In addition, it has been verified that with the increasing amount of deformation, there is a further shift in the pearlitic region to higher cooling rates. The previous deformation also affected the temperature martensite start, which decreased due to deformation. The deformation value of 1 also shifted the critical cooling rate required for martensite formation from the 12 °C/s to 25 °C/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Plasticity)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Low-Density Al20+xCr20-xMo20-yTi20V20+y Alloys
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040278 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs) Al20+xCr20-xMo20-yTi20V20+y ((x, y) = (0, 0), (0, 10), and (10, 15)) were computationally studied to obtain a low density and a better mechanical property. The density functional theory (DFT) method [...] Read more.
Refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs) Al20+xCr20-xMo20-yTi20V20+y ((x, y) = (0, 0), (0, 10), and (10, 15)) were computationally studied to obtain a low density and a better mechanical property. The density functional theory (DFT) method was employed to compute the structural and mechanical properties of the alloys, based on a large unit cell model of randomly distributed elements. Debye–Grüneisen theory was used to study the thermal properties of Al20+xCr20-xMo20-yTi20V20+y. The phase diagram calculation shows that all three RHEAs have a single body-centered cubic (BCC) structure at high temperatures ranging from 1000 K to 2000 K. The RHEA Al30Cr10Mo5Ti20V35 has shown a low density of 5.16 g/cm3 and a hardness of 5.56 GPa. The studied RHEAs could be potential candidates for high-temperature application materials where high hardness, ductility, and low density are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Plasticity)
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Open AccessArticle
Late Age Dynamic Strength of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete with Nano-Silica and Polypropylene Fibres
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040243 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The dynamic behaviour of high-volume fly ash concrete with nano-silica (HVFANS) and polypropylene fibres at curing ages of 7 to 90 days was determined by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) machine. At each curing age, the concrete samples were laboratory tested [...] Read more.
The dynamic behaviour of high-volume fly ash concrete with nano-silica (HVFANS) and polypropylene fibres at curing ages of 7 to 90 days was determined by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) machine. At each curing age, the concrete samples were laboratory tested at different temperatures conditions under strain rates reached up to 101.42 s−1. At room temperature, the results indicated that the dynamic compressive strength of plain concrete (PC) was slightly higher than HVFANS concrete at early curing ages of 7 and 28 days, however, a considerable improvement in the strength of HVFANS concrete was noted at a curing age of 90 days and recorded greater values than PC owing to the increase of fly ash reactivity. At elevated temperatures, the HVFANS concrete revealed a superior behaviour than PC even at early ages in terms of dynamic compressive strength, critical strain, damage and toughness due to increase of nano-silica (NS) activity during the heating process. Furthermore, equations were suggested to estimate the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of both concretes under the investigated factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Plasticity)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Local Deformation and Transformation Behavior of Cast X8CrMnNi16-6-6 TRIP Steel and 10% Mg-PSZ Composite Using a Continuum Mechanics-Based Crystal Plasticity Model
Crystals 2020, 10(3), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10030221 - 20 Mar 2020
Abstract
A Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel matrix reinforced with magnesium-partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ) particles depicts a superior energy absorbing capacity during deformation. In this research, the TRIP/TWIP material model already developed in the framework of the Düsseldorf Advanced Material Simulation Kit (DAMASK) is tuned [...] Read more.
A Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel matrix reinforced with magnesium-partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ) particles depicts a superior energy absorbing capacity during deformation. In this research, the TRIP/TWIP material model already developed in the framework of the Düsseldorf Advanced Material Simulation Kit (DAMASK) is tuned for X8CrMnNi16-6-6 TRIP steel and 10% Mg-PSZ composite. A new method is explained to more accurately tune this material model by comparing the stress/strain, transformation, twinning, and dislocation glide obtained from simulations with respective experimental acoustic emission measurements. The optimized model with slight modification is assigned to the steel matrix in 10% Mg-PSZ composite material. In the simulation model, zirconia particles are assigned elastic properties with a perfect ceramic/matrix interface. Local deformation, transformation, and the twinning behavior of the steel matrix due to quasi-static tensile load were analyzed. The comparison of the simulation results with acoustic emission data shows good correlation and helps correlate acoustic events with physical attributes. The tuned material models are used to run full phase simulations using 2D Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) data from steel and 10% Mg-PSZ zirconia composites. Form these simulations, dislocation glide, martensitic transformation, stress evolution, and dislocation pinning in different stages of deformation are qualitatively discussed for the steel matrix and ceramic inclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Plasticity)
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Open AccessArticle
How Nanoscale Dislocation Reactions Govern Low- Temperature and High-Stress Creep of Ni-Base Single Crystal Superalloys
Crystals 2020, 10(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10020134 - 22 Feb 2020
Abstract
The present work investigates γ-channel dislocation reactions, which govern low-temperature (T = 750 °C) and high-stress (resolved shear stress: 300 MPa) creep of Ni-base single crystal superalloys (SX). It is well known that two dislocation families with different b-vectors are required to form [...] Read more.
The present work investigates γ-channel dislocation reactions, which govern low-temperature (T = 750 °C) and high-stress (resolved shear stress: 300 MPa) creep of Ni-base single crystal superalloys (SX). It is well known that two dislocation families with different b-vectors are required to form planar faults, which can shear the ordered γ’-phase. However, so far, no direct mechanical and microstructural evidence has been presented which clearly proves the importance of these reactions. In the mechanical part of the present work, we perform shear creep tests and we compare the deformation behavior of two macroscopic crystallographic shear systems [ 01 1 ¯ ] ( 111 ) and [ 11 2 ¯ ] ( 111 ) . These two shear systems share the same glide plane but differ in loading direction. The [ 11 2 ¯ ] ( 111 ) shear system, where the two dislocation families required to form a planar fault ribbon experience the same resolved shear stresses, deforms significantly faster than the [ 01 1 ¯ ] ( 111 ) shear system, where only one of the two required dislocation families is strongly promoted. Diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis identifies the dislocation reactions, which rationalize this macroscopic behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Plasticity)
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Open AccessArticle
Ca-induced Plasticity in Magnesium Alloy: EBSD Measurements and VPSC Calculations
Crystals 2020, 10(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10020067 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the present work, Ca-induced plasticity of AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements supported by viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) calculations. For this purpose, alloy samples were stretched to various strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at room temperature and a [...] Read more.
In the present work, Ca-induced plasticity of AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements supported by viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) calculations. For this purpose, alloy samples were stretched to various strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at room temperature and a strain rate of 10−3 s−1. The EBSD measurements showed a higher activity of non-basal slip system (prismatic slip) as compared to that of tension twins. The VPSC confirmed the EBSD results, where it was found that the critical resolved shear stress of the various slip systems and their corresponding activities changed during the stretching of the alloy samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Plasticity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Mechanisms-Based Transitional Viscoplasticity
Crystals 2020, 10(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10030212 - 18 Mar 2020
Abstract
When metal is subjected to extreme strain rates, the conversation of energy to plastic power, the subsequent heat production and the growth of damages may lag behind the rate of loading. The imbalance alters deformation pathways and activates micro-dynamic excitations. The excitations immobilize [...] Read more.
When metal is subjected to extreme strain rates, the conversation of energy to plastic power, the subsequent heat production and the growth of damages may lag behind the rate of loading. The imbalance alters deformation pathways and activates micro-dynamic excitations. The excitations immobilize dislocation, are responsible for the stress upturn and magnify plasticity-induced heating. The main conclusion of this study is that dynamic strengthening, plasticity-induced heating, grain size strengthening and the processes of microstructural relaxation are inseparable phenomena. Here, the phenomena are discussed in semi-independent sections, and then, are assembled into a unified constitutive model. The model is first tested under simple loading conditions and, later, is validated in a numerical analysis of the plate impact problem, where a copper flyer strikes a copper target with a velocity of 308 m/s. It should be stated that the simulations are performed with the use of the deformable discrete element method, which is designed for monitoring translations and rotations of deformable particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Plasticity)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Effect of various strain on transformation diagrams of 100Cr6 steel
Authors: R.K.; I.S.
Affiliation: CZ
Abstract: Based on dilatometric tests, the effect of various values of the previous deformation on the kinetics of austenite transformations during the cooling of 100Cr6 steel has been studied. Dilatometric tests have been performed with the use of the optical dilatometric module of the plastometer Gleeble 3800. The obtained results were confronted with the metallographic analyses and hardness measurements HV30. Uniaxial compression deformations were being chosen as follows: 0, 0.35 and 1; note, these are true (logarithmic) deformations. The high fineness of microstructure of this material after all cooling and deformation modes was the main discovery. Another important finding was the absence of bainite. In addition, it has been verified that with the increasing amount of deformation, there is a further shift of the pearlitic region to higher cooling rates. The previous deformation also affected the temperature martensite start, which decreased due to deformation. The deformation value of 1 also shifted the critical cooling rate required for martensite formation from the 12 °C/s to 25 °C/s.

Title: Modeling the local deformation and transformation behavior of cast X8CrMnNi16-6-6 TRIP steel and 10% Mg-PSZ composite using continuum mechanics-based crystal plasticity model
Authors: F. Q.; S. G.; M. S.; R. K.; U. P.
Affiliation: Institute of Metal Forming, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany.
Abstract: TRIP steel matrix reinforced with Mg-partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) particles depicts superior energy absorbing capacity during deformation. In this research, the TRIP/TWIP material model already developed in the framework of DAMASK is tuned for X8CrMnNi16-6-6 TRIP steel and 10% Mg-PSZ composite. A new method is explained to more accurately tune this material model by comparing stress/strain, transformation, twinning, and dislocation glide obtained from simulations with respective experimental acoustic emission measurements. The optimized model with slight modification is assigned to the steel matrix in 10% Mg-PSZ composite matrix. In the simulation model, ZrO2 particles are assigned isotropic elastic properties with perfect ceramic/matrix interface. Local deformation, transformation, and twinning behavior of the steel matrix due to quasi-static tensile load were analyzed. The comparison of simulation results with acoustic emission data shows good correlation and helps correlate acoustic events with physical attributes. The tuned material models are used to run full phase simulations using 2D EBSD data from steel and 10% Mg-partially-stabilized ZrO2 composites. Form these simulations, dislocation glide, martensitic transformation, stress evolution, and dislocation pinning in different stages of deformation are discussed for steel matrix and ceramic inclusions.

Title: Structure and phase changes in heat-temperature alloy on Ni-Al-Cr base at alloying by rhenium and lanthanum
Authors: N.A. Koneva; E.L. Nikonenko; N.A. Popova
Affiliation: Russia
Abstract: The study of structure and phase composition changes in heat-temperature alloy on Ni-Al-Cr base at alloying by rhenium and lanthanum was carried out by transmission and scanning electron microscopy methods. The alloy is obtained by directional solidification method. It is established that alloying of Re and La result in formation of new phases and modifications of microstructure of gamma'-phase.

Title: Investigation of the high-temperature macro-shear band localization of Ni3Ge single crystals by EBSD and synchrotron XRD
Authors: S. V. Starenchenko; Yu.V. Solov'eva; V. A. Starenchenko; A. I. Ancharov; A. N. Solov'ev
Affiliation: russia
Abstract: The present study concerns the impressive phenomenon of plastic deformation of Ni3Ge single crystals with the L12 structure — high-temperature macro-shear band localization. Single crystals of certain orientations (close or coinciding with the [001] direction) when the testing temperature exceed 0.6 Tm are deformed with the formation of macro-shear bands. The peculiarity of this phenomenon is that after the formation of bands passing through the entire crystal the deformation is completely localized inside the band, stopping in the remaining volume of the crystal. The paper presents the new experimental results of structural transformations inside the macro-shear bands obtained using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods.

Title: Improvement of crystal plasticity simulations considering the correlation between grain size and crystallographic orientation: application to AISI 420 stainless steel
Authors: Jesus Galan Lopez; Javier Hidalgo Garcia
Affiliation: Technische Universiteit Delft
Abstract: Crystal plasticity models attempt to reproduce the complex deformation processes of polycrystalline metals based on a virtual representation of the real microstructure. When choosing this representation, a compromise must be made between level of detail at the local level and statistical significance of the aggregate properties, also taking into account the computational cost of each solution. In this work, the correlation between crystallographic orientation and grain size is considered in the definition of virtual microstructures for the simulation of the mechanical behaviour of AISI 420 stainless steel (consisting of a ferrite matrix with a large carbide precipitates), in order to improve the accuracy of the solution without increasing model complexity or computation time. Both full-field (DAMASK) and mean-field models (VPSC) are used together in combination with experimental results to study the validity of the assumptions done in each of the models.

Title: Mechanical and thermal properties of low-density Al20+xCr20-xMo20-yTi20V20+y alloy
Authors: Uttam Bhandari; Congyan Zhang; Shizhong Yang
Affiliation: Department of Computer Science, Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 70813, USA
Abstract: Refractory high entropy alloys (RHEAs) Al20+xCr20-xMo20-yTi20V20+y ((x, y) = (0, 0), (0, 10), and (10, 15)) were computationally studied to get a low density and better mechanical properties. Density functional theory (DFT) method was employed to compute the structural and mechanical properties of alloys, based on a large unit cell model of randomly distributed elements. Debye-Grüneisen theory was used to study the thermal properties of Al20+xCr20-xMo20-yTi20V20+y. Thermal dynamic phase calculation shows all three RHEAs have single body-centered cubic (BCC) structure at high temperature 1000 ~ 2000 K. The RHEA Al30Cr10Mo5Ti20V35 has shown a low density of 5.16 gm/cm3 and hardness of 5.56 GPa. The studied RHEAs could be potential candidates for high-temperature application materials where high hardness, ductile, and low-density are required.

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